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Most Popular Articles

Mental health issues and psychological factors in athletes: detection, management, effect on performance, and prevention: american medical society for sports medicine position statement.

Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. 30(2):e61-e87, March 2020.

Go to Full Text of this Article

Association Between First Attempt Buffalo Concussion Treadmill Test and Days to Recovery in 855 Children With Sport-Related Concussion: A Historical Cohort Study and Prognostic Factors Analysis

Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. : March 07, 2023

Prevention of Ankle Sprain Injuries in Youth Soccer and Basketball: Effectiveness of a Neuromuscular Training Program and Examining Risk Factors

Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. 28(4):325-331, July 2018.

Canadian Centre for Mental Health and Sport (CCMHS) Position Statement: Principles of Mental Health in Competitive and High-Performance Sport

Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. 29(3):173-180, May 2019.


Diagnosis and Treatment of Triceps Tendon Injuries: A Review of the Literature

Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. 24(3):197-204, May 2014.

Isometric Exercise to Reduce Pain in Patellar Tendinopathy In-Season: Is It Effective “on the Road”?

Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. 29(3):188-192, May 2019.

Return-to-Play in Sport: A Decision-based Model

Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. 20(5):379-385, September 2010.

Press Release

Isometric Contractions Are More Analgesic Than Isotonic Contractions for Patellar Tendon Pain: An In-Season Randomized Clinical Trial

Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. 27(3):253-259, May 2017.

Performance Nutrition for the Adolescent Athlete: A Realistic Approach

Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. 29(5):345-352, September 2019.

Blood Flow Restriction Training After Knee Arthroscopy: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. 27(3):245-252, May 2017.

Statement of the Third International Exercise-Associated Hyponatremia Consensus Development Conference, Carlsbad, California, 2015

Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. 25(4):303-320, July 2015.


Less Than Half of Patients Recover Within 2 Weeks of Injury After a Sports-Related Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A 2-Year Prospective Study

Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. 30(2):96-101, March 2020.

Measuring Recovery With Ecological Momentary Assessment in a Randomized Trial of Exercise After Sport-Related Concussion

Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. 32(4):345-353, July 2022.

Core Stability Exercises for Low Back Pain in Athletes: A Systematic Review of the Literature

Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. 24(6):448-456, November 2014.

Consequences of Traumatic Brain Injury in Professional American Football Players: A Systematic Review of the Literature

Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. 28(2):91-99, March 2018.

Efficacy of Platelet-Rich Plasma Versus Placebo in the Treatment of Tendinopathy: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. 33(1):69-77, January 2023.

American Medical Society for Sports Medicine Position Statement: Concussion in Sport

Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. 23(1):1-18, January 2013.

American Medical Society for Sports Medicine Position Statement: Principles for the Responsible Use of Regenerative Medicine in Sports Medicine

Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. 31(6):530-541, November 2021.

2023 CASEM Poster Presentations

Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. 33(2):e20-e37, March 2023.

Canadian Academy of Sport and Exercise Medicine Position Paper: The Clinician’s Role in Addressing and Preventing Maltreatment in Sport—10-year Anniversary

Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. 33(2):103-109, March 2023.

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American Journal of Sports Medicine

American Journal of Sports Medicine

The American Journal of Sports Medicine (AJSM) is the official peer-reviewed scientific journal of the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine (AOSSM). Founded in 1972, AJSM is an essential forum for independent orthopaedic sports medicine research and education, allowing clinical practitioners the ability to make decisions based on sound scientific information. AJSM is published 14 times a year and contains original articles addressed to orthopaedic surgeons, team physicians, athletic trainers, and physical therapists focusing on the treatment and prevention of athletic injuries.

AJSM has a five-year impact factor of 7.392 and is ranked number two out of 82 orthopaedic publications* and number four out of 88 sports sciences publications*, explore how the AJSM and Bruce Reider, MD, Editor-in-Chief, can expand your knowledge and keep you up-to-date with the latest research through our online content .

View AJSM’s Editorial Board here.

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Explore how the American Journal of Sports Medicine can expand your knowledge and keep you up to date with the latest research through our online content.

Current Concepts/Journal CME

The American Journal of Sports Medicine ’s Current Concepts CME activity tests your knowledge and application of material presented in Current Concept articles. Earn one credit per article towards your Part II MOC CME requirements after completing a short online post-test and evaluation. This activity provides you with researched-based information and application of critical topics in sports medicine with the most updated information for you to reflect, evaluate, and use in your practice.

This is an easy and convenient way to get your Orthopaedic CME credits for articles that you are already reading!

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The AJSM Webinar Series provides an opportunity for authors to discuss their work with readers with ample time set aside for Q&A. Earn up to 1 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit ™ after completing a brief post-test and evaluation.

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article writing on value of games and sports medicine

This Is Why Sports Medicine Is Important for Athletes

Sports medicine (sometimes called “sports and exercise medicine”) is a medical specialty that deals with the treatment and prevention of injuries related to sports and fitness.

Healthcare professionals who work in this interdisciplinary medical field focus not only on treating sports-related injuries, but also on injury prevention, rehabilitation, nutrition, and performance training in order to help athletes improve their game.

A sports medicine specialty  team often involves physicians who are trained in sports medicine, as well as orthopedic surgeons , physical therapists , trainers, coaches, and others. The team works together to help patients get back into playing shape as safely and quickly as possible.

Academic medical centers often maintain academic research departments that conduct research and clinical trials; the information these research departments produce often benefits the field of sports medicine as a whole, aiding in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of sports-related conditions and injuries.

Sports Medicine in the 21st Century

article writing on value of games and sports medicine

From 2011-2016   there were 8.6 million sports- and recreation-related injuries in the U.S. among people of all ages, according to a report by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC).1

Although it is a relatively new medical specialty, having emerged as a distinct field only in the late twentieth century, sports medicine has become indispensable for athletes, with its targeted focus on their unique needs and concerns. Reputable sports medicine specialists and surgeons can make a tremendous difference in the lives of athletes.

Ahead, we’ll explore the meaning and importance of sports medicine in more detail, we’ll look at some of the most common sports injuries among athletes and fitness enthusiasts, and we’ll cover prevention and treatment options for sports injuries. First, let’s look at some of the benefits of sports medicine.

Sports Medicine Benefits

Athletes: Putting Their Bodies to the Test

article writing on value of games and sports medicine

While Tour de France riders are exceptional athletes in a category of their own, professional and aspiring pro-tennis players, golfers, basketball players, personal trainers, and athletes of every variety also spend an impressive number of hours on the court, course, field, or in the gym.

Such intense training can take its toll on the body, and injuries are virtually inevitable. This is why having a skilled sports medicine doctor is essential. Let’s explore sports medicine in more detail and how it helps athletes and fitness enthusiasts. First, a few words about injury types.

Acute vs. Chronic Sports Injuries

Generally, there are two types of sports injuries: acute and chronic.

Common Sports Injuries

article writing on value of games and sports medicine

Sports medicine involves not only treating injuries, but prevention, physical therapy/rehabilitation, and (for some) performance training.

Sports Injury Prevention

Preventing injuries requires good form and technique, good equipment (and a good dose of common sense) while training/playing/exercising. Even the most seasoned athletes should work themselves into shape slowly, especially after a sedentary period. It may be tempting to jump right into a former routine without preparing, but this is a recipe for injury.

Athletes should warm up before each exercise session, without exception, and cool down afterward. They should stretch regularly, use good technique (a performance training program can help in this area), and be mindful of fatigue and dehydration, which can impair concentration and lead to an injury. Athletes should always respond to the signals their body is sending—dizziness, faintness, nausea, overheating, and extreme fatigue are all clear warning signs.

Prevention really is the best form of treatment.

Sports Injury Treatments

article writing on value of games and sports medicine

Medications, including acetaminophen (Tylenol) and NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) such as ibuprofen and naproxen, can reduce inflammation and help with pain management, but these are meant as temporary solutions.

Regenerative medicine harnesses the body’s own tissues to help promote self-healing. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy involves isolating and concentrating platelets from the patient’s own blood and injecting it into the injured area to initiate healing. Stem cell therapy involves using stem cells (usually from bone marrow) to promote healing and regenerate tissue.

Physical Therapy/Rehabilitation

Some injuries require physical therapy/rehabilitation tailored to the specific needs of the individual. Physical therapy can help restore function, decrease pain, increase strength and flexibility, and prevent future injuries. It may involve the use of:

Therapeutic exercise (such as stretching, core exercises, and weight lifting)

Minimally Invasive Surgery

article writing on value of games and sports medicine

Surgery can help correct a range of sports-related injuries, including:

Which combination of treatments/therapies a doctor prescribes will depend on each person’s unique situation. Surgery is generally reserved as a last option after other treatments/therapies have been exhausted.

Sports Medicine: Playing a Vital Role in Our Modern Health-Conscious World  

The importance of sports medicine in games and sports cannot be overstated. Humans have been playing sports since the dawn of civilization, yet more and more people today recognize the importance of exercise and physical activity for good health.

Sports that have once been reserved for the fittest and most talented among us are increasingly being embraced by everyday people. This makes sports medicine, with its comprehensive focus on all issues surrounding sports and exercise, from injury prevention to performance training, more important and relevant than ever.

About Crystal Run Healthcare

The exceptional team of world-class sports medicine specialists at Crystal Run Healthcare offers patients access to the latest diagnostic tools and treatments for sports-related injuries. The fellowship-trained specialists at Crystal Run have worked with the New York Jets, the New York Mets, the Philadelphia Phillies, and a host of collegiate and high school athletes.

Crystal Run Healthcare offers leading-edge diagnosis and treatment for a range of ankle, shoulder, knee, elbow, and hip injuries, and its practitioners are among the few specialists in the region who perform elbow arthroscopy (a minimally invasive procedure for examination and treatment), hip arthroscopy, and arthroscopic shoulder reconstruction (joint replacement). Learn more about our exceptional team of sports medicine specialists and orthopedic surgeons, and call us at 845-703-6999 to schedule an appointment.

