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MLA Citation Examples

Welcome to the EasyBib MLA Citation Guide! If you’ve landed on this page, you’re probably wondering what MLA citing is, or perhaps you need help creating an MLA citation or two. This page is fully stocked with the information you need to be an MLA citing machine.

While EasyBib isn’t officially affiliated with the Modern Language Association, we’ve included page numbers throughout this guide to demonstrate that the information on this page reflects the content from the official Handbook . Click here to learn more about the 9th edition of the handbook.

If you’re wondering, “What is MLA?” and are in need of some background information on the organization, take a peek at the Modern Language Association ’s site. You’ll find tons of handy information related to referencing and writing mechanics. 

Here’s a run-through of everything this page includes:

What’s an MLA citation?

Organization authors

Using the EasyBib MLA Citation Generator

Any time a piece of information from another source is added into your MLA style paper, you must create two citations, or references, to show the reader where the information originated. One reference is placed in the written text of the paper, and the other is placed at the end of the project.

The reference that is placed in the written text of the paper, called an in-text citation , comes immediately next to any borrowed information. It provides a glimpse for the reader to see who the original author is and where the information was found. When creating in-text citations, it’s also important to know how to format page numbers in MLA .

Here’s an MLA example:

Lark knows how to handle life on the river: “I try to count the seconds before I hear the thunder, so I know how far the storm is, but I’m too rattled” (Wingate 12).

Check out the full EasyBib MLA in-text & parenthetical citations guide to learn more about styling these types of references.

The other type of reference, which we’ll call a full reference , is placed at the end of the project. It includes enough information about the source so the reader can locate the source themselves, if they choose to do so, whether online or at their library.

Here’s the full reference, which corresponds to the in-text citation above:

Wingate, Lisa. Before We Were Yours . Random House, 2017.

Notice that the beginning of the reference in the text, Wingate, corresponds with the first word in the full reference. This is very important! It allows for the reader to find the full reference on the MLA works cited page.

Wondering if you can create MLA footnotes instead? You sure can! However, in this style, it’s more common to use references in the text of your paper.

If it’s help with an APA in-text citation or APA parenthetical citation you’re after, you’re in luck! Our comprehensive guides are here for you!

Various types of styles

There are many different ways to style references, and following MLA’s guidelines are just one way to do so. Two other well-known and popular styles to structure references include APA and Chicago.

Your teacher probably told you which style to create your references in. If you were told to use a different style, such as APA or Chicago, here are some links to help you get started.

The EasyBib APA citations guide has everything you need to learn how to create references in this style. Or, if you’re looking for help with structuring the paper itself (spacing, font, margins, etc.), check out the EasyBib APA format page. If you need help with more styles , EasyBib always has your back, with thousands of styles available!

A Standard Formula

The great thing about MLA citations is that full references follow one standard formula. So, it doesn’t matter if you’re attempting to reference a book, newspaper article, or Facebook post, as almost every source type is structured the same way, following an MLA template.

Here’s a step-by-step guide that gives you the key to the secret sauce:

1. Who created the source?

Is your source written or created by an individual? If yes, place their name in reverse order, with a period at the end, like this:

Jackson, Michael.

If there are multiple individuals responsible for the work, place them in the order they’re shown on the source

Two Authors

Last Name, First Name, and First Name Last Name.

Owens, Michael, and Scott Abrahams.

Three or More Authors

According to page 112 of the Handbook , only include the first listed author’s name, in reverse order, followed by a comma, and omit all other names. Replace the additional names with the Latin phrase, et al.

Last Name, First Name, et al.

Preston, Rebekah, et al.

If an organization is responsible for the work, you may include the organization’s name. However, in many cases, an organization is listed as BOTH the author and publisher. When this is the case, you can leave the author out, start the citation with the source’s title, and include the organization name only as the publisher.

Dinosaur Facts . American Museum of Natural History, www.amnh.org/dinosaurs/dinosaur-facts.

2. What’s the title?

Sometimes there are two titles related to your source, and sometimes there’s only one.

