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Reference List: Basic Rules
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Note: This page reflects the latest version of the APA Publication Manual (i.e., APA 7), which released in October 2019. The equivalent resource for the older APA 6 style can be found here .
This resource, revised according to the 7 th edition APA Publication Manual, provides fundamental guidelines for constructing the reference pages of research papers. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , (7 th ed.).
This page gives basic guidelines for formatting the reference list at the end of a standard APA research paper. Most sources follow fairly straightforward rules. However, because sources obtained from academic journals carry special weight in research writing, these sources are subject to special rules . Thus, this page presents basic guidelines for citing academic journals separate from its "ordinary" basic guidelines. This distinction is made clear below.
Note: Because the information on this page pertains to virtually all citations, we've highlighted one important difference between APA 6 and APA 7 with an underlined note written in red.
Formatting a Reference List
Your reference list should appear at the end of your paper. It provides the information necessary for a reader to locate and retrieve any source you cite in the body of the paper. Each source you cite in the paper must appear in your reference list; likewise, each entry in the reference list must be cited in your text.
Your references should begin on a new page separate from the text of the essay; label this page "References" in bold, centered at the top of the page (do NOT underline or use quotation marks for the title). All text should be double-spaced just like the rest of your essay.
Basic Rules for Most Sources
- All lines after the first line of each entry in your reference list should be indented one-half inch from the left margin. This is called hanging indentation.
- All authors' names should be inverted (i.e., last names should be provided first).
- For example, the reference entry for a source written by Jane Marie Smith would begin with "Smith, J. M."
- If a middle name isn't available, just initialize the author's first name: "Smith, J."
- Give the last name and first/middle initials for all authors of a particular work up to and including 20 authors ( this is a new rule, as APA 6 only required the first six authors ). Separate each author’s initials from the next author in the list with a comma. Use an ampersand (&) before the last author’s name. If there are 21 or more authors, use an ellipsis (but no ampersand) after the 19th author, and then add the final author’s name.
- Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last name of the first author of each work.
- For multiple articles by the same author, or authors listed in the same order, list the entries in chronological order, from earliest to most recent.
- Note again that the titles of academic journals are subject to special rules. See section below.
- Italicize titles of longer works (e.g., books, edited collections, names of newspapers, and so on).
- Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around the titles of shorter works such as chapters in books or essays in edited collections.
Basic Rules for Articles in Academic Journals
- Present journal titles in full.
- Italicize journal titles.
- For example, you should use PhiloSOPHIA instead of Philosophia, or Past & Present instead of Past and Present.
- This distinction is based on the type of source being cited. Academic journal titles have all major words capitalized, while other sources' titles do not.
- Capitalize the first word of the titles and subtitles of journal articles , as well as the first word after a colon or a dash in the title, and any proper nouns .
- Do not italicize or underline the article title.
- Deep blue: The mysteries of the Marianas Trench.
- Oceanographic Study: A Peer-Reviewed Publication
Please note: While the APA manual provides examples of how to cite common types of sources, it does not cover all conceivable sources. If you must cite a source that APA does not address, the APA suggests finding an example that is similar to your source and using that format. For more information, see page 282 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , 7 th ed.
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- APA vs. MLA | The Key Differences in Format & Citation
APA vs MLA | The Key Differences in Format & Citation
Published on January 9, 2020 by Shona McCombes . Revised on August 23, 2022.
APA Style Is defined in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , currently in its 7th edition .
The rules of MLA style are found in the MLA Handbook , currently in its 9th edition (published by the Modern Language Association).
In both styles, a source citation consists of:
- A brief parenthetical citation in the text
- A full reference at the end of the paper
However, citations look slightly different in each style, with different rules for things like title capitalization, author names, and placement of the date.
There are also some differences in layout and formatting . Download the Word templates for a correctly formatted paper in either style.
APA template MLA template
Table of contents
Which style should i use, in-text citations in apa and mla, apa reference list vs. mla works cited list, apa vs. mla paper formatting, frequently asked questions about citation styles.
You’ll usually be told which citation style you should use in your writing by your department or supervisor. If you’re not sure, look up your institution’s guidelines or ask directly.
Occasionally, you may be allowed to choose a style yourself. If so, it’s best to base your decision on your area of study:
- APA is used primarily in the (social and behavioral) sciences and in fields related to education.
- MLA is primarily used in humanities subjects such as languages, literary studies, and media studies.