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by Yen Cabag | 33 comments

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Sports writing plays a huge role in stirring up expectations and giving fans the information they crave about the people behind their favorite sport. 

What Is Sports Writing in Journalism? 

Sports writing is a form of creative nonfiction or journalism that covers sports, athletes, or other sports-related issues. A journalist who reports on sports is called a sportswriter. 

Glenn Stout, editor of The Best American Sports Writing 2015 , describes a good sports story as one that “provides an experience that… takes you from one place you’ve never been before and by the end leaves you in another place, changed.” 

In the introduction to the 2012 edition of The Best American Sports Writing , Michael Wilbon says that the best sports stories are those that come from conversations, and not from formal interviews. These people may be reluctant or poor conversationalists, but they often turn out the best stories. 

What Are the Elements of Sports Writing? 

Sports writing typically covers basic information, such as: 

But in order to write a good sports article, remember to focus on what an athlete does. Because sports revolve around the drama of competition, spotlighting a single person gives your story a human side that your readers can relate to. 

5 Types of Sports Stories 

The following are the five most common types of sports stories: 

1. Straight-Lead Game Story

The most basic form of all sportswriting, the straight-lead (also spelled straight-lede) game story is an article using a straight-news format. The article summarizes the main points of a game: which team won or lost, the final score, and what a star player did. 

A straight-lead might look something like this:

Second-string quarterback Robert Jameson threw the game-winning touchdown with just 10 seconds left to lead the Mountain View High School Bears to a 21-14 victory over the Canyon del Oro High School Captains Saturday night.

After that, the story follows by giving an account of big plays, players who contributed tremendously to the final outcome, and after-game insights, quoting both players and coaches. 

Many high school and college sports use the straight-lead game story, but sports writers for professional sports events have veered away from this format.

The reason is that TV already shows the entire game and fans usually know the scores and highlights before the article makes it to publication.

2. Feature Game Story 

The feature game story is a favorite tool for professional sports writers because it gives fans and readers a different angle from the highlights they have seen on TV. 

Here’s an example of an actual sports feature lead involving the Queensland Reds and their rugby coach, Tevita Koloi : 

It’s the start of yet another season. The quiet of the night contrasts with the vibrant group gathered in the upper room of their local church, fervently praying. As the clock ticks closer towards midnight, the spiritual coach of the state’s professional rugby team receives an impression from God – “the last placed team he is mentoring will win the entire league this very year.”  It is a bold revelation, and he grapples with what to do with this.

After opening with this unique angle, the writer proceeds to describe the prominent rugby coach’s background, as well as what was going on at the time he had this unusual experience. 

And, as is common trait of feature game stories, he only gets to the scores near the end of the article—which is fine because readers are not looking to read about the score, which they already know.

Instead, the story gives them a different perspective of the game and the people involved.

3. Profiles

Whereas a feature game story spotlights a game, a profile features an individual character. This person might be a rookie athlete rising in the ranks, or perhaps an influential coach. 

To show you the difference between a feature game story and a profile, here is an example of a real-life personality profile opening of the same rugby coach Tevita Koloi : 

He stood on the bridge, pondering how everything in his life had gone wrong. After several years of depression, disappointment, abuse and separation, he had reached the end of his rope and was ready to end it all. He closed his eyes, readying himself to take this irreversible step. At that very moment, he heard a seemingly innocuous noise from below, “Beep-beep!  Beep-beep!” He opened his eyes and reached into his pocket for his phone, intending to read this message before he went forward with his tragic plan. The words he read, sent from an acquaintance he was not even particularly close to, shocked him out of his stupor: “Jesus loves you. He will never leave you. Receive His love.” 

The story then proceeds to describe his battle with depression and suicide, and how he used the same thing that saved him, text messaging, to help others in the sports world. 

4. Season Preview and Wrap-up Stories

Every sportswriter needs season previews and wrap-up stories in their collection. These stories are published while the coaches and their teams are preparing for the upcoming season, or after the season has ended—whether in victory or in defeat. 

These stories take a bird’s eye view of the season: they normally share the expectations that coaches and players have, or how they feel at the end of a season. 

A fictional example of a lead for this kind of story is: 

Coach Sandy Miller has high hopes for the Bannerview High School women’s volleyball team this year. With the Royals being the county champions last year, led by dynamic team captain Serena Delgado, who continues to lead the team this year as a senior. “We believe she’ll bring the team to greater heights this year,” Coach Miller says.

5. Columns 

A sportswriting column is the place where a sportswriter shares their opinion. Sometimes these columns may include venting when a team, player, or coach doesn’t meet expectations. Other times, they may write about what they admire in a team, player or coach. 

A favorite subject is a coach who is able to direct a weak team to an unexpected championship, or perhaps an underdog player who demonstrates unusual determination and teamwork. 

Here is an excerpt of a column from The Sports Column : 

For me, head-to-head competition is the most significant indicator for seeding, but not to EIWA coaches. When coaches use rules/regulations to protect their interests, then athletes suffer. To make a three-time All-American–a proven wrestler–a 4-seed behind an opponent he has defeated…well…that’s bad for everybody. And to make things worse, the only other seeded wrestler who has qualified for the Nationals (Jared Prince of Navy), is seeded #5, opposite Kolodzik. None of the other six seeds have had such success this year.

Sports Writing Examples

football game image

The best sports writers are able to convey the sense of awe readers feel when watching a game.

However, sports writing is not limited to simply describing a game: it may also profile an athlete or unveil important news surrounding a key character in a sport, such as reports of abuse. 

Example #1. From “ Roger Federer as Religious Experience ” (2006) by David Foster Wallace: 

A top athlete’s beauty is next to impossible to describe directly. Or to evoke. Federer’s forehand is a great liquid whip, his backhand a one-hander that he can drive flat, load with topspin, or slice — the slice with such snap that the ball turns shapes in the air and skids on the grass to maybe ankle height. His serve has world-class pace and a degree of placement and variety no one else comes close to; the service motion is lithe and uneccentric, distinctive (on TV) only in a certain eel-like all-body snap at the moment of impact. His anticipation and court sense are otherworldly, and his footwork is the best in the game.

Example #2. From “ Most Dominant Athlete of 2018: Simone Biles ” by Danyel Smith:

The only thing greater than the legendary, genius, paradigm-shifting athletic status of Simone Biles is the degree to which so many don’t know or can’t understand what it is that she actually does. Even if you’ve seen Biles doing a split leap on a box of Special K, you likely don’t know the depth of her determination to dominate. Some of it is that Biles competes in an odd, ancient Greek sport based in “disciplined exercise” that conquering Romans militarized and people now barely pay attention to outside of Summer Olympic years. More of it is that it’s the American female gymnasts who excel.

Example #3. From “ Everyone Believed Larry Nassar ” by Kerry Howley

It has by the fall of 2018 become commonplace to describe the 499 known victims of Larry Nassar as “breaking their silence,” though in fact they were never, as a group, particularly silent. Over the course of at least 20 years of consistent abuse, women and girls reported to every proximate authority. They told their parents. They told gymnastics coaches, running coaches, softball coaches. They told Michigan State University police and Meridian Township police. They told physicians and psychologists. They told university administrators. They told, repeatedly, USA Gymnastics. They told one another. Athletes were interviewed, reports were written up, charges recommended. The story of Larry Nassar is not a story of silence. The story of Larry Nassar is that of an edifice of trust so resilient, so impermeable to common sense, that it endured for decades against the allegations of so many women.

How Do You Write a Good Sports Lead? 

A lead is the introductory section of a news story, intended to hook the reader into reading the full story.

To write a good sports lead, first pick which of the 5 types of sports stories you would like to write. The type of story you choose will determine the lead you write. 

If you opt for a straight-news story, pick a highlight from the game you are writing about and focus on that in your first paragraph. 

If you choose a feature or profile, pick something that stands out about the team or person. Think of a scene that best describes the characteristic you want to highlight. Do you describe a practice session? A game huddle? Or an after-game interview? 

For a season preview or wrap-up story, pick a sport you love and describe a broad perspective of an upcoming season or the season that just wrapped up, beginning with the best teams. 

For or an opinion column, find one angle that you would like to express your opinion on and that you feel passionate about.

Writing About Sports

Writing about sports is not only exciting, but it also gives us a chance to get to know the people in our favorite sport and share those findings with our readers.

Excellently written sports stories make these characters come alive, letting fans connect to their favorite teams in a more meaningful way.

Which sport would you like to write about? Share your thoughts in the comments below!

If you enjoyed this post, then you might also like:

Yen Cabag

Yen Cabag is the Blog Writer of TCK Publishing. She is also a homeschooling mom, family coach, and speaker for the Charlotte Mason method, an educational philosophy that places great emphasis on classic literature and the masterpieces in art and music. She has also written several books, both fiction and nonfiction. Her passion is to see the next generation of children become lovers of reading and learning in the midst of short attention spans.



This is great, thank you :)

Cycee jan

This helped me a lot especially it’s my first time in journalism and I had no idea on how to do it When I came across this website, thank you!

lio dewis

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Letitia Recto

Great and helpful article. Keep posting please and thank u.


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Diana Cardoza

Hello! Thank you for your Article. This is so Informative and I gained knowledge about your Topic. Im playing

Sanjana Yadav

Thank you so much Kaelyn. It is really helpful and informative. I got a great help as i had to present on sports beat and my presentation captures almost the whole of your content. Thank you so very much

Kaelyn Barron

I’m so glad to hear that it was helpful for your presentation, Sanjana! :)


maraming salamat po! ito ay lubos na nakatutulong

walang anuman po :)

Nora R. Valencia

thank you so much! this is very helpful for us beginners.

You’re very welcome, Nora! Glad you found it helpful :)

Madaki peter jeffrey

Thanks a million, I would love to write about soccer and its greatest players

That’s a great subject, Madaki! I hope you find these tips helpful for your sports writing :)

Opas Opas

Please can you assist me on writing a sport article about volleyball

Antonia Monk Richburg

This was really well -done. Are there similar offerings that are done in journals? I am looking for sports writing informative articles for a paper for school.

