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What Are the Symptoms of a Hernia?

A hernia is a condition when an organ squeezes through a weak spot in the muscles. There are several types of hernias, and many occur with painful bulges. Learn about the different types of hernias, their symptoms and treatments.

Inguinal Hernia

An inguinal hernia is one of the most common types of hernias and the most common cause of male groin hernia symptoms. It occurs when the soft tissues of the intestines or stomach protrude through a weak spot in the abdominal muscles. Symptoms for an inguinal hernia include a bulge in the lower abdomen that hurts, aches or burns. Surgeons repair an inguinal hernia by making a small incision in the skin, placing the soft tissue back in their proper position and sewing the weak spot in the abdominal muscles closed. The surgery can be done laparoscopically or with an open incision.

Hiatal Hernia

A hiatal hernia occurs when the stomach protrudes through the diaphragm. Doctors sometimes call it an esophageal hernia because of its location. Small hernias usually have no symptoms and won’t cause you any problems. However, esophageal hernia symptoms present when it becomes larger include heartburn, acid reflux, difficulty swallowing, pain in the chest, vomiting and shortness of breath. Medications and nonsurgical hernia treatment can reduce the symptoms of a hiatal hernia, but surgery is necessary when these treatments fail.

Umbilical Hernia

An umbilical hernia occurs when part of the intestine protrudes through the abdominal muscles where the umbilical cord passed through. It is most common in infants but can occur in adults also. They’re usually painless, and the main symptom is the presence of a bulge at the belly button. It usually heals on its own by the time the child reaches two years of age. Adults are more likely to need surgical repair to get rid of the bulge and any pain associated with it.

Femoral Hernia

A femoral hernia is perhaps the rarest type. This occurs when part of the bowel protrudes through the lower part of the abdominal wall and into the upper thigh. Femoral hernias are common in older women because of the wide shape of the pelvis. In addition to a bulge, symptoms include pain, nausea and vomiting. Doctors often recommend surgery quickly to avoid complications.

Incisional Hernia

Incisional hernias occur in patients who’ve undergone surgery in the abdominal region. People who participate in rigorous exercise immediately after surgery, gain considerable weight or put a lot of strain on the abdominal region are at greatest risk for an incisional hernia. Symptoms include constipation, nausea and vomiting, a lump in the abdomen near the incision site and pain around the protrusion.


define hernia ppt

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define hernia ppt

Search Results Featured snippet from the web A hernia is the abnormal exit of tissue or an organ, such as the bowel, through the wall of the cavity in which it normally resides. Hernias come in a number of types. Most commonly they involve the abdomen, specifically the groin. Groin hernias are most commonly of the inguinal type but may also be femoral


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Causes of hernia

Diagnosis of hernia

How will my hernia be treated, types of hernia, hernia complications, what is a hernia, a hernia occurs when there is a weakness in the layers of the abdominal wall..

The pressure from inside the abdomen then pushes the lining of the abdominal wall, the peritoneum, out through this area of weakness, leading to a bulge under the skin. The hernia sac may start as a small lump, which disappears when the patient is lying down, and may be only apparent when standing or straining (coughing). Hernias are not always painful, they can be found incidentally. Over time hernias typically increase in size and can become quite large due to pressure from the abdomen pushing intra-abdominal fat and intestines (bowel) out, which can get stuck in the hernia sac (incarcerated) and potentially strangulate. For this reasons most hernias require surgical repair to alleviate symptoms and to prevent possible complications.

Take these 4 easy steps to fix your hernia.

Book an appointment, come in for your assessment.

This is where we’ll determine whether you need surgery, if so it’s usually within two to three weeks.

Have surgery

Depending on what time the surgery takes place, you’ll be out of the hospital the same day or stay overnight.

Come in for a clinical review

One or two weeks after surgery, we’ll do a clinical review to make sure everything is going well.

In many cases a hernia presents as a painless lump that needs no immediate medical attention.

It is usually more obvious when standing, straining, or lifting heavy objects. A hernia may, however, be the cause of discomfort and pain depending upon its size and contents.

Signs & Symptoms of hernia

In most cases, there is no obvious reason for a hernia to occur..

The wall of the abdomen has natural areas of potential weakness. Hernias can develop at these or other areas due to heavy strain on the abdominal wall. Anyone can get a hernia at any age, although hernias occur more commonly in men and increase with age. Most hernias in children are congenital whilst in adults they are acquired. Factors that are associated with an increased risk of developing a hernia include:

Immediate surgical attention should be sought if a hernia is associated with;

In this instance the hernia may need emergent surgery. The hernia in this situation is typically firm and tender and cannot be pushed back into the abdomen (irreducible).

The diagnosis of hernia is usually made by clinical examination – the doctor will usually be able to see and/or feel a lump.

The cardinal feature is the presence of a palpable cough impulse. The doctor may arrange an imaging test, such as an ultrasound or a CT (computerized tomography) scan to help define the anatomy.

The treatment depends on the type of hernia.

There are many types of hernias and they can appear in different parts of the body. The most common types are;

Inguinal hernia

Femoral hernia.

Ventral hernia

Incisional hernia, giant abdominal hernia, recurrent hernia, parastomal hernia, there are many types of hernias and most are classified by their anatomical location..

Approximately 75% of all abdominal wall hernias are seen in the groin of which inguinal hernia is most common.