If the source you’re referencing has two title parts, place the smaller part in quotation marks, followed by a period, and the larger part in italics, followed by a comma.

Think about the song, “Beat It,” by Michael Jackson. “Beat It” is the title of the song, but there’s another title too. The title of the album! The title of the album is Thriller.

Here’s how the two titles would be structured:

“Beat It.” Thriller ,

The album, Thriller , serves as the “container” for the song itself.

The term “ container ” is used extensively throughout the official guide. In addition to songs and albums, other types of titles and their containers can include:

…plus many more!

To make things even more interesting, there are times when there’s more than one container! Think about an episode of a television show. The television series is the first container, but if you watched it on a streaming site, the streaming site would be the second container.

If there are two containers , the second one is added at the end of the reference.

“The Miseducation of Lisa Simpson.” Performances by John Legend, Chrissy Teigen, and Zach Woods. The Simpsons , season 31, episode 12, Fox Broadcasting, 16 Feb. 2020. Hulu , www.hulu.com/simpsons/miseducation.

Let’s break that down:

There are times when two titles aren’t included in a reference. If, instead of referencing the song “Beat It,” you’re referencing the entire album, exclude the quotation marks. Only include the one title and place it in italics, without quotation marks.

Here’s how you would reference the entire album, rather than one song on the album:

Jackson, Michael. Thriller . Produced by Quincy Jones, Westlake Recording Studios, 1982.

For more on titles and containers, head to pages 134-145 of the official Handbook .

If you decide to use EasyBibs citation generator MLA creator, we’ll help you structure the titles and containers in just a few clicks!

3. Any other contributors?

If there are any other people, besides the author, who had a significant role, and you feel it would be helpful to include their name in the reference, this information is added after the title. Include their role and name in standard order, followed by a comma.

Produced by Quincy Jones,

For other types of sources, there may be other roles and individuals to highlight. Here are a few examples:

4. Are you referencing a specific version?

Perhaps there is a specific edition of a book, song version, or movie cut. Include this information next, followed by a comma.

Google Play Exclusive Edition,

Other examples could include:

5. Got numbers?

Any numbers associated with the source, such as a volume and issue number, or episode number, are added next, followed by a comma.

For example, many journal articles have volume and issue numbers. Use vol. before the volume number and no. before the issue number.

vol. 2, no. 3,

Wondering what to exclude from your citations MLA paper? ISBN numbers! They’re never added into references.

6. Who published the source?

This information is added next in the reference, followed by a comma. Since the publisher listed is usually the formal name of a company or organization, use title case.

Random House,

Marvel Studios,

7. When was it published?

The date the source was published comes next, followed by a comma.

In the official Handbook , the references are displayed as Day Month Year. If the month is longer than 4 letters, abbreviate it.

4 Nov. 2019,

28 July 2015,

If you can’t find the source date, simply leave it out. Note: Some teachers want students to make a source with “no date” as “n.d.” If you’re unsure what your teacher wants, check in with them.

8. Where can you find the source?

The final component of the formula is the location.

Now, let’s put all of the pieces together. Here’s what we come up with for our MLA citation example:

Jackson, Michael. “Beat It.” Thriller , produced by Quincy Jones, Google Play Exclusive Edition, Epic, 1982, play.google.com/store/music/album/Thriller?id=Bzs3hkvcyvinz5tkilucmmoqjhi&hl=en_US.

Example breakdown:

Some things to keep in mind:

1. It’s not necessary to include every piece to the puzzle. Only include the information that the reader would need in order to successfully locate the source themselves.

For example, in the Thriller example above, you’ll see there aren’t any specific numbers (besides the publication date) in the reference. Why? There aren’t any numbers associated with the source.

2. If you’re looking for help, the EasyBib MLA citation creator helps you develop your references. Give it a whirl! It’s free and easy to use! Nervous to try it out? Here’s a quick rundown on how to use it.

Reserve the precious time you have for researching and writing, rather than wrapping your head around MLA guidelines, rules, and structures. The EasyBib citing tool is here to help you easily create citations for all your papers and turn you into a citing, MLA machine!