Hi Antonia, thanks for your comment! Not sure what you mean by offerings done in journals?

Malik Dixon

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Hi Aliraza, we’re not currently selling our site or posts

Collins Ojiwa

This is indeed a masterpiece. A must-read article for any sports enthusiast. Am grateful for this great job.

thank you, glad you enjoyed the article!


You’re welcome, hope you enjoyed the article!


Nice post, I appreciate this but wish you could give more details about Feature Game Story. I really want to learn more about it so i can apply it in my website —

My interest is on football only, so I want to learn how to write feature story on football more often on my site. Could you kindly help pls? Thanks a lot


Very helpful article. I have a sports blog and look for tips on making it successful.

I’m so glad you found the article helpful, Stacie! :)

Rhodalyn Valerozo

Thjs article is helpful.. Can you give me a possible sports topic to write on for school journalism? Appreciate it.

I’m so glad you found it helpful! :) It depends on what areas you want to cover, but if you want to take an opinion/current events article, there’s a lot going on as far as the rights of athletes to protest, the first openly gay football player… also the tokyo olympics are coming up.

Danayson Cloete

Perfect context!

I am definitely using this as inspiration and guide for my sports article.

Franklin Romero

Great synopsis of sports writing! I very much appreciated the break down

Thanks Franklin, we’re so glad you enjoyed the post! :)

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Games and Sports

Games and sports are found in early human history and appear to be cultural universals. But types of games and sports are not randomly distributed in the world’s cultures. Cross-cultural research has found that type of games and sports vary in some very predictable ways–they are related to social and political complexity, to how children are raised, and aggressive sports are related to warfare.

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Choctaw stickball, a predecessor of modern lacrosse, was a highly physical game known as the “little brother of war” (Carson 1995). George Catlin was inspired to paint the sport after witnessing a game in Indian Territory in 1834. Credit: George Carlin, license-free.

Games and sports appear to be universal features of human culture, both past and present. Archaeological investigations have uncovered numerous artifacts from game play in sites around the world. These include implements related to games of physical skill, such as balls and hoops, game boards, board game pieces, and playing cards for games of strategy, and dice, used in games of chance. Boards and pieces for games similar to draughts (checkers in North American English) have been found in the ancient city of Ur in modern day Iraq dating to approximately 3,000 BCE ( Oxland 2004 ) and in Egypt dating to as early as 600 BCE ( Masters 1997 ) . Early athletic games, or sports, are well known from archaeological and narrative sources. A variety of art forms, including painting and sculpture, from around the world commonly depict play in games and sports. The Greek historian Herodotus (5th century BCE) described games and other pastimes in Egypt and Lydia (western present-day Turkey) while the Roman historian Tacitus (55-120 CE) described dice games among Germanic tribes. The remains of the ancient Greek Olympic games, often dated to 776 BCE, are well known and include both the site where games were held but also implements, such as javelins and discuses. In ancient Rome, a variety of sports, some transformed from Greek predecessors, were held, initially in gymnasia and palaestrae and later in large stadia, such as the Circus Maximus, and amphitheaters, such as the Colosseum. Popular sports included chariot racing, held in the Circus Maximus, and gladiatorial combats held in the Colosseum.

The Mesoamerican ballgame, known as öllamalitzli in Nahuatl, the language of the Aztecs, is one of the best-known team games of physical skill from the ancient world. It is depicted in frescoes, stone carvings, on painted pottery, and by clay figurines of players found in numerous sites in Mexico and Central America. The oldest of these, at Paso de la Armada, in the western Mexican state of Chiapas, dates to approximately 1400 BCE. Game play often had important symbolic or ritual (sometimes involving human sacrifice) aspects as well as more practical purposes, including dispute resolution, status acquisition, and as a vehicle for gambling. But it was also played purely for recreation and possibly even by women ( Whittington 2001 ) . While the exact rules for the game are unknown, a modern version, known as ulama is still played in northwestern Mexico, primarily in the states of Sinaloa, Sonora, and Durango ( Fox 2012 ) .

A boy playing ulama, a modern version of the Mesoamerican ballgame, in Sinaloa, Mexico. Credit: Manuel Aguilar-Moreno/CSULA Ulama Project, CC BY 2.5.

More systematic cross-cultural studies have shown that the kinds of games and sports found in societies around the world are not random but, instead, have distinctive characteristics that are related to other aspects of the cultures wherein they are found.

What defines a game versus a sport?

Definitions by their nature are arbitrary, but many cross-culturalists have adopted the following definitions and distinctions between games and sports:

Games are recreational activities “characterized by: (1) organized play, (2) competition, (3) two or more sides, (4) criteria for determining the winner, and (5) agreed-upon rules” ( Roberts, Arth, and Bush 1959, 597 ) . So defined, games are very likely cultural universals.

An influential classification of game type comes from Roberts, Arth, and Bush who categorized games based on how their outcome, that is, how winning or losing, was primarily determined. Thus, they distinguished games of physical skill, games of strategy (not involving physical skill), and games of chance (involving neither physical skill or strategy).

Sports are typically regarded as games wherein outcomes depend primarily on physical skill. Loy and Coakley ( 2007, 4643 ) , for example, defined sport as “an embodied, structured, goal-oriented, competitive, contest-based, ludic, physical activity.

Note that these definitions exclude activities that are often referred to as games, both in English and other languages. These include parent-infant activities such as “patty-cake” or forms of play that lack competition, such as top-spinning or making string figures. Roberts, Arth, and Bush ( 1959 ) referred to such non-competitive activities as “amusements.”

Below, we summarize cross-cultural comparative research on questions about games and sport. These include (1) Do games provide models of important utilitarian aspects of culture? (2) Are games predicted by child rearing? and (3) Are games, particularly in the guise of sport, related to warfare?

Do games provide models of important utilitarian aspects of culture?

A game of buzkashi in Mazar-e-Sharif, Afghanistan. Sometimes in teams, buzkashi players fight to drag a goat or calf carcass to the goal. Credit: Staff Sgt. Cecilio Ricardo, license-free.

While games may be cultural universals and may be interesting forms of human activity, why are they of any real importance in human life, given that they are often thought of as non-productive and just for entertainment? While there are professional game players and people who make their livings by playing professional sports, such individuals represent very small percentages of any populations. However, Roberts and his colleagues (e.g., Roberts, Arth, and Bush 1959 ; Roberts and Sutton-Smith 1962 ) attributed much greater importance to games because they regarded them as “expressive models” of typically larger scale, and culturally and socially consequential, real-world activities wherein learning took place that could be applied to those activities. So, games of physical skill are often relatively transparent models of activities such as hunting (e.g., target practice with guns or bows and arrows, trap, skeet, or popinjay shooting) and either individual or group combat (e.g., wrestling, boxing, spear or javelin throwing, rugby, American football). The Afghan game buzkashi , for example, provides excellent training for horse-mounted warfare. Many games of strategy, such as chess or wei qi (also known as Go ), clearly model warfare as they involve both the capture of opponents pieces as well as territory. The board game, Monopoly , which involves both strategy and chance, models real estate transactions and became popular during the Great Depression of the 1930s. Finally, Roberts, Arth, and Bush ( 1959 ) felt that games of chance model human interaction with unpredictable forces of nature, divination, or the quest for supernatural guidance in dealing with life’s exigencies.

A number of findings support the idea that games model real-world activities and provide a means of learning. The study by Roberts, Arth, and Bush ( 1959 ) and those of a similar genre that followed indicated that:

Men playing xiangqi, or Chinese chess, in Singapore. Credit: Endrjuch, CC BY-SA 3.0.

Games of physical skill are cultural universals and are present in every society in which games are, or have been, reported. The few instances where games have been reported to be absent are likely examples of deculturation, where societies that once had games subsequently lost them, or instances where ethnographers reported their absence in error ( Roberts and Barry 1976 ) .

Games of strategy are more likely with higher levels of political integration and greater social stratification ( Roberts, Arth, and Bush 1959 ) . Games of strategy are particularly likely where political leaders manipulate social relations and symbols as a form of self-aggrandizement in order to consolidate power ( Peregrine 2008 ) .

Games of chance tend to occur in situations where benevolence and coercion by gods and spirits is perceived to be high and aggression by gods and spirits is perceived to be low ( Roberts, Arth, and Bush 1959 ) .

What explains these results? In brief, Roberts and Sutton-Smith ( 1962 ) claimed that games represent “a form of buffered learning through which the child can make enculturative step-by-step progress toward adult behavior” (pp. 183-184).

Are games related to child training?

Games are related to a society’s emphasis on child training. Cross-cultural research Roberts and Sutton-Smith ( 1962 ) as well as Roberts and Barry ( 1976 ) shows that:

Games of strategy are related to higher obedience training

Games of chance are related to higher responsibility training, more anxiety over achievement and more severe sex training

Games of physical skill are related to the higher rewards for achievement and greater frequency of achievement.

Why? The underlying theory ( Roberts and Sutton-Smith 1962 ) is that games not only provide venues for both learning about cultural and social life but they are also a means for assuaging internal conflicts that arise during socialization. So, for example, in societies where children have to obey others, games of strategy may be enjoyed because they provide children and many adults with the ability to manipulate and control during the course of the game, behaviors which they cannot readily exhibit as children or as adults if they don’t have power over others. As for games of chance, they may allow a person playing the game to not have responsibility, while in reality they have considerable responsibility. And while games of physical skill may not seem like obvious outlets for dealing with conflict about achievement pressure, they do allow a child to sometimes win at a game by playing with a player similar in skill.

Boys playing a game of chess in Santiago de Cuba, Cuba. Credit: Adam Jones, CC BY-SA 3.0.

Are sports related to warfare and other forms of aggression?