An inguinal hernia is a groin hernia that results from protrusion of abdominal contents through the inguinal canal. There are two types of inguinal hernia;

Inguinal hernias usually present as a lump in the groin. They can become more prominent when coughing, straining or standing. The lump usually disappears when lying down. Inguinal hernia are usually asymptomatic, and only rarely painful. Although most are unilateral, up to 20% of patients go on to develop one on the contralateral side.

Femoral hernias are a rare type of groin hernia. In contrast to inguinal hernia almost all femoral hernia occur in females due to the female pelvis being wider. In a femoral hernia the abdominal contents protrude medial to the nerves and vessels that supply the leg, through the femoral canal. Due to the femoral canal being narrow, femoral hernia are at increased risk of incarceration and strangulation of abdominal contents.

Umbilical & Paraumbilical hernia

An umbilical hernia is a type of ventral hernia, which is located in the central aspect of the umbilicus. They are also commonly referred to as “bellybutton” or “navel” hernias. They may be present from birth and in 85% of cases will close spontaneously. If the hernia persists beyond five years of age, they are less likely to improve and may require surgery. It is uncommon for umbilical hernias in children to strangulate. It is therefore reasonable to avoid surgery and adopt a wait-and-see policy.

In adults, hernias that occur around the umbilicus are termed “paraumbilical” hernias. The umbilicus is a natural weak point in the abdominal wall. They typically present as a “bulge” or “outie” in the bellybutton. Apart from in pregnancy, they don’t disappear, and surgery is usually recommended. The diagnosis is usually made clinically. Ultrasound or CT may be helpful but are usually not necessary.

A ventral hernia results from a defect in the midline of the abdominal wall. They are also referred to as “epigastric” hernia. Most present with a small lump, that is usually asymptomatic, anywhere in the midline between the xiphoid process (lower end of sternum) and the umbilicus. They rarely cause complications. In some instances, imaging by Ultrasound or CT is required to confirm the diagnosis and help plan treatment.

Incisional hernia is a type of hernia that develops due to incomplete healing of an abdominal wound. They therefore present as a lump at or near the surgical scar. Factors associated with an increased risk of incisional hernia include, multiple abdominal operations, obesity, poor nutrition or activities in the post-operative period associated with increased abdominal pressure (coughing, lifting, constipation, urinary retention). Surgery repair is commonly advised but not always required. Imaging by Ultrasound or CT may be required to confirm the diagnosis and extent of herniation, to help ascertain whether surgery is required.

A giant abdominal wall hernia can develop from any long-standing hernia or as a result of delayed closure of the abdominal wall. They usually have a history of multiple failed repair attempts. The large defect allows for multiple loops of intestines and on occasion, other abdominal organs, to protrude into the hernia sac. Giant abdominal hernia are difficult to repair and often require a combination of mesh repair and/or component separation to bridge the large defect in the abdominal wall.

A parastomal hernia is a type of incisional hernia where there is protrusion of intra-abdominal contents though the abdominal wall defect created during stoma formation. Examples include ileostomy (terminal small bowel brought to the skin), colostomy (colon brought to the skin) gastrostomy (stomach or feeding tube brought to the skin) or urostomy (urinary diversion brought to the skin). Parastomal hernias are often difficult to diagnose and develop gradually over time. They often make it difficult to attach an appliance over the stoma and over time can increase dramatically in size. Treatment often requires more than one specialist and may involve either the re-siting of the stoma or repair of the hernia around the stoma with the use of mesh.

Spigelian hernia

A spigelian hernia or lateral ventral hernia is a hernia that extends through the linea semilunaris, the line between the lateral edge of the rectus muscle and the oblique muscles of the abdominal wall. They almost always develop in the lower abdominal wall, more commonly on the right. They usually present with a lump and due to their small size, are at high risk of strangulation. Imaging by Ultrasound or CT is usually necessary to establish the diagnosis.

A recurrent hernia is the recurrence of a hernia following surgical repair . It usually presents as a lump at or near the site of previous repair. It needs to be differentiated from other causes, such as seroma (fluid collection) or hematoma, and imaging is sometimes helpful. A recurrent hernia usually requires further surgical repair. Unfortunately the success rate of the subsequent repair is less and it is associated with increased rate of complications.

Sportsman hernia

A sportsman hernia is a chronic exercise-related groin pain associated with incipient direct bulge of the inguinal wall whenever the abdominal muscles contract forcefully. The pain develops during exercise, is usually unilateral and is located just above the inguinal ligament at the lateral aspect of rectus abdominus. The majority of the patients are young adult males. There is often no objective physical examination findings. A cough impulse is either weak or absent. Imaging by Ultrasound, CT or MRI may be helpful in showing a direct bulge of the posterior inguinal wall when forcefully contracting the abdominal muscles.

Most hernias are reducible which means that the contents can be reduced back into the abdominal cavity.

Some hernias are irreducible, also called “incarcerated” and cannot be reduced back into the abdomen. This can lead to the following complications:

Anyone with a hernia who develops any of the following symptoms should seek urgent medical attention:

Hernia PPT: Definition, Types, Causes and Prevention

Hernia PPT: Definition, Types, Causes and Prevention Free Download: When an internal organ or other bodily part protrudes through the wall of muscle or tissue that typically surrounds it, a hernia arises. The majority of hernias develop in the abdominal cavity, between the chest and hips. Inguinal hernia, femoral hernia, Umbilical hernia, and Hiatal hernia are the most prevalent types of hernia.

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