Both MLA and APA use parenthetical citations to cite sources in the text. However, they include slightly different information.
An APA in-text citation includes the author’s last name and the publication year. If you’re quoting or paraphrasing a specific passage, you also add a page number.
An MLA in-text citation includes the author’s last name and a page number—no year.
When there are two authors, APA Style separates their names with an ampersand (&), while MLA uses “and.” For three or more authors, both styles list the first author followed by “ et al. ”
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The AI-powered Citation Checker helps you avoid common mistakes such as:
- Missing commas and periods
- Incorrect usage of “et al.”
- Ampersands (&) in narrative citations
- Missing reference entries
In both APA and MLA style, you list full details of all cited sources on a separate page at the end of your paper. In APA this is usually called the reference list ; in MLA it’s called the Works Cited .
The formatting of source entries is different in each style. Some key differences are summarized in the table below.
Using the interactive tool, you can switch between APA and MLA style citations for common source types to explore the differences for yourself.
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The Scribbr Citation Generator will automatically create a flawless APA citation
The Scribbr Citation Generator will automatically create a flawless MLA citation
The general formatting guidelines for APA and MLA are similar. Both styles recommend:
- 12 pt Times New Roman font
- Double spacing
- 1 inch (2.54 cm) margins
The main differences between APA format and MLA format involve the title page, running head, and block quoting guidelines.
Title page and header
In APA, a separate cover page is required. It lists the title of your paper, your full name, your institution and department, the course the paper is for, your instructor’s name, and the due date, all centered and double-spaced.
In MLA, no title page is required (though your instructor may require you to include one ). Instead of a title page, you add a four-line header on the first page.
The header is left-aligned and double-spaced and lists your full name, your instructor’s name, the course title or number, and the submission date. The paper’s title is centered on a new line under the header.
In APA Style, include a right-aligned page number at the top of each page.
In manuscripts that will be submitted for publication, you should also include an APA running head with a shortened version of your paper’s title (up to 50 characters long), all in capitals and left-aligned.
The running head is not required in student papers (unless you’re instructed otherwise).
Block quote formatting
Block quotes are long quotations that are set on a new line and indented as a block, without quotation marks.
In APA, any quote of 40 words or longer should be formatted as a block quote. In MLA, block quote formatting is used for quotes of more than four lines of prose or more than three lines of verse.
In both styles, the in-text citation is added after the period at the end of a block quote.
- APA block quote example
- MLA block quote example
The reader quickly becomes familiar with Nick Carraway’s relationship with Jay Gatsby, as the very first mention of the character illustrates both his admiration and disdain:
APA and MLA style both use parenthetical in-text citations to cite sources and include a full list of references at the end, but they differ in other ways:
- APA in-text citations include the author name, date, and page number (Taylor, 2018, p. 23), while MLA in-text citations include only the author name and page number (Taylor 23).
- The APA reference list is titled “References,” while MLA’s version is called “ Works Cited .”
- The reference entries differ in terms of formatting and order of information.
- APA requires a title page , while MLA requires a header instead.
Check if your university or course guidelines specify which citation style to use. If the choice is left up to you, consider which style is most commonly used in your field.
- APA Style is the most popular citation style, widely used in the social and behavioral sciences.
- MLA style is the second most popular, used mainly in the humanities.
- Chicago notes and bibliography style is also popular in the humanities, especially history.
- Chicago author-date style tends to be used in the sciences.
Other more specialized styles exist for certain fields, such as Bluebook and OSCOLA for law.
The most important thing is to choose one style and use it consistently throughout your text.
APA format is widely used by professionals, researchers, and students in the social and behavioral sciences, including fields like education, psychology, and business.
Be sure to check the guidelines of your university or the journal you want to be published in to double-check which style you should be using.
MLA Style is the second most used citation style (after APA ). It is mainly used by students and researchers in humanities fields such as literature, languages, and philosophy.
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McCombes, S. (2022, August 23). APA vs MLA | The Key Differences in Format & Citation. Scribbr. Retrieved March 2, 2023, from https://www.scribbr.com/citing-sources/apa-vs-mla/
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Did you know that almost ALL of UMA Libraries' catalogs and databases will create citations for you? When you find a resource, simply scan the database for a "(quotation mark)" icon, or for a label such as Cite this Item, or Cite, or Citation Export.