Social scientists have long debated the relationship between one form of aggression and another. One theory called the “culture pattern model” asserts that aggression is largely learned behavior; if so, all forms of aggression are likely to co-occur. Alternatively, another theory suggests that letting off steam in one arena of aggression, such as sports, reduces other forms of aggression. If the first theory were correct, aggressive or combative sports would be expected to predict more aggression in other aspects of life. If the second theory were correct, more aggressive sports would be expected to less of other kinds of aggression, such as war. What do the cross-cultural findings tell us?

Combative sports, including simulated weapons and simulated humans, do predict more warfare ( Sipes 1973 ; generally replicated in a larger study by Chick, Loy, and Miracle 1997 )

Combative sports, both individual (e.g., boxing, wrestling) and group (e.g., rugby, American football), predict higher societal levels of homicide and assault by both individuals and socially organized groups ( Chick and Loy 1997 ) .

Individual combative sports, team combative sports, and sham combat, predict some aspects of masculinist and hypermasculinist ideology and behavior. ( Chick and Loy 1997 )

Sham combat is related to cultural ideologies valuing male aggressiveness and toughness, and to the view that women are inferior as well as to sexual violence toward women.

Team combative sports are also related to a cultural ideology valuing male toughness, but not to the view that women are inferior or to sexual violence toward women.

The presence of individual combative sports is unrelated to cultural ideologies valuing male aggressiveness or toughness and to the view that women are inferior or to sexual violence toward women.

Are there gender differences in games and sports?

Many more games and sports are available across cultures for men than for women ( Schlegel and Barry 1989 ; Deaner and Smith 2013 ) .

Combative sports and those that model hunting are almost exclusively male activities ( Deaner and Smith 2013 ) .

Female participation in sport is greater in nonpatriarchal than patriarchal societies ( Deaner and Smith 2013 ) .

Directions for Future Research

Predictions regarding games based explicitly on biological evolutionary theory, in terms of natural and sexual selection, have only recently been applied to games and sports (e.g., Deaner and Smith 2013 ; de Block and Dewitte 2009 ; Lombardo 2012 ; Schulte-Hostedde, Eys, and Johnson 2008 ) . This perspective may offer a paradigmatic boost to research on games and sports, especially since this theoretical perspective is prominent in play research on both animals (e.g., Burghardt 2005 ) and humans, including both children (e.g., Pellegrini and Smith 2005 ) and adults (e.g., Chick 2001 ; Chick, Yarnal, and Purrington 2012 ) . In particular, evolutionary theory suggests that participation in games and sports may provide reliable signals of mate quality to the opposite sex ( Chick 2001 ; Chick, Yarnal, and Purrington 2012 ; Deaner and Smith 2013 ) and may incubate both mental and physical skills needed for warfare, hunting, and other physically demanding activities (e.g., Deaner and Smith 2013 ; Lombardo 2012 ) . Another direction is to see if play with computer-based games adheres to any of the cross-cultural findings of traditional games.

Some new questions that might be explored with eHRAF World Cultures are:

Other than sham combat being associated with warfare, do the games most prevalent in a society reflect the importance of other real world activities? For example, in societies more dependent on hunting, are games more likely to mimic hunting skills such as archery in a society that hunts with bows and arrows?

We know that societies with more political hierarchy and more social stratification are more likely to have games of strategy, but we don’t know much about the content of the games themselves. Do more socially stratified societies also model unequal statuses and roles in the games that they play (as in chess with kings, queens, bishops, knights, and pawns)? If games help children provide mastery, are higher status roles or positions more often modelled in games?

In many societies children play in unstructured ways such as “playing house” or “playing grownup.” Are they more likely to play like this when they are assigned a lot of chores at a young age or when they have few task assignments?

This summary should be cited as:

Gary Chick. 2015. “Games and Sports” in C. R. Ember, ed. Explaining Human Culture. Human Relations Area Files, , accessed [give date]

Special thanks to Tahlisa Brougham for her assistance in preparing this module.

Photo credits:

Ball-play of the Choctaw. 1850. Painted by George Catlin, public domain.–Ball_Up_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg

Boy playing ulama . 2009. Photograph by Manuel Aguilar-Moreno/CSULA Ulama Project, distributed under a CC BY 2.5 license.

Afghan game of buzkashi . 2001. Photograph by Staff Sgt. Cecilio Ricardo, public domain.

Men playing xiangqi . 2010. Photograph by Endrjuch, distributed under a CC BY-SA 3.0 license.

Children playing chess. 2003. Photograph by Adam Jones, distributed under a CC BY-SA 3.0 license.

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This American Medical Society for Sports Medicine (AMSSM)-shaped issue of BJSM highlights ‘hot topics’ in sports medicine. The Merriam-Webster's dictionary defines ‘hot’ as: of intense and immediate interest. I used this simple definition to guide AMSSM's selection of articles for this issue. This issue's selections are clearly ‘hot topics’ but to whom are they considered ‘hot?’

Hot for whom?

What defines a sport and exercise medicine practitioner? Is it the team physician who cares for the professional or elite athlete? Is it the paediatrician who encourages the obese adolescent to put down the Wii controller and get outside? Or is it the cardiologist who dedicates herself to getting a heart failure patient back to tolerating light exercise? How does someone best describe what we do for our patients? We as ‘sports and exercise medicine’ providers have a unique role that encompasses multiple specialties, age groups and patient populations. We are tasked with prescreening athletes prior to activity, preventing and treating all manners of sporting injury. We care for the elderly, the young and those with chronic illness. We follow patients after injuries and are often the experts consulted with difficult and challenging medical cases that are both medical and sports related. We are a diverse group and we meet a wide range of needs. Thus, choosing what is ‘hot’ and relevant to everyone reading this AMSSM-shaped issue was challenging.

The power of placebo

The emerging treatments such as PRP, orthokine and stem cell therapy are not directly represented in this issue. Whereas novel treatments are receiving increased attention in many sports medicine journals, I instead chose to review the power of placebo ( http://dx.doi:10.1136/bjsports-2012-091472 http://dx.doi:10.1136/bjsports-2012-091472). The placebo effect and the need for the double-blind placebo-controlled trial was first described in 1955 by Henry Beecher. 1 This was elaborated on by Shapiro et al 2 and has since become the standard to which we compare all new interventions. A PubMed search today results in 4311 citations highlighted using the search term ‘placebo effect.’ To understand the value of a novel treatment we need to know how these therapies stack up to this powerful standard. Before we adopt a new treatment, we need to understand the influence of what we do and how we measure the persuasive power of placebo in affecting positive change.

The team physician: it only gets more complicated

At the 2012 AMSSM national conference in Atlanta, the presentation by Dr Tracey Viola was a highlight. Team physicians travel around the US providing care to athletes and staff. 3–5 Surely, intranational travel does not involve licensing and malpractice risks. To the surprise, and consternation, of many of us, Dr Viola outlined major licensure and malpractice coverage gaps ( see page 60 ). Having to worry about how to legally perform our duties in other states makes our jobs more difficult. In addition, increasingly difficult is the complicated duty of the team physician to communicate confidential medical information. We are now fully immersed in the social media blogosphere. Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn and a plethora of other often anonymous sources often leak medical information about our athletes. How do we control this flow of information? What happened to confidentiality and the doctor–patient relationship? Who is leaking these details and who is ultimately responsible for it? The article by Ribbans et al ( see page 40 ) looks at what kind of information is making it to the media, and how this is potentially putting the treating practitioner at risk.

As I continued to narrow down the list of ‘hot topics’, I was left with three topics that were the most pervasive in the past issues: concussion, cardiology and physical activity and health. Each has a uniqueness to it and an international impact that cannot be ignored.

Concussion—an evolution in understanding

The AMSSM has spent the last year collaborating to assemble a society position paper ( http://dx.doi:10.1136/bjsports-2012-091941 ). This document is an outstanding compilation of prior concussion data and research. The clinical experts involved have synthesised reams of information and created this exceptional position statement for our members and clinicians involved in concussion care. This paper will be an influential reference for practitioners worldwide. Equally important is the timing of this concussion statement with the recent 4th Zurich consensus meeting and its consensus paper being published in BJSM 's Concussion Themed Injury Prevention and athlete's Health Protection issue in March 2013. We are confident that the AMSSM position paper will stand along side the 2013 consensus statement as a reference for sports medicine practitioners everywhere.

Long QT syndrome: which athletes are really at risk?

The high-impact research into sudden cardiac death and preparticipation screening by Dr Jonathan Drezner and his colleagues has brought a new level of attention to the quality and breath of research performed by the members of AMSSM. ECG screening is a hot topic worldwide, 6 – 8 and there exists significant debate regarding the precise protocol for preparticipation cardiovascular risk assessment. Dr Michael Ackerman, one of the world's leading experts in long QT syndrome (LQTS), has been studying this high-risk group of athletes for many years. 9 His manuscript published in this issue is truly eye opening ( http://dx.doi:10.1136/bjsports-2012-091751 ). We gather information, do our best to interpret the results, but are we really saving lives or are we merely needlessly excluding young athletes from participation? Dr Ackerman's manuscript sheds new light on this regarding LQTS and restriction from participation. On the subject of sports cardiology, do not forget the special BJSM supplement on this topic in November 2012, 10 and next month's BJSM will have even more on this topic. It is hot and BJSM is the leading sports and exercise medicine journal for sports cardiology.

Physical inactivity is the #4 risk factor for mortality worldwide. What are we doing to change this?

Physical activity saves lives! Physical activity and health is a BJSM focus as evidenced by the volume of articles that are published related to physical activity (PA) and obesity, youth, the elderly and much more. 11 – 14 Salt Lake City sports physician Dr Joy details how we take the next step from identifying physical inactivity as a problem to implementing solutions ( http://dx.doi:10.1136/bjsports-2012-091620 ). Complementing that paper, we have selected an article highlighting a simple single-question method for evaluating PA. If the process of determining PA is onerous, practitioners will not do it. Dr Milton et al ( see page 44 ) show that a single question can be sufficient to determine if a patient's activity level is sufficient to benefit their health.