Follow these steps:

The EasyBib MLA format generator isn’t all that’s available. There are also tons of other nifty features, all available on our homepage, including an MLA title page maker and an innovative plagiarism checker ! That’s not all, there are many other thorough guides to help you with your referencing needs. Check out the EasyBib APA reference page , plus many more!

MLA citing is easier when you have visuals and examples to take a peek at. That’s why we’ve put together a list of the most common source types that students and scholars reference. If you’re trying to reference a book, newspaper article, website, or tweet, you’ll find the structures you need to get on the right track.

Pro tip: Don’t leave your references for the last minute! In your MLA outline or notes, keep track of the sources you use. This will help make the entire process easier for you! Some instructors may even have you complete an MLA annotated bibliography before writing your paper so that you can cite, organize, and become familiar with your sources in advance.

Below are examples for these sources:

If, instead, you need help with referencing an APA book citation , the linked guide walks you through the process!


This information is located on page 112-113 of the official Handbook .


E-book from the internet.

If you’re attempting to reference an e-book from an e-reader, such as a Nook or Kindle, use the EasyBib MLA citation generator. We’ll help you structure your e-book references in no time!

If you need more information on how to cite websites in MLA , check out the full-length EasyBib guide! Or, take the guesswork out of forming your references and try the EasyBib automatic MLA citation machine!

Need an APA citation website or help with another popular referencing style? EasyBib Plus may be exactly what you need.


To see an online journal example in action, check out the EasyBib MLA sample paper, which is discussed at the bottom of this guide. Also, don’t forget about the easy-to-use, EasyBib automatic generator. Stop typing into Google “citation maker MLA” and go to EasyBib.com instead!


If it’s referencing an APA journal you’re after, click on the link for the informative EasyBib guide on the topic.

If you’re looking for an MLA citation maker to help you build your bibliography, try out the EasyBib MLA generator. Type in a few key pieces of information about your source and watch the magic happen!


*In the above example, Natarajan’s article only sits on one page, so it’s unnecessary to include the page number in the reference in the text.


Print magazines are always fun to read, but know what else is a party? Brushing up on your grammar skills! Check out the thorough EasyBib grammar guides on adverb , determiner , and preposition pages!


*You do not need to include the city name in your citation if the city name is in the name of the newspaper or if it is a national or international newspaper.

**Since the above article is only on one page, it’s not necessary to include the page number in the text reference of your MLA style citation.

Need help? Use the EasyBib MLA citation machine, which guides you through the process of making newspaper references! Quit searching on Google for “how to MLA citation” and visit  EasyBib.com today!


If your periodical article falls on nonconsecutive page numbers, add a plus sign after the first page number and omit the additional pages from any full references. Example: pp. B1+ (This information is located on page 193 in the official Handbook ). Don’t forget, the EasyBib citation machine MLA creator can help you structure all your citation information!


If you’re still confused about referencing online images, give the EasyBib MLA format generator a whirl. In just a few clicks, you’ll have well-structured MLA citations!


If you’re looking to reference an image seen in a print book, use the structure below. Or, use the “Cartoon,” “Photo,” “Painting,” or “Map” forms found on the EasyBib MLA generator for citations.

In need of a citation machine MLA maker to help save some of your precious time? Try EasyBib’s generator. Head to the EasyBib homepage and start developing your references today!


If you viewed an image in real life, whether at a museum, on display in a building, or even on a billboard, this EasyBib MLA citation guide example includes the most common way to reference it.


For the majority of online video references, the reference should start with the title of the video. The information about the account that uploaded the video should be included in the “Other Contributors” space.

For more on learning how to cite MLA timestamps, turn to page 250 in the official Handbook .

It’s common to see online videos featured in an annotated bibliography . Have a look at the useful guide to learn how to create one from scratch!


Streamed shows (sometimes called online or streamed “television shows”) are watched using a service such as Netflix, Hulu, Disney+, or another subscription streaming site.

If you accessed a streamed show through an app, the name of the app can be displayed at the end of the citation as “[ Name of Service ] app” instead of including the URL.