Giving Credit to Whom It Is Due When you write a research paper, you must document the sources you used to produce it. When quoting or even paraphrasing another person's idea in your paper, you must give credit to that person so that the reader can find the source you cited. Sources for which you should provide full citations include books, articles, interviews, Internet sources, government documents, software, videotapes, etc. You cite the sources briefly within the text of your paper, and then give the full citation in the "Bibliography" or "Works Cited" section at the end of your paper.
Additionally, IT IS REQUIRED. See UMA's Academic Integrity Policy which spells out your responsibility as a student. The way to avoid plagiarism is to carefully cite all sources used. Your instructors will indicate which citation style they want you to use when citing your sources. Most often this is either APA or MLA citation style.
Please double-check citations before submitting your work! We cannot guarantee the accuracy of citations created using these free, online tools.
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Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL) site is a fairly comprehensive resource for the Modern Language Association's (MLA) style and formatting rules. Use the left side bar on OWL's page to navigate to the style or other help that you need.
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Academic Search Complete (along with Business Source Complete, PsycInfo, and other EBSCO databases) will create a citation for you! Look for the "Cite" button to view citations in all the major citation formats.
Citation Basics & Links
Citing your sources is an important step in the research and writing process. Choose one of the following to get started:
Documentation style depends on your area of study. For instance, the American Psychological Association (APA) citation style is often used in the social sciences, whereas the Modern Language Association (MLA) style is used in the humanities. Check with your professor to be sure you are using the right style for your papers.
Here's a short overview of citations:
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- Best Apps and Extensions for APA Style Citations
Apps and Extensions to Help You With APA Citations
Many colleges and universities, including Purdue University Global, rely on the American Psychological Association (APA) Publication Manual to guide writing usage and grammar style. While the best resource for APA Style is both the website and the publication manual itself, if you’re in the middle of research and need help quickly, you might need to look at research management software in the form of citation generators.
Many developers have created helpful generators to create citations and help you write in APA Style. From APA citation apps to browser extensions to websites, here are some citation manager tools.
Websites for Citations
Several websites can help generate citations in APA Style and other styles. When looking for a citation generator, test that it appropriately cites different sources and reviews all of your citations for accuracy before submitting any class assignments.
Academic Writer is a tool that is offered by many institutions, including Purdue Global, to help students write in APA Style. It is developed by the APA and includes videos and tutorials about APA Style. You can also manage your references and format your paper by creating an account within the site.
APA Citation Wizards
This online tool offers a quick and easy way to create references for online books, online journal articles, and web pages.
This online tool offers grammar, punctuation, and plagiarism checkers for a fee, but a citation creator is free to use. APA, MLA, Chicago, and other styles are available to use.
Citation Machine ®
This tool allows students to create references in APA and a variety of other formats. You can either enter the information manually or search source by name or URL, which the Citation Machine then will fill in automatically.
Cite This For Me
Cite This For Me is a free citation generator that can create citations in APA, MLA, Harvard, Chicago, ASA, IEEE, and AMA style. The site is fairly bare-bones, providing only the generator and some general guidance on when citations are appropriate.
EasyBib offers citation creation and will also scan your paper for plagiarism and grammar errors. It’s powered by the same service that runs Citation Machine mentioned previously.
This web-based citation generator offers a simple interface and quick results. It gives you results in MLA, APA, Chicago, or Harvard format.
This old-style online citation generator creates a basic citation for books in APA format. Choose APA from the menu on the left and fill out the fields to create a citation.
Mendeley is an all-inclusive research tool. It is primarily used as a document organizer and research aid, but it also generates references, citations, and bibliographies in a number of different styles.
This web-based generator is easy to use and walks you through everything you need to do to get APA citations. It also offers AMA, Chicago, Harvard, IEEE, MLA, and more. Be sure to use the most recent version of APA (7th edition) when you use it.
Scribbr is an easy-to-use online citation generator that uses the 7th edition of APA Style. The generator is free for students. Scribbr also offers a plagiarism checker, spell checker, and grammar proofing.
Zotero is a robust research tool available for download and includes a quick version for use online. While the program is helpful for many types of research, it also offers a feature that creates references and bibliographies for any text editor and directly inside Word, LibreOffice, and Google Docs.
Apps for Citations
Almost 55% of website users browse the web and work on their mobile devices, according to StatCounter . A number of mobile-first citation apps are available to help with APA citation.