AMSSM is committed to clinical research and the education of sports medicine providers and has assembled one of the most exciting line ups ever for their upcoming National conference. We invite you to attend the 22nd AMSSM Annual Meeting from 17 to 21 April in sunny San Diego, California. We will highlight hot topics, clinically relevant content and original research submissions. Find out more at . Also check the BJSM podcast where we discuss this special AMSSM issue and preview the conference in more detail.

See you in San Diego—register today!

Funding None.

Competing interests None.

Provenance and peer review Commissioned; internally peer reviewed.

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The Fresh Reads

Article on Importance of Outdoor Games

Our performance in the Rio Olympics has told us that we do not pay enough attention to athletics and outdoor games. It is the time we revise our attitude. Sports should be an important part of every school’s daily routine. Write an article in 150-200 words on ‘Importance of Outdoor Games’. You are Sreej a/Thomas.

Importance of Outdoor Games

By Sreeja/Thomas

As in the words of Muhammad Ali:

“Champions are made from something they have deep inside them, — a desire, a dream, a vision”.

But our performance in Rio Olympics tells a different story. A nation of more than 125 crores has not been able to produce a sportsperson, or an athlete of International standards even after 76 years of independence! What really is the reason behind the adverse condition of Indian sports? Growing craze of cellphones and video games among children are the official apathy and the lack of facilities are like an additional handicap. Also, at present, there is a lot of emphasis on academics which leads to the lack of time for the students to get indulge in sports activities. So, to brighten up the image of sports and games, indoor and outdoor games are equally important-one for relaxation and the other for physical exercise. Games such as Volleyball, Hockey, Cricket, Basketball, Football and Lawn Tennis provide recreation, develop sportsmanship and broaden the base of sports. There is no doubt that these outdoor games develop good habits, skills, knowledge and other social qualities required in a sportsperson. Sports personalities and players should be given proper training for them to be properly motivated. If we really want to revive our sports, the Govt, and sports authorities of India must put serious efforts into the matter. Proper facilities should be provided to the athletes and new talent should be encouraged. In order to enhance the performance, we should chalk out weekly plans, meso-cycle plans, micro cycle and yearly plans for the sports person. Sports play an integral part in education. So we should motivate all the students of an institution to take parts in games and sports. ‘A game for each and each for a game’ may be considered the motto of sports.

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sports medicine , medical and paramedical supervision, of athletes in training and in competition, with the goal of prevention and treatment of their injuries. Sports medicine entails the application of scientific research and practice to the optimization of health and athletic performance.

Since the revival of the Olympic Games in 1896, increased participation in sport and training for sports have resulted in the need to not only prevent and treat sports injury but also advance the scientific knowledge of the limits of human exercise performance and the causes of fatigue. Moreover, with increased training levels and specialization across the spectrum of recreational sports and with opportunities for sport participants to become professionals, there has been a parallel increase in the careers to support the care and training of athletes and physically active individuals.

sports medicine; physiotherapy

Sports medicine is an umbrella term representing a broad array of specialties that bridge the academic disciplines of medicine and physical education as well as the basic sciences (e.g., physiology , chemistry, and physics). Within clinical medicine, physicians in primary care or pediatrics may become team physicians for competitive teams at all levels (interscholastic, intercollegiate, professional, and amateur sports). Other members of a sports medicine team typically include an orthopedic surgeon, a certified athletic trainer, a physical therapist or kinesiotherapist, and a strength-and-conditioning specialist. Other professionals, such as those in the areas of sports nutrition , sports psychology, sports physiology, podiatry , sports vision, sports dentistry , and chiropractic , are valuable consultants.

Although sports medicine is more commonly thought to be related specifically to orthopedic medicine, with respect to the treatment and prevention of injuries occurring in a sport, other medical specialties in cardiology , psychiatry , gynecology, and ophthalmology can also play an important role in comprehensive sports medicine. For example, cardiac rehabilitation is an important area in sports medicine that employs not only doctors but also allied health professionals, such as registered clinical exercise physiologists and nurses. These individuals help patients recover and improve their functional capacity following cardiovascular events such as heart attack or cardiac surgery .

A sports medicine team physician can be called upon to treat a wide variety of sports-related injuries or illnesses. One example is an overuse type of injury, such as a stress fracture in the foot or lower leg. An injury such as this can be caused by any of a variety of problems, including muscle imbalance, muscular weakness arising from a lack of proper strength training, improper footwear or abnormal gait , inadequate mineral or other nutrient intake that upsets the caloric balance necessary for training, hormonal deficiency, and overload of exercise training volume, frequency, and intensity. Thus, to effectively treat an overuse injury, a team physician needs expertise and knowledge in a wide range of sports medicine issues.

sports medicine; exercise ball

The Fédération Internationale de Médecine du Sport (International Federation of Sports Medicine, or FIMS) is the international organization for national sports medicine associations worldwide. Founded as the Association Internationale Médico-Sportive (AIMS) during the Olympic Winter Games in St. Moritz, Switzerland, in 1928, the organization is today strongly tied to the International Olympic Committee (IOC). The primary goal of FIMS is to support elite athletes in their training and competition by providing outstanding medical care in order to prevent and treat injuries. FIMS also has an interest in facilitating fair play while maximizing performance potential through optimal health habits. The organization fulfills this task by promoting the importance of proper nutrition and rest and by advancing the understanding of ideal training regimens .

In 1954 the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) was established to bring together medical doctors, university researchers, and physical educators to advance the study and understanding of the impacts of physical exertion on the human body . The overarching goal of the ACSM is to champion the beneficial aspects—physical, mental, emotional, and social—of sports and fitness activities that enhance the health and quality of life for all individuals, from youth to the elderly and from frail patients with disease to elite sport performers. The organization has members from around the world whose professional careers span the broad array of disciplines already described; notably, clinicians, researchers, and sport practitioners are within its member ranks.

Other professional sports medicine societies and organizations in the United States include the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine , the American Medical Society for Sports Medicine, and the American Osteopathic Academy of Sports Medicine. These and many other professional associations are represented as members of the Joint Commission on Sports Medicine and Science.

Many other countries also have sports medicine societies and sports science associations. These entities are often geared specifically toward either clinical medicine or sports science.

The use of exercise and sport as a therapy to prevent chronic disease is well established. The wide range of health benefits of exercise stem from the several key elements that comprise physical fitness: cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, agility, and body composition .

The relationship between regular physical activity and health has been well established worldwide. Governments of numerous countries have published guidelines that describe the amount of physical activity needed for health, although these guidelines may vary slightly.

In 2008 the U.S. government released Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans , the country’s first published set of guidelines on the “dose,” or amount, of physical activity needed to maintain health for individuals aged six and older. This document was based on a rigorous review by an expert panel of the scientific literature available on exercise and health. The panel found strong evidence indicating that 150 minutes of moderate to vigorous exercise per week for adults helped prevent a wide range of diseases, including cardiovascular disease , stroke , diabetes , hypertension (high blood pressure), certain types of cancer , and depression . This amount of exercise for adults was also associated with a reduced risk of early death, of falls, and of weight gain. There was also moderate evidence indicating that this level of physical activity aids in the prevention of hip fracture , osteoporosis , lung cancer , and endometrial cancer; facilitates weight maintenance after weight loss; and improves sleep quality.

The 2008 U.S. report also indicated that for individuals aged 6 to 17 the baseline dose of exercise needed to obtain health benefits was 60 minutes or more of physical activity every day (physical activity was defined as aerobic or endurance exercise of moderate or vigorous intensity). The greatest health benefits were associated with vigorous activity at least three days per week. Muscle-strengthening and bone-strengthening activities performed at least three days per week for children and at least two days per week for adults were also found to improve health.

In Canada, youths are encouraged to obtain even more minutes of daily activity (60 moderate and 30 vigorous minutes). In general, similar guidelines have been established for all individuals, and they are not considered to be optimal training doses for various sports and athletes. Training for competitive sports generally requires additional sports medicine expertise.

Exercise in therapeutic doses is powerful in preventive medicine . Therefore, in the broadest of terms, sports medicine is applicable to any individual who includes movement as a part of his or her daily life as well as to those who compete on teams or in individual sports—from youth to masters-level events.

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Importance of Games and Sports Essay

500+ words essay on the importance of games and sports.

Through the ages, the sport has been known to affect various cultures, traditions, and values in our society. Many people have favourite games, sports, teams, stars, or events, such as the Olympic Games or World Championships. Many people dedicate much time to learning more about their favourite games and sports. They attend sports events in support of their favourite athletes and teams. Many children have aspirations of becoming like their favourite players, yet very few actually get the opportunity to play against or alongside their childhood idols. Sport receives an inordinate amount of media attention and has attracted the interest of people, especially when it comes to Olympics, Commonwealth and Asian Games. In this importance of sports and games essay, students will get to know the benefits of playing different sports and games. By going through sports and games essays, students get enough information so they can write essays in their own words.

Games and Sports

The words games and sports are mostly used together. But both of them are different. A game is an activity involving more players, defined by a goal that the players try to reach and some set of rules to play it. A person who participates in a game is known as a player. By masses, games are played primarily for entertainment or enjoyment. The difference of purpose differentiates sport from the game, combined with the notion of individual or team skill.

A sport is a physical activity carried out under an agreed set of rules, for competition or self-enjoyment or a combination of these. Sports are the kind of activities in which a similar kind of body movement is repeated over a long time. For example, swimming and running. The sport involves an activity or activities where the mental capabilities of the sportsperson are judged. In a sport, it is the sportsperson or the individual who determines the outcome. A person participating in a sport is called an athlete or a sportsperson.

Advantages of Games and Sports

Most people play a sport as a hobby or for the love of the game. They are immensely pleased with the advantages of the sport. Playing games and sports improves health and fitness, provides mental peace and calmness and makes them more active. Sporting activities and games give everyone an opportunity to achieve the personal benefits of sport involvement. These activities aim at the optimum physical, mental and social development of an individual.