After you’re through binging on your favorite shows, give yourself some brain fuel by taking a glance at the EasyBib grammar guides. Take your writing up a notch with the guides on interjection , conjunction , and verb pages!


*If you accessed a streamed song through an app, the name of the app can be displayed at the end of the citation as “[ Name of Service ] app” instead of including the URL.

Streamed music can be tricky to reference, especially with the wide variety of streaming services available on the web and through apps. Don’t worry, the EasyBib MLA citation maker can come in and save the day for you. Try it out now! To make it even easier, bookmark the EasyBib citation machine MLA maker for quick access!


*You can include the original composition date as supplemental information between the title and publisher. It may be helpful to include this information if the piece was composed much earlier than the sheet music you are citing or if the arrangement has significantly changed from the original.


Notable individuals consistently share pictures, videos, and ideas on social media, which is why social media is often referenced in today’s research papers . If you’re looking to add a reference for Twitter, Facebook, Reddit, or Instagram in your MLA paper, check out the structures and examples below.

*When the account name and username are similar, the username can be excluded from the citation. For example, if the account’s username was @FirstNameLastName or @OrganizationName.

If the tweet is composed of just an image or video, create a description for it and do not place it in quotation marks. For example:

DJ Snake. Video of studio controls with music playing. Twitter , 11 Feb. 2020, twitter.com/djsnake/status/1227267455095123968.

Odds are, you could spend hours scrolling through Twitter to catch up on the latest news and gossip. Why not spend some time scrolling through the EasyBib grammar guides instead? Check out these informative noun and adjective guides to help keep your writing in check!

Looking for other types of sources, such as government and archival documents? Here’s more info .

how to make mla citations

Now that you’ve figured out how to style your references, the next step is structuring your written work according to this style’s guidelines. The thorough EasyBib MLA format guide provides you with the information you need to structure the font, MLA title page (or MLA cover page), paper margins, spacing, plus more! There’s even a sample MLA paper, too!

MLA Handbook . 9th ed., Modern Language Association of America, 2021.

Published April 9, 2020. Updated July 25, 2021.

Written by Michele Kirschenbaum. Michele Kirschenbaum is a school library media specialist and is the in-house librarian at EasyBib.com.

MLA Formatting Guide

MLA Formatting

Citation Examples

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It’s 100% free to create MLA citations. The EasyBib Citation Generator also supports 7,000+ other citation styles. These other styles—including APA, Chicago, and Harvard—are accessible for anyone with an EasyBib Plus subscription.

No matter what citation style you’re using (APA, MLA, Chicago, etc.) the EasyBib Citation Generator can help you create the right bibliography quickly.

Yes, there’s an option to download source citations as a Word Doc or a Google Doc. You may also copy citations from the EasyBib Citation Generator and paste them into your paper.

Creating an account is not a requirement for generating MLA citations. However, registering for an EasyBib account is free and an account is how you can save all the citation you create. This can help make it easier to manage your citations and bibliographies.

Yes! Whether you’d like to learn how to construct citations on your own, our Autocite tool isn’t able to gather the metadata you need, or anything in between, manual citations are always an option. Click here for directions on using creating manual citations.

If any important information is missing (e.g., author’s name, title, publishing date, URL, etc.), first see if you can find it in the source yourself. If you cannot, leave the information blank and continue creating your citation.

It supports MLA, APA, Chicago, Harvard, and over 7,000 total citation styles.

An in-text citation is a short citation that is placed next to the text being cited. The basic element needed for an in-text citation is the author’s name . The publication year is not required in in-text citations. Sometimes, page numbers or line numbers are also included, especially when text is quoted from the source being cited. In-text citations are mentioned in the text in two ways: as a citation in prose or a parenthetical citation.

Citation in prose

Citations in prose are incorporated into the text and act as a part of the sentence. Usually, citations in prose use the author’s full name when cited the first time in the text. Thereafter, only the surname is used. Avoid including the middle initial even if it is present in the works-cited-list entry. An example of the first citation in prose for one author is given below:

Carol Fitzerald explains the picture of the area.