Author ( Apple )
This paid app available for Apple devices provides a tailor-made writing environment. It provides a word processor that automatically saves and works well with Apple apps like Reader. As part of the tool, you can create autocitations by copying from PDF in the companion application Reader and pasting as a full citation in Author or pasting the BibTex or DOI from an academic PDF.
Citation Generator ( Free Google Play Version , Paid Google Play Version )
This mobile app, offered in both a lite and full version, offers no-nonsense citation guidance. The free version only supports book, newspaper, software, Twitter, and website sources, whereas the paid version includes 25 in-text citations and reference generators.
Citation Maker ( Google Play Store )
This app has an easily understandable layout that produces both MLA and APA formats and can work with a variety of resource formats. It also gives you a preview as you type and can even create citations with incomplete information. Some reviews suggest you double-check results produced by Citation Maker for capitalization errors.
Citationsy ( Apple and Google Play Store )
This app, available for both Apple and Android devices, allows you to use your device to scan barcodes of references and then generate citations. Citationsy includes search engines for books, music, podcasts, and scientific papers.
Easy Referencing – Citation ( Apple )
This app for iPads will scan a book barcode and serve up citations for a variety of styles, including APA. It also supports university-specific styles and will use the correct one required.
Google Chrome Browser Extensions
Almost 65% of online users prefer Google Chrome for their browser, according to StatCounter . One appeal of the browser from tech giant Google is that it comes with a robust selection of extensions. Several Chrome extensions can help you create APA citations.
Bibcitation and Automatic Citation Generator
This extension works on websites and journal articles, generating citations in MLA, APA, Chicago, and more. It can add citations to a list if you have an account with Bibcitation.com.
This extension creates Endnote, APA, MLA, and customized bibliography items from journal articles, books, and more. The program allows you to copy the citation to put it into an editable format.
Citationsy – Cite Websites and Papers
An extension version of the Citationsy mobile apps above, this tool cites articles, books, papers, podcasts, songs, websites, and more. It supports APA, Harvard, MLA, and many other reference styles.
Cite This For Me: Web Citer
This extension automatically creates citations in APA, MLA, Chicago, or Harvard styles. Browse to your web page and click the button for a citation.
This toolbar not only generates citations but also gives you advice on the credibility of the website you’re citing, which can help with the overall strength of a paper or other work. It will format, alphabetize, and make your bibliography ready to use.
Free APA and MLA Citation Generator
This extension quickly generates sources in MLA, APA, or Chicago. It allows you to add to a bibliography with a quick click of the toolbar icon.
MyBib: Free Citation Generator
This simple browser extension creates APA format, MLA 8 format, and Harvard referencing style citations that can be downloaded and put into Microsoft Word. The extension works with any URL, including PDFs hosted online.
Plagly – Citation Generator
This extension is a bibliography and citation generator for a variety of different types of content, including films and podcasts. It can give you citations in MLA, APA, Chicago, and other formats.
This tool exports web pages and creates a built-in bibliography in MLA and APA format. It also checks a page’s credibility.
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- MLA Overview & Workshop This workshop provides an overview of MLA style and where to find help with different MLA resources. It provides an annotated list of links to all of our MLA materials as well, making it an excellent place to start to learn about MLA format.
- MLA Formatting and Style Guide MLA style is most commonly used to cite sources within the language arts, cultural studies, and other humanities. This resource, revised according to the 8th edition of the MLA manual, offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, and the Works Cited page. For more information, please consult the official MLA Handbook (8th ed.).
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How to cite a traditional paper primary source document.
Citing a primary source document, from an archives, varies depending on the preference of your instructor, the publication you are submitting the article, or the discipline in which you are operating. You may wish to consult the Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL) for further information. The particular style may be the American Psychological Assocaition (APA), the Modern Language Association (MLA), the Chicago Manual of Style, etc.
There are several elements to the citation which may be necessary to properly cite a document such as the Booth Tarkington letter to the left.
The document: The creator or author, specific item title, page, section, date.
Box and file number: The majority of materials found in archives, that are not books, are housed in some sort of container and within the container the various items are separated for various reasons in files.
Repository: This is the name of the archives.
The document shown above is found in the:
Collection: George Ade Papers, 1878-2007
Series: Series 2: Correspondence, ca. 1882-1947; n.d.
Box: Box 10: Correspondence, Sto-U, ca. 1894-1943
File: Folder 5: Tarkington, Booth, ca. 1905-1943
Archives: Purdue University Archives and Special Collections, Purdue University Libraries, West Lafayette, Indiana.