Games and sports in some form or other have been a part of human life either for survival or for pleasure. Gradually human beings started organising events, including games and sports, as community events. Consequently, the need was felt to acquire specific skills and advancement in many sports. Each sport has its specific skills which need to be developed for playing correctly. Rules and regulations of the sports are revised from time to time by their federations.

Games and sports are essential to enjoy overall health and well-being. Sports and games offer numerous advantages and are thus highly recommended for everyone, irrespective of their age. Playing games and sports maintains the human figure and provides strength, patience and endurance. All doctors recommend exercising as a preventive measure for all types of diseases. One of the best workouts for the body is daily exercise or playing any type of outdoor game or sport. People active in sports have better health than those who do not participate in sports as they are physically and mentally prepared for new challenges in their life.

With the help of this sports and games essay, students must have understood the importance of games and sports in our life. They can also practise more essays on various topics to improve their writing section.

Frequently asked Questions on Sports Essay

How can we promote various sports among students.

Schools should introduce different sports and encourage students to actively participate in all of them.

What is the national game of India?

Hockey is the national game of India.

Why are sports important for elderly people also?

Reduced risk of several diseases, and stronger joints and muscles are some of the reasons why elderly people should also play sports.

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BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation

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Reporting Statistical Information in Medical Journal Articles

STATISTICS IS not merely about distributions or probabilities, although these are part of the discipline. In the broadest sense, statistics is the use of numbers to quantify relationships in data and thereby answer questions. Statistical methods allow the researcher to reduce a spreadsheet of data to counts, means, proportions, rates, risk ratios, rate differences, and other quantities that convey information. We believe that the presentation of numerical information will be enhanced if authors keep in mind that their goal is to clarify and explain. We offer suggestions here for the presentation of statistical information to the readers of general medical journals.

Numbers that can be omitted

Most statistical software packages offer a cornucopia of output. Authors need to be judicious in selecting what should be presented. A chi-square test will typically produce the chi-square statistic, the degrees of freedom in the data, and the P value for the test. In general, chi-square statistics, t statistics, F statistics, and similar values should be omitted. Degrees of freedom are not needed.

Even the P value can usually be omitted. In a study that compares groups, it is customary to present a table that allows the reader to compare the groups with regard to variables such as age, sex, or health status. A case-control study typically compares the cases and controls, whereas a cohort study typically compares those exposed and not exposed. Sometimes authors use P values to compare these study groups. We suggest that these P values should be omitted. In a case-control or cohort study, there is no hypothesis that the 2 groups are similar. We are interested in a comparison because differences between groups may confound estimates of association. If the study sample is large, small differences that have little confounding influence may be statistically significant. If the study sample is small, large differences that are not statistically significant may be important confounders. 1 The bias due to confounding cannot be judged by statistical significance; we usually judge this based on whether adjustment for the confounding variable changes the estimate of association. 2 - 6

Even in a randomized trial, in which it is hoped that the compared groups will be similar as a result of randomization, the use of P values for baseline comparisons is not appropriate. If randomization was done properly, then the only reason for any differences must be chance. 7 It is the magnitude of any difference, not its statistical significance, that may bias study results and that may need to be accounted for in the analysis. 8

Much regression output serves little purpose in medical research publication; this usually includes the intercept coefficient, R 2 , log likelihood, standard errors, and P values. Estimates of variance explained (such as R 2 , correlation coefficients, and standardized regression coefficients (sometimes called effect size) are not useful measures of causal associations or agreement and should not be presented as the main results of an analysis. 9 - 12 These measures depend not only on the size of any biological effect of an exposure, but also on the distribution of the exposure in the population. Because this distribution can be influenced by choice of study population and study design, it makes little sense to standardize on a measure that can be made smaller or larger by the investigator. Useful measures for causal associations, such as risk ratios and rate differences, are discussed below. Useful measures of agreement, such as kappa statistics, the intraclass correlation coefficient, the concordance coefficient, and other measures, are discussed in many textbooks and articles. 11 - 20

Global tests of regression model fit are not helpful in most articles. Investigators can use these tests to check that a model does not have major conflicts with the data, but they should be aware that these tests have low power to detect problems. 21 If the test yields a small P value, which suggests a problem with the model, investigators need to consider what this means in the context of their study. But a large P value cannot reassure authors or readers that the model presented is correct. 5

Complex formulas or mathematical notation, such as log likelihood expressions or symbolic expressions for regression models, are not useful for general medical readers.

Numbers that should be included

Several authors, including the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, have urged that research articles present measures of association, such as risk ratios, risk differences, rate ratios, or differences in means, along with an estimate of the precision for these measures, such as a 95% confidence interval. 1 , 22 - 29

Imagine that we compared the outcomes of patients who received treatment A with the outcomes of other patients. If we find that the 2-sided P value for this comparison is .02, we conclude that the probability of obtaining the observed difference (or a greater difference) is 1 in 50 if, in the population from which we selected our study subjects, the treatment actually had no effect on the outcomes. But the P value does not tell readers if those who received treatment A did better or worse compared with those who did not. Nor does it tell readers how much better or worse one group did compared with the other. However, if we report that the risk ratio for a bad outcome was 0.5 among those who received treatment A, compared with others, readers can see both the direction (beneficial) and the size (50% reduction in the risk of a bad outcome) of treatment A's association with bad outcomes. It is also useful, when possible, to show the proportion of each group that had a bad outcome or to use something similar, such as a Kaplan-Meier survival curve. If we report that the 95% confidence interval around the risk ratio of 0.5 was 0.3 to 0.7, readers can see that the null hypothesis of no association (a risk ratio of 1.0) is unlikely and that risk ratios of 0.9 or 0.1 are also unlikely. If we report that the risk ratio was 0.5 (95% confidence interval, 0.2 to 1.3), a reader can see that the estimate of 0.5 is imprecise and the data are compatible with no association between treatment and outcome (a risk ratio of 1.0) and are even compatible with a harmful association (a risk ratio greater than 1.0). A point estimate and confidence interval convey more information than the P value for a test of the hypothesis of no association. Similarly, means can be compared by presenting their differences with a 95% confidence interval for the difference.

We acknowledge that sometimes P values may serve a useful purpose, 30 but we recommend that point estimates and confidence intervals be used in preference to P values in most instances. If P values are given, please use 2 digits of precision (eg, P = .82). Give 3 digits for values between .01 and .001 and report smaller values as P <.001. Do not reduce P values to "not significant" or "NS."

Descriptive tables

In tables that compare study groups, it is usually helpful to include both counts (of patients or events) and column percentages ( Table 1 ). In a case-control study, there are usually column headings for the cases and controls. For clinical trials or cohort studies, the column headings are typically the trial arms or the exposure categories. Listing column percentages allows the reader to easily compare the distribution of data between groups. Do not give row percentages.

In tables of column percentages, do not include a row for counts and percentages of missing data. Doing this will distort the other percentages in the same column, making it difficult for readers to compare known information in different columns. The records with missing data are best omitted for each variable. The investigator hopes that the distribution of information about those with missing data was similar to those with known data. The amount of missing data should be described in the methods section. If there is a lot of missing data for a variable, say more than 5%, a table footnote can point this out ( Table 1 ).

Odds ratios vs risk ratios

In a case-control study, associations are commonly estimated using odds ratios. Because case-control studies are typically done when the study outcome is uncommon in the population from which the cases and controls arose, odds ratios will approximate risk ratios. 31 , 32 Logistic regression is typically used to adjust odds ratios to control for potential confounding by other variables.

In clinical trials or cohort studies, however, the outcome may be common. If more than 10% of the study subjects have the outcome, or if the baseline hazard of disease is common in a subgroup that contributes a substantial portion of subjects with the outcome, then the odds ratio may be considerably further from 1.0 than the risk ratio. 6 , 33 This may result in a misinterpretation of the study results by authors, editors, or readers. 34 - 40 One option is to do the analysis using logistic regression and convert the odds ratios to risk ratios. 41 - 43 Another option is to estimate a risk ratio using Poisson regression, negative binomial regression, or a generalized linear model with a log link and binomial error distribution. 44 - 55 Whatever choice is made, we urge authors not to interpret odds ratios as if they were risk ratios in studies where this interpretation is not warranted.

Power calculations after the results are known

Reporting of power calculations makes little sense once the study has been done. 56 , 57 We think that reviewers who request such calculations are misguided. We can never know what a study would have found if it had been larger. If a study reported an association with a 95% confidence interval that excludes 1.0, then the study was not underpowered to reject the null hypothesis using a 2-sided significance level of .05. If the study reported an association with a 95% confidence interval that includes 1.0, then by that standard the data are compatible with the range of associations that fall within the confidence interval, including the possibility of no association. Point estimates and confidence intervals tell us more than any power calculation about the range of results that are compatible with the data. 58 In a review of this topic, Goodman and Berlin wrote that " . . . we cannot cross back over the divide and use pre-experiment numbers to interpret the result. That would be like trying to convince someone that buying a lottery ticket was foolish (the before-experiment perspective) after they hit the lottery jackpot (the after-experiment perspective)". 59 (p201)

Citations for methods sections

In the methods section, authors should provide sufficient information so that a knowledgeable reader can understand how the quantitative information in the results section was generated. For common methods, such as the chi-square test, Fisher exact test, the 2-sample t test, linear regression, and logistic regression, we see no need for a citation. For proportional hazard models, Poisson regression, and other less common methods, we recommend that a textbook be cited so that an interested person could read further.

Authors sometimes state that their analytic method was a specific command in a software package. This is not helpful to persons without that software. Tell readers the method using statistical nomenclature and give appropriate citations to statistical textbooks and articles, so that they could implement the analysis in the software of their choice.

We see no reason to mention or cite the software used for common statistical methods. For uncommon methods, citing the software may be helpful because the reader may want to acquire software that implements the described method and, for some newer methods, results may be somewhat different depending on the software used. If you are in doubt, we suggest citing your software.

Clarity vs statistical terms

Because the readers of general medical journals are not usually statisticians, we urge that technical statistical terms be replaced with simpler terms whenever possible. Words such as "stochastic" or "Hessian matrix" are rarely appropriate in an article and are never appropriate in the results section.