Parenthetical citations add only the author’s surname at the end of the sentence in parentheses. An example of a parenthetical citation is given below:

The picture of the area is explained (Fitzgerald).

When are other components included?

When you quote a specific line from the source, you can include a page number or a line number in in-text citations. Examples of both a citation in prose and a parenthetical citation are given below. Do not add “p.” or “pp.” before the page number(s).

Swan says, “Postglacial viability and colonization in North America is to be studied” (47).

Though some researchers claim that “Postglacial viability and colonization in North America is to be studied” (Swan 47).

In-text citations should be concise. Do not repeat author names in parentheses if the name is mentioned in the text (the citation in prose).

To cite a periodical such as a journal, magazine, or newspaper, in the text, the basic element needed is the author’s name . The publication year is not required for in-text citations. Sometimes, page numbers or line numbers are also included, especially when text is quoted from the source being cited. In-text citations are mentioned in the text in two ways: as a citation in prose or a parenthetical citation. The example below shows how to cite a periodical in the text.

Citations in prose use the author’s full name when citing for the first time. Thereafter, only use the surname. Avoid including the middle initial even if it is present in the works-cited-list entry. An example of a citation in prose for a periodical with one author is below:

First time: Kathy Goldstein explains the picture of the area.

Subsequent occurrences: Goldstein explains the picture of the area.

Parenthetical citations add only the author’s surname at the end of the sentence in parentheses. An example of a parenthetical citation is below:

The picture of the area is explained (Goldstein).

An MLA citation generator is a tool that can help you easily create MLA formatted citations and works cited entries. You can try the EasyBib MLA citation generator at https://www.easybib.com/mla/source .

For some source types, only a single piece of information is needed in order to generate a citation. For example, the ISBN of a book, the DOI of a journal article, or the URL of a website. For other source types, a form will indicate what information is needed for the citation, and then automatically formats the citation.

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😕 What is an MLA Citation Generator?

An MLA citation generator is a software tool designed to automatically create academic citations in the Modern Language Association (MLA) citation format. The generator will take information such as document titles, author, and URLs as in input, and output fully formatted citations that can be inserted into the Works Cited page of an MLA-compliant academic paper.

The citations on a Works Cited page show the external sources that were used to write the main body of the academic paper, either directly as references and quotes, or indirectly as ideas.

👩‍🎓 Who uses an MLA Citation Generator?

MLA style is most often used by middle school and high school students in preparation for transition to college and further education. Ironically, MLA style is not actually used all that often beyond middle and high school, with APA (American Psychological Association) style being the favored style at colleges across the country.

It is also important at this level to learn why it's critical to cite sources, not just how to cite them.

🙌 Why should I use a Citation Generator?

Writing citations manually is time consuming and error prone. Automating this process with a citation generator is easy, straightforward, and gives accurate results. It's also easier to keep citations organized and in the correct order.

The Works Cited page contributes to the overall grade of a paper, so it is important to produce accurately formatted citations that follow the guidelines in the official MLA Handbook .

⚙️ How do I use MyBib's MLA Citation Generator?

It's super easy to create MLA style citations with our MLA Citation Generator. Scroll back up to the generator at the top of the page and select the type of source you're citing. Books, journal articles, and webpages are all examples of the types of sources our generator can cite automatically. Then either search for the source, or enter the details manually in the citation form.

The generator will produce a formatted MLA citation that can be copied and pasted directly into your document, or saved to MyBib as part of your overall Works Cited page (which can be downloaded fully later!).

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Daniel is a qualified librarian, former teacher, and citation expert. He has been contributing to MyBib since 2018.

Everything You Need to Know About MLA Format and Citations

Matt Ellis

MLA format is a set of formatting and citation guidelines for how an academic paper should look, similar to other styles such as Chicago or APA format. We use MLA format for topics in the humanities, including languages, philosophy, and the arts, but not history (which uses Chicago) or the social sciences, like psychology or education (which use APA format).

Since most schools’ requirements include humanities courses, there’s a good chance you’ll write a paper in MLA format at some point. Below, we explain how the MLA format works and what sets it apart from Chicago and APA formats. We’ll also cover how to cite sources in MLA format, with examples.