The Booth Tarkington letter shown here could be cited in the following ways:
American Psychological Association:
Tarkington, B. (1924, May 8). [Letter to George Ade]. George Ade Papers, 1878-2007, Purdue University Archives and Special Collections (Box 10, Folder 5), Purdue University Libraries, West Lafayette, IN.
Modern Language Association:
Tarkington, Booth. Letter to George Ade. 8 May 1924. George Ade Papers, 1878-2007. Purdue University Archives and Special Collections, Purdue University Libraries, West Lafayette.
Chicago Manual of Style:
Booth Tarkington to George Ade, 8 May 1924, Box 10, Folder 5, George Ade Papers 1878-2007, Purdue University Archives and Special Collections, Purdue University Libraries.
Citing Electronic Sources: Amelia Earhart telegram
How to cite an electronic primary source document.
Citing a digital object:
The telegram, shown above, from the George Palmer Putnam collection of Amelia Earhart papers, 1785-1948 , is found online in Purdue University Archives and Special Collections' e-Archives. It is both a paper document in the collection and a digital object in e-Archives. The best way of citing this document as a digital object using one of the above formats, APA, MLA, or Chicago Manual of Style is to add the Reference URL at the end of the citation.
Reference URL: http://earchives.lib.purdue.edu/u?/earhart,3422
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- Last Updated: Jan 18, 2023 11:21 AM
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Cite a Website in PURDUE
Don't let plagiarism errors spoil your paper, consider your source's credibility. ask these questions:, contributor/author.
- Has the author written several articles on the topic, and do they have the credentials to be an expert in their field?
- Can you contact them? Do they have social media profiles?
- Have other credible individuals referenced this source or author?
- Book: What have reviews said about it?
- What do you know about the publisher/sponsor? Are they well-respected?
- Do they take responsibility for the content? Are they selective about what they publish?
- Take a look at their other content. Do these other articles generally appear credible?
- Does the author or the organization have a bias? Does bias make sense in relation to your argument?
- Is the purpose of the content to inform, entertain, or to spread an agenda? Is there commercial intent?
- Are there ads?
- When was the source published or updated? Is there a date shown?
- Does the publication date make sense in relation to the information presented to your argument?
- Does the source even have a date?
- Was it reproduced? If so, from where?
- If it was reproduced, was it done so with permission? Copyright/disclaimer included?
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- Citations let your professor, or anyone else who reads your work, find the items you used in your research. The key to a successful citation is providing all the information needed for your reader to find the book, article, or other item you are citing.
- Citing builds your credibility and shows that your ideas are shared by other experts in the field. Citing scholarly, peer-reviewed sources lends extra credibility to your work.
- Citation avoids plagiarism! Citing your sources properly gives credit to the original author.
The main styles used at AU are listed below. If you need to use another style click here . Those with large research projects should strongly consider a citation manager such as Zotero . Students can use citation generators like BibMe , Citation Machine , EasyBib (note that all of these tools have a lot of video banner ads that automatically play) or CitationGenerator (this does not have ads) but you must ALWAYS check your citations using the resources below:
- Easy Writer by Andrea Lunsford has excellent guides and sample citations/papers for MLA, APA, and Chicago/Turabian Styles.
APA (American Psychological Association) - used in the social sciences
- Official APA style site - contains tutorials and FAQs.
- APA style blog - Need help citing a odd source or a sample paper? Check out the official APA style blog.
- Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association: The Official Guide to APA Style 7th edition (Call number: Course Reserves BF76.7 .P83 2020.)
- Recommended - Excelsior Online Writing Lab
- Recommended - Purdue OWL APA Style - Includes a tutorial for citing in APA style as well as sample papers and bibliographies.
- Recommended - Southern New Hampshire University
Chicago Manual of Style - used in the humanities and social sciences
- Chicago Manual of Style - Official online version of the Chicago manual 17th edition.
- Chicago Manual of Style 16th edition (Call number: Reference Z253 .U69 2010.)
- Recommended - Excelsior Online Writing Lab
- Recommended - Purdue OWL Chicago Style - Includes a tutorial for citing in Chicago style as well as sample papers and bibliographies.
- Recommended - Southern New Hampshire University
MLA (Modern Language Association) - used in literature and the humanities
- MLA Handbook 8th Edition (Call number: Reference LB2369 .M52 2016.)