As an example, imagine that we have done a randomized trial to estimate the risk ratio for pneumonia among those who received a vaccine compared with others. Study subjects ranged in age from 40 to 79 years. We used regression to estimate that the risk ratio for pneumonia was 0.5 among vaccine recipients compared with controls. As part of our analysis, we wanted to know if this association was different among those who were younger (40 to 59 years) compared with those who were older (60 to 79 years). To do this, we introduced what statisticians call an interaction term between treatment group and age group. It is fine to say this in the methods. But in the results we can avoid both the statisticians' term (interaction) and the epidemiologists' term (effect modification) and simply say, "There was no evidence that the association between being in the vaccine group and pneumonia varied by age group ( P = .62)."

Accurate statements about statistical methods will sometimes require words that will be unfamiliar to some readers. We are not asking for clarity at the expense of accuracy, and we appreciate that sometimes part of the methods section will be beyond the general reader. The results section, however, must be written so that the average reader can understand the study findings.

Common language pitfalls

Avoid use of the word "significant" unless you mean "statistically significant"; in that case, it is best to use both those words.

Do not confuse lack of a statistically significant difference with no difference. 60 Imagine that the mean age is 38.3 years in group A and 37.9 years in group B, with a mean difference of 0.4 years (95% confidence interval, 2.4 to −1.6). Do not say that the 2 groups did not differ in regard to age; they clearly do differ, with a mean difference of 0.4 years. It might be reasonable to say that the 2 groups were similar with regard to age or that differences in mean age were not statistically significant.

Dogma vs flexibility

Biostatistics, like the rest of medicine, is a changing field. Nothing we have said here is fixed in stone. Today, for example, we recommend confidence intervals as estimates of precision, but we would be quite willing to accept a manuscript with likelihood intervals instead. 5 , 61 - 63 If authors think they have a good reason to ignore some of our recommendations, we encourage them to write their manuscript as they see fit and be prepared to persuade and educate reviewers and editors. If authors keep in mind the goals of clarity and accuracy, readers will be well served.

See More About

Cummings P, Rivara FP. Reporting Statistical Information in Medical Journal Articles. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2003;157(4):321–324. doi:10.1001/archpedi.157.4.321

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Smith JJ. The world of science. Am J Sci. 1999;36:234–5.

Slifka MK, Whitton JL. Clinical implications of dysregulated cytokine production. J Mol Med. 2000;

Blenkinsopp A, Paxton P. Symptoms in the pharmacy: a guide to the management of common illness. 3rd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Science; 1998.

Wyllie AH, Kerr JFR, Currie AR. Cell death: the significance of apoptosis. In: Bourne GH, Danielli JF, Jeon KW, editors. International review of cytology. London: Academic; 1980. pp. 251–306.

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A Graduate Student’s Guide to Determining Authorship Credit and Authorship Order, APA Science Student Council 2006


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Ethics approval for case studies

Case reports require ethics approval. Most institutions will have specific policies on this subject. Authors should check with their institution to make sure they are complying with the specific requirements of their institution and seek ethics approval where needed. Authors should be aware to secure informed consent from the individual (or parent or guardian if the participant is a minor or incapable) See also section on Informed Consent .

If human cells are used, authors must declare in the manuscript: what cell lines were used by describing the source of the cell line, including when and from where it was obtained, whether the cell line has recently been authenticated and by what method. If cells were bought from a life science company the following need to be given in the manuscript: name of company (that provided the cells), cell type, number of cell line, and batch of cells.

It is recommended that authors check the NCBI database for misidentification and contamination of human cell lines. This step will alert authors to possible problems with the cell line and may save considerable time and effort.

Further information is available from the International Cell Line Authentication Committee (ICLAC).

Authors should include a statement that confirms that an institutional or independent ethics committee (including the name of the ethics committee) approved the study and that informed consent was obtained from the donor or next of kin.

Research Resource Identifiers (RRID)

Research Resource Identifiers (RRID) are persistent unique identifiers (effectively similar to a DOI) for research resources. This journal encourages authors to adopt RRIDs when reporting key biological resources (antibodies, cell lines, model organisms and tools) in their manuscripts.

Organism: Filip1 tm1a(KOMP)Wtsi RRID:MMRRC_055641-UCD

Cell Line: RST307 cell line RRID:CVCL_C321

Antibody: Luciferase antibody DSHB Cat# LUC-3, RRID:AB_2722109

Plasmid: mRuby3 plasmid RRID:Addgene_104005

Software: ImageJ Version 1.2.4 RRID:SCR_003070

RRIDs are provided by the Resource Identification Portal . Many commonly used research resources already have designated RRIDs. The portal also provides authors links so that they can quickly register a new resource and obtain an RRID.

Clinical Trial Registration

The World Health Organization (WHO) definition of a clinical trial is "any research study that prospectively assigns human participants or groups of humans to one or more health-related interventions to evaluate the effects on health outcomes". The WHO defines health interventions as “A health intervention is an act performed for, with or on behalf of a person or population whose purpose is to assess, improve, maintain, promote or modify health, functioning or health conditions” and a health-related outcome is generally defined as a change in the health of a person or population as a result of an intervention.

To ensure the integrity of the reporting of patient-centered trials, authors must register prospective clinical trials (phase II to IV trials) in suitable publicly available repositories. For example or any of the primary registries that participate in the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform .

The trial registration number (TRN) and date of registration should be included as the last line of the manuscript abstract.

For clinical trials that have not been registered prospectively, authors are encouraged to register retrospectively to ensure the complete publication of all results. The trial registration number (TRN), date of registration and the words 'retrospectively registered’ should be included as the last line of the manuscript abstract.

Standards of reporting

Springer Nature advocates complete and transparent reporting of biomedical and biological research and research with biological applications. Authors are recommended to adhere to the minimum reporting guidelines hosted by the EQUATOR Network when preparing their manuscript.

Exact requirements may vary depending on the journal; please refer to the journal’s Instructions for Authors.

Checklists are available for a number of study designs, including:

Randomised trials (CONSORT) and Study protocols (SPIRIT)

Observational studies (STROBE)

Systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) and protocols (Prisma-P)

Diagnostic/prognostic studies (STARD) and (TRIPOD)

Case reports (CARE)

Clinical practice guidelines (AGREE) and (RIGHT)

Qualitative research (SRQR) and (COREQ)

Animal pre-clinical studies (ARRIVE)

Quality improvement studies (SQUIRE)

Economic evaluations (CHEERS)

Summary of requirements

The above should be summarized in a statement and placed in a ‘Declarations’ section before the reference list under a heading of ‘Ethics approval’.

Examples of statements to be used when ethics approval has been obtained:

• All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. The study was approved by the Bioethics Committee of the Medical University of A (No. ...).

• This study was performed in line with the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki. Approval was granted by the Ethics Committee of University B (Date.../No. ...).

• Approval was obtained from the ethics committee of University C. The procedures used in this study adhere to the tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki.

• The questionnaire and methodology for this study was approved by the Human Research Ethics committee of the University of D (Ethics approval number: ...).

Examples of statements to be used for a retrospective study:

• Ethical approval was waived by the local Ethics Committee of University A in view of the retrospective nature of the study and all the procedures being performed were part of the routine care.

• This research study was conducted retrospectively from data obtained for clinical purposes. We consulted extensively with the IRB of XYZ who determined that our study did not need ethical approval. An IRB official waiver of ethical approval was granted from the IRB of XYZ.

• This retrospective chart review study involving human participants was in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. The Human Investigation Committee (IRB) of University B approved this study.

Examples of statements to be used when no ethical approval is required/exemption granted:

• This is an observational study. The XYZ Research Ethics Committee has confirmed that no ethical approval is required.

• The data reproduced from Article X utilized human tissue that was procured via our Biobank AB, which provides de-identified samples. This study was reviewed and deemed exempt by our XYZ Institutional Review Board. The BioBank protocols are in accordance with the ethical standards of our institution and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Authors are responsible for correctness of the statements provided in the manuscript. See also Authorship Principles. The Editor-in-Chief reserves the right to reject submissions that do not meet the guidelines described in this section.

All individuals have individual rights that are not to be infringed. Individual participants in studies have, for example, the right to decide what happens to the (identifiable) personal data gathered, to what they have said during a study or an interview, as well as to any photograph that was taken. This is especially true concerning images of vulnerable people (e.g. minors, patients, refugees, etc) or the use of images in sensitive contexts. In many instances authors will need to secure written consent before including images.

Identifying details (names, dates of birth, identity numbers, biometrical characteristics (such as facial features, fingerprint, writing style, voice pattern, DNA or other distinguishing characteristic) and other information) of the participants that were studied should not be published in written descriptions, photographs, and genetic profiles unless the information is essential for scholarly purposes and the participant (or parent/guardian if the participant is a minor or incapable or legal representative) gave written informed consent for publication. Complete anonymity is difficult to achieve in some cases. Detailed descriptions of individual participants, whether of their whole bodies or of body sections, may lead to disclosure of their identity. Under certain circumstances consent is not required as long as information is anonymized and the submission does not include images that may identify the person.

Informed consent for publication should be obtained if there is any doubt. For example, masking the eye region in photographs of participants is inadequate protection of anonymity. If identifying characteristics are altered to protect anonymity, such as in genetic profiles, authors should provide assurance that alterations do not distort meaning.

Exceptions where it is not necessary to obtain consent:

• Images such as x rays, laparoscopic images, ultrasound images, brain scans, pathology slides unless there is a concern about identifying information in which case, authors should ensure that consent is obtained.

• Reuse of images: If images are being reused from prior publications, the Publisher will assume that the prior publication obtained the relevant information regarding consent. Authors should provide the appropriate attribution for republished images.

Consent and already available data and/or biologic material

Regardless of whether material is collected from living or dead patients, they (family or guardian if the deceased has not made a pre-mortem decision) must have given prior written consent. The aspect of confidentiality as well as any wishes from the deceased should be respected.