What is MLA format?

MLA format was developed by the Modern Language Association to provide a uniform way for academics in the arts and humanities fields to format their works and cite their sources. MLA format, like other academic styles, includes specific guidelines for a paper’s heading, in-text citations, works cited page, quotations, abbreviations, and even the size of the margins.

This format (like other academic formats) takes the guesswork out of formatting your academic writing and ensures that your sources are cited and credited properly, leaving you, and your readers, to focus on your paper’s content.

When to use MLA format

Use MLA format for the final draft of every piece of academic writing , including essays, reports , and research papers, that you do in your arts and humanities courses. That means English, arts, philosophy, religion, and ethics courses and any other classes you take that fall within these subjects.

If you aren’t sure if you need to use MLA or whether a specific formatting style is necessary for a particular assignment, ask your instructor.

Use MLA format for every part of an assignment you submit. That includes any essay outline , research proposal , literature review , or list of sources your instructor asks you to submit before or alongside your final paper.

There’s no need to format your first draft or any other documents that your professor won’t see, though you certainly can use MLA format throughout the writing process if you’d prefer. One benefit of doing this is that you’ll see approximately how many pages your final draft will span before you reach that stage.

MLA vs. APA, Chicago, and other formats

MLA is one of the most commonly used academic styles, especially for high school and undergraduate students. You might also be familiar with APA format , the American Psychological Association’s style, or Chicago , short for the Chicago Manual of Style . These styles each include instructions for formatting citations, crediting sources, using quotations in your work, and other aspects of writing academic papers.

Because the MLA format deals with the humanities, it places more emphasis on authorship than the other styles do. That means the names of creators are prominent in the text. By contrast, APA format emphasizes dates, and Chicago emphasizes supplemental notes like footnotes and endnotes .

Although the three styles have some common approaches to citing sources, each format has its own unique way of doing things for each source type. Make sure you understand the rules for the format you’re using so you don’t follow another style’s rules by mistake.

How to set up your paper in MLA format

Mla formatting rules.

1 The sources page is referred to as the works cited page. It appears at the end of the paper, after any endnotes.

2 The entire paper is double-spaced, including block quotations and the references on the works cited page.

3 Use block quotes for quotations that are four lines or longer.

4 Abbreviations do not include periods between the letters (e.g., US instead of U.S. ).

5 The paper is printed on 8½-by-11-inch paper .

6 Place a 1-inch margin along all sides of the paper (with the exception of the running head).

7 Write in Times New Roman, Arial, or Helvetica font. The text size should be between 11 and 13.

8 Each page must include a running head with the author’s last name and the page number in the top-right corner. The running head follows the right margin but is only 1.5-inch from the top of the page.

9 A title page is not required.

10 The heading on the first page is left-justified and includes:

MLA style rules

1 MLA format uses the Oxford comma , aka the serial comma.

2 Spell out numbers or fractions that can be written in one or two words (e.g., eighty-eight , five million , or two-thirds ). Use numerals for when more than two words are needed (e.g., 101 ; 2,981 ; or 2 ½ ). However, when these numbers are mixed together, or when numbers are discussed frequently, use numerals (e.g., between 3 and 125 people ).

3 Use numerals for items in a series (e.g., chapter 6 , page 12 , or room 34 ).

4 Always spell out a number if it begins a sentence. Even better, try rephrasing the sentence with a different opening.

5 Do not abbreviate dates. You can use either the month-day-year or day-month-year formats, but be consistent throughout the entire work.

6 Use a person’s full name the first time they are mentioned, unless they are commonly referred to by their surname alone, like Cervantes or Cicero. Any subsequent mentions of the person use only their surname, including particles like de , O’ , or von .

How to cite sources in MLA: citation examples

For every academic paper you write, you need to cite sources—that is, mention where your evidence or points came from. This is necessary not only to avoid plagiarism but also to validate your ideas with proof.

According to the MLA Handbook , you must cite sources “when the work of others informs your ideas.” That means every idea that is not your own requires its own citation, even if there are two in the same sentence.