- The MLA Style Center - Official MLA style site, containing tutorials and other FAQs. Updated for MLA 8th edition.
- Recommended - Purdue OWL MLA Style - Includes a tutorial for citing in MLA style as well as sample papers and bibliographies.
- Recommended - Southern New Hampshire University
Turabian Style - a variation of the Chicago style used in many disciplines in humanities, social sciences and natural sciences
- Turabian Quick Guide - Official online version from the University of Chicago Press.
- Kate Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses and Dissertations 8th Edition (Call number: Reference LB 2369 .T8 2013.)
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- Last Updated: Apr 12, 2022 4:58 PM
- URL: https://subjectguides.library.american.edu/citation
MLA is a style of documentation that may be applied to many different types of writing. Since texts have become increasingly digital, and the same document may often be found in several different sources, following a set of rigid rules no longer suffices.
Purdue OWL Research and Citation APA Style (7th Edition) APA Formatting and Style Guide (7th Edition) In-Text Citations: The Basics APA Formatting and Style Guide (7th Edition) General Format In-Text Citations: The Basics In-Text Citations: Author/Authors Reference List: Basic Rules Reference List: Author/Authors
APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 7 th edition of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page.
Purdue OWL Research and Citation APA Style (7th Edition) APA Formatting and Style Guide (7th Edition) Reference List: Basic Rules APA Formatting and Style Guide (7th Edition) General Format In-Text Citations: The Basics In-Text Citations: Author/Authors Reference List: Basic Rules Reference List: Author/Authors
APA is used primarily in the (social and behavioral) sciences and in fields related to education. MLA is primarily used in humanities subjects such as languages, literary studies, and media studies. In-text citations in APA and MLA Both MLA and APA use parenthetical citations to cite sources in the text.
MLA Format: Everything You Need to Know and More Filled with a wide variety of examples and visuals, our Citation Machine® MLA guide will help you master the citation process. Learn how to cite websites, books, journal articles, magazines, newspapers, films, social media, and more!
Apply the appropriate citation style (see below for APA, MLA examples). Image creator's name (artist, photographer, etc.) Title of the image Date the image (or work represented by the image) was created Date the image was posted online Date of access (the date you accessed the online image)
MLA Format: Everything You Need to Know and More Filled with a wide variety of examples and visuals, our Citation Machine® MLA guide will help you master the citation process. Learn how to cite websites, books, journal articles, magazines, newspapers, films, social media, and more!
MLA APA CMOS - Chicago/Turabian The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service of the Writing Lab at Purdue. Students, members of the community, and users worldwide will find information to assist with many writing projects.
This extension quickly generates sources in MLA, APA, or Chicago. It allows you to add to a bibliography with a quick click of the toolbar icon. MyBib: Free Citation Generator This simple browser extension creates APA format, MLA 8 format, and Harvard referencing style citations that can be downloaded and put into Microsoft Word.
Since 1976, the Writing Lab has supported writers on the West Lafayette campus through a variety of services and community engagement initiatives using student-centered best practices. The Online Writing Lab (OWL) has been an extension of the Writing Lab since 1993, and offers global support through online reference materials and services.
MLA and APA Side-by-Side Set-Up Bibliography Name Cover Page Font Page Margins Line Spacing MLA Works Cited No Times New Roman - 12pt 1" Double ... For more information: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/ Compiled by Megan Pratt, 2015. Created Date: 3/25/2015 11:15:56 PM ...
APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page.
You may wish to consult the Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL) for further information. The particular style may be the American Psychological Assocaition (APA), the Modern Language Association (MLA), the Chicago Manual of Style, etc. ... APA, MLA, or Chicago Manual of Style is to add the Reference URL at the end of the citation. Reference URL ...
Create manual citation Don't let plagiarism errors spoil your paper Scan your paper for plagiarism mistakes Get help for 7,000+ citation styles including APA 6 Check for 400+ advanced grammar errors Create in-text citations and save them Free 3-day trial. Cancel anytime.*️ Try Citation Machine® Plus! *See Terms and Conditions
This channel is the official YouTube channel for the Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL). You are free to link to these videos for your own educational purposes as long as you follow the OWL's Fair ...
Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association: The Official Guide to APA Style 7th edition (Call number: Course Reserves BF76.7 .P83 2020.) Recommended - Purdue OWL APA Style - Includes a tutorial for citing in APA style as well as sample papers and bibliographies. Chicago Manual of Style - used in the humanities and social ...