How to present evidence and quotes in MLA

There are two ways to reference another work: paraphrasing and direct quotes.

Paraphrasing involves restating the original idea in your own words. However, your paraphrased text must be fundamentally different from the source text—you must do more than just replace a few words with synonyms. It’s best to change both the wording and the sentence structure.

You can also directly quote a passage from a source, especially if the original wording is important. However, relying too heavily on direct quotes might suggest you’re relying too much on others’ ideas rather than your own. It’s best to use them sparingly and only when they’re truly necessary. Furthermore, when you do use quotations, try to keep the quotes as brief as possible, even as short as a single word.

Regardless of whether you use paraphrasing or quotations, you still need to cite the source.

In-text citations in MLA

MLA format prefers in-text citations, which involves citing the source directly in the text right next to its reference. There are two types of in-text citations: parenthetical and narrative.

Parenthetical citations are miniature or condensed citations that include only the bare minimum of information. In MLA format, they include only the author’s or creator’s last name, although a page number, line number, or time stamp is optional.

The Greek myth of Sisyphus provides the perfect analogy for humankind’s struggle of living with the absurdity of life (Camus 78).

Narrative citations are when you mention the author’s name in the text, which makes the second mention of it in the citation redundant. In this case, parenthetical citations are necessary only if you’re mentioning the page number or location.

Camus finds the Greek myth of Sisyphus to be the perfect analogy for humankind’s struggle of living with the absurdity of life (78).

Both kinds of in-text citations still require a full citation for the source in the works cited page.

If the author’s name is unavailable, use whatever comes first for that entry in the works cited page, which is typically the work’s title.

Footnotes and endnotes in MLA

Footnotes and endnotes are not common in MLA format, which prefers in-text citations instead. However, there are few situations when they are called for:

Papers written in MLA format use either footnotes or endnotes but not both. Make sure to choose one form and stick with it. Footnotes appear at the bottom of the page they reference, endnotes are written on a separate page titled “Notes” or “Endnotes” at the end of a section, chapter, or entire work.

To signal a note, place a superscript number ( 1 ) at the end of the sentence the note refers to. If a note is needed in the middle of a sentence, place it after a punctuation mark like a comma, colon, or semicolon. The exception is the dash; note numbers come before a dash.

Certain translations use an alternative word choice. 1

Although some have disagreed with this assessment, 2 Camus seems to almost admire Sisyphus’s determination.

Sisyphus was the king of Ephyra 3 —now known as Corinth.

Each note number in the text corresponds to either a footnote or an endnote later in work.

Notes are written in the order of their numbers. Each note begins with the superscript number corresponding to its place in the text.

1 Thomas Warren suggests Camus’s use of la mesure should be translated into English as “measurement” instead of the popular translation “moderation.”

2 See Thomas Nagel’s paper, “The Absurd.”

3 Corinth was a city-state on the Isthmus of Corinth, the land that connects the Peloponnese to the mainland of Greece, according to Wikipedia.

MLA prohibits the abbreviation ibid .

Works cited page for MLA

According to MLA format guidelines, any source used in your paper must have a corresponding full citation in the works cited page , a page at the end of a book or paper that lists all the sources and their bibliographic information.

The works cited page comes at the end of a work, after any endnotes. This page is titled simply “Works Cited” and mostly follows the same text and formatting guidelines as the rest of the work. For example, it has one-inch page margins and size 11 to 13 text.

Entries are listed in alphabetical order by the first word of each entry, usually the author’s or creator’s last name.

The one particular formatting rule about the works cited page is the use of the hanging indent. Basically, every line after the first one in a single entry is indented by a half-inch .

Camus, Albert. The Myth of Sisyphus and Other Essays. Translated by Justin O’Brien, New York, Random House, 1955.

How to cite different types of sources in MLA format

Each type of source, like books, journal articles, documentaries, etc., has its own particular rules for MLA citations. Feel free to check out our previous guides below, which cover the details of how to cite each source in MLA.

MLA format FAQs

MLA format is the academic style developed by the Modern Language Association. It’s the standard format for academic papers in the arts and humanities. MLA has specific guidelines for citing books , films , TV shows , newspaper articles , PDFs , and other types of sources.

How is it different from other formats?

There are numerous differences between MLA format and other academic formats. One of the most notable is how sources are cited.

What are some examples of MLA citations?

In-text citation: (Lamott 28).

Reference listed on the works cited page: Coates, Ta-Nehisi. Between the World and Me . Spiegel & Gray, 2015.

Grammarly helps you cite with confidence

Grammarly is meeting students’ needs by simplifying the citation process. Our citation features expand on Grammarly’s trusted support for students, which includes grammar and spelling suggestions and plagiarism detection that identifies missing citations. Auto-citations generates citations for online sources in seconds, without your having to enter any info manually or even leave the web page. And when you’re ready to edit your paper, citation style formatting will proofread your in-text and full citations to ensure they’re mistake-free and consistent.

how to make mla citations


  1. FREE MLA Format Citation Generator [8th Edition]

    how to make mla citations

  2. MLA Citation Style Overview

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  3. In-text Citations & Works Cited Pages ~ MLA Format

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  4. [55] Mla In Text Citation Example Multiple Authors

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  5. 😀 Online source citation mla. Free MLA Format Citation Generator 8th Edition by

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  6. MLA

    how to make mla citations


  1. MLA Citations in Opposing Viewpoints

  2. Making MLA Citations

  3. Copying MLA Citations from Databases

  4. MLA Citation

  5. Getting Started with MLA Citation Style

  6. Creating MLA Citations Overview


  1. MLA In-Text Citations: The Basics

    In-text citations: Author-page style MLA format follows the author-page method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the page number(s) from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear on your Works Cited page.

  2. MLA Works Cited Page: Basic Format

    Work by an author using a pseudonym or stage-name. New to MLA 9th edition, there are now steps to take for citing works by an author or authors using a pseudonym, stage-name, or different name. If the person you wish to cite is well-known, cite the better-known form of the name of the author.

  3. MLA Format

    Follow these steps to set up the MLA running head in your Word or Google Docs document: Double-click at the top of a page Type your last name Insert automatic page numbering Align the content to the right

  4. MLA Citation Examples

    Any time a piece of information from another source is added into your MLA style paper, you must create two citations, or references, to show the reader where the information originated. One reference is placed in the written text of the paper, and the other is placed at the end of the project.

  5. Free MLA Citation Generator

    An MLA citation has two components: In-text citation: Every time you quote or paraphrase a source, you cite the author and the page number in parentheses. Works Cited: At the end of your paper, you give a full reference for every source …

  6. Creating an MLA Bibliography

    MLA citation guidelines. These are the rules you need to follow to create citations for an MLA bibliography. This section contains information on how to correctly use author names, punctuation, capitalization, fonts, page numbers, DOIs, and URLS in the citations on your MLA bibliography.

  7. Free MLA Citation Generator [Updated for 2023]

    It's super easy to create MLA style citations with our MLA Citation Generator. Scroll back up to the generator at the top of the page and select the type of source you're citing. Books, journal articles, and webpages are all examples of the types of sources our generator can cite automatically.

  8. Add citations in a Word document

    On the Reference tab, click Insert Citation and then do one of the following: To add the source information, click Add New Source, and then, in the Create Source dialog box, click the arrow next to Type of Source, and select the type of source you want to use (for example, a book section or a website).

  9. The Writing Center

    MLA Works Cited Page Sources contain the following core elements: The following are examples of entries for some sources you may use in your research: PRINT SOURCES PRINT BOOK: Author Last name, First. Title of Book. Version, Publisher, Publication date. One author: Toffler, Alvin. The Third Wave. Bantam, 1981. Two authors:

  10. A Guide to MLA Format and Citations

    1 The sources page is referred to as the works cited page. It appears at the end of the paper, after any endnotes. 2 The entire paper is double-spaced, including block quotations and the references on the works cited page. 3 Use block quotes for quotations that are four lines or longer.