Data protection, confidentiality and privacy

When biological material is donated for or data is generated as part of a research project authors should ensure, as part of the informed consent procedure, that the participants are made aware what kind of (personal) data will be processed, how it will be used and for what purpose. In case of data acquired via a biobank/biorepository, it is possible they apply a broad consent which allows research participants to consent to a broad range of uses of their data and samples which is regarded by research ethics committees as specific enough to be considered “informed”. However, authors should always check the specific biobank/biorepository policies or any other type of data provider policies (in case of non-bio research) to be sure that this is the case.

Consent to Participate

For all research involving human subjects, freely-given, informed consent to participate in the study must be obtained from participants (or their parent or legal guardian in the case of children under 16) and a statement to this effect should appear in the manuscript. In the case of articles describing human transplantation studies, authors must include a statement declaring that no organs/tissues were obtained from prisoners and must also name the institution(s)/clinic(s)/department(s) via which organs/tissues were obtained. For manuscripts reporting studies involving vulnerable groups where there is the potential for coercion or where consent may not have been fully informed, extra care will be taken by the editor and may be referred to the Springer Nature Research Integrity Group.

Consent to Publish

Individuals may consent to participate in a study, but object to having their data published in a journal article. Authors should make sure to also seek consent from individuals to publish their data prior to submitting their paper to a journal. This is in particular applicable to case studies. A consent to publish form can be found

here. (Download docx, 36 kB)

The above should be summarized in a statement and placed in a ‘Declarations’ section before the reference list under a heading of ‘Consent to participate’ and/or ‘Consent to publish’. Other declarations include Funding, Competing interests, Ethics approval, Consent, Data and/or Code availability and Authors’ contribution statements.

Please see the various examples of wording below and revise/customize the sample statements according to your own needs.

Sample statements for "Consent to participate" :

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Informed consent was obtained from legal guardians.

Written informed consent was obtained from the parents.

Verbal informed consent was obtained prior to the interview.

Sample statements for “Consent to publish” :

The authors affirm that human research participants provided informed consent for publication of the images in Figure(s) 1a, 1b and 1c.

The participant has consented to the submission of the case report to the journal.

Patients signed informed consent regarding publishing their data and photographs.

Sample statements if identifying information about participants is available in the article:

Additional informed consent was obtained from all individual participants for whom identifying information is included in this article.

Images will be removed from publication if authors have not obtained informed consent or the paper may be removed and replaced with a notice explaining the reason for removal.

How can you help improve your manuscript for publication?

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Please note that using these tools, or any other service, is not a requirement for publication, nor does it imply or guarantee that editors will accept the article, or even select it for peer review.

Chinese (中文)


如果在结构精巧的稿件中用精心组织的英语展示您的作品,就能最大限度地让编辑和审稿人理解并公正评估您的作品。许多研究人员发现,获得一些独立支持有助于他们以尽可能美好的方式展示他们的成果。Springer Nature Author Services 的专家可帮助您准备稿件,具体包括 润色英语表述、添加有见地的注释、为稿件排版、设计图表、翻译 等。

开始使用即可节省 15% 的费用

您还可以使用我们的 免费语法检查工具 来评估您的作品。


Japanese (日本語)


内容が適切に組み立てられ、質の高い英語で書かれた論文を投稿すれば、編集者や査読者が論文を理解し、公正に評価するための最善の機会となります。多くの研究者は、個別のサポートを受けることで、研究結果を可能な限り最高の形で発表できると思っています。Springer Nature Author Servicesのエキスパートが、 英文の編集、建設的な提言、論文の書式、図の調整、翻訳 など、論文の作成をサポートいたします。


原稿の評価に、無料 の文法チェック ツールもご利用いただけます。


Korean (한국어)

게재를 위해 원고를 개선하려면 어떻게 해야 할까요?

여러분의 작품을 체계적인 원고로 발표하는 것은 편집자와 심사자가 여러분의 연구를 이해하고 공정하게 평가할 수 있는 최선의 기회를 제공합니다. 많은 연구자들은 어느 정도 독립적인 지원을 받는 것이 가능한 한 최선의 방법으로 자신의 결과를 발표하는 데 도움이 된다고 합니다. Springer Nature Author Services 전문가들은 영어 편집, 발전적인 논평, 원고 서식 지정, 그림 준비, 번역 등과 같은 원고 준비를 도와드릴 수 있습니다.

지금 시작하면 15% 할인됩니다.

또한 당사의 무료 문법 검사 도구를 사용하여 여러분의 연구를 평가할 수 있습니다.

이러한 도구 또는 기타 서비스를 사용하는 것은 게재를 위한 필수 요구사항이 아니며, 편집자가 해당 논문을 수락하거나 피어 리뷰에 해당 논문을 선택한다는 것을 암시하거나 보장하지는 않습니다.

Please follow the link below:

Additional Information for Authors (Download pdf, 208 kB)

To find out more about publishing your work Open Access in Sports Medicine , including information on fees, funding and licenses, visit our Open access publishing page .

For authors

Working on a manuscript.

Avoid the most common mistakes and prepare your manuscript for journal editors.

Research and Writing Guides

Writing a paper? Don't get lost.

How to format your references using the Sports Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sports Medicine . For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors .

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sports Medicine .

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets :

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Best Sports Essay Topics To Write About

Updated 05 Dec 2022

When it comes to sports essay topics, there is a wide variety of options to choose from. However, if you want to get a high grade for the assignment, you have to select one of the sports research paper topics that are unique, reflects your own vision of the problem, and resonates with other people

So, choosing the right topic can be challenging. That’s where we can help you. In this article, you will find relevant and unique essay topics about sports that you can use to create a high-quality paper for your class.

📝 Tips on Writing an Essay About Sports

Sports essay refers to a paper done on a wide variety of subjects, from sports history and psychology to any research done on a particular game. However, despite being such a wide field, there are certain tips you can use to write on any type of sports-related essay topics. The most noticeable ones include:

How to Choose a Good Topic

Here are a few tips that might help you select the topic that will perfectly suit you:

🧐 List of Interesting Sports for Students

Sports-related essay topics in schools and colleges are popular among students. Here are some of the questions you can discuss that directly concern students:

Essay Examples Relevant to Interesting Sports for Students

☝️ Argumentative Essay Topics About Sports

Presenting and defending a certain argument is a popular form of sports essay. Some of the popular argumentative essay topics that come up in discussions around sports right now include:

Essay Examples Relevant to Sports

✍️ Sports Persuasive Essay Topics

These persuasive topics can make a great basis for an argument. You can find a lot of supporting evidence that can help you persuade your peers in them. The list includes:

Essay Examples Relevant to Sports Persuasive

🏀 Basketball Research Paper Topics

Basketball is one of the most popular ball games in the world. That’s why it is often a basis for research. Some of the research topics you can use are:

Essay Examples Relevant to Basketball

⚾️ Baseball Essay Topics

Essay Examples Relevant to Baseball

Football Essay Topics

Football is one of the most popular games in the US, with over 100 million people tuning in to watch Super Bowl. It is also a popular topic to discuss. Here are some of the possible essay topics you can use for that:

Essay Examples Relevant to Football

⚽ Soccer Essay Topics

Save your time with free essay samples on Soccer

🏋️ fitness research paper topics.

Fitness has a lot of components and aspects worth discussing. Here’s what you can research about it:

Save your time with free essay samples on Fitness

🧘 yoga essay topics.

Essay Examples Relevant to Yoga

🏒 Hockey Research Paper Topics

Save your time with free essay samples on Ice Hockey

Sports medicine research paper topics.

Medicine goes hand in hand with sports, whether when it comes to its positive impact on people’s health or traumas and injuries caused by it. Here’s what you can write about:

Essay Examples Relevant to Sports Medicine

Sports Nutrition Topics for College Students

What and how we eat shapes our bodies and health. That’s why nutrition is an important aspect in professional sports that can make or break the athlete’s success. The topics around it include:

Essay Examples Relevant to Sports Nutrition

Sports Psychology Research Paper Topics

State of mind is just as important for an athlete as the state of their body. Some of the research topics you can use:

Essay Examples Relevant Sports Psychology

Sports Sociology Research Topics

Essay Examples Relevant to Sports Sociology

📜 Sports History Essay Topics

Essay Examples Relevant to Sports History

If you’re having trouble choosing one of the sports essay topics and completing the task, we’re ready to help you out. On our platform, you’ll be able to find a writer proficient in this particular field that will be able to assist you with writing a unique and captivating essay that will surely get you a high grade.

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Government to promote AYUSH treatment through health tourism

The ministry of ayush signed a memorandum of understanding (mou) with the india tourism development corporation (itdc), the ministry of tourism, government of india to work together for the promotion of medical value travel in ayurveda and other traditional systems of medicine, stated the government through a release..

Government to promote AYUSH treatment through health tourism

The Ministry of Ayush signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with the India Tourism Development Corporation (ITDC), the Ministry of Tourism, Government of India to work together for the promotion of Medical Value Travel in Ayurveda and other traditional systems of medicine, informed Minister of Ayush Sarbananda Sonowal in a written reply in Rajya Sabha today. Heal in India is an Initiative of the Government to promote the Medical Tourism in the country. Under this Initiative, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, the Government of India and Ministry of Ayush has been working with the Centre for Development of Advanced Computing and Services Export Promotion Council for developing a One Step Heal in India portal for the Promotion of Medical Value Travel.

The Ministry of Tourism has formulated a National strategy and roadmap for Medical and Wellness Tourism by involving Ministry of Ayush, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Ministry of Commerce, Ministry of External Affairs, Ministry of Civil Aviation etc. Ministry of Ayush developed a Central Sector Scheme namely Champion Service Sector Scheme for Medical Value Travel. Under this scheme, financial assistance in the form of Interest Subsidy is provided to private investors for the establishment of Super Specialty Hospitals/ Day Care Centers of the systems recognized under The National Commission for Indian System of Medicine (NCISM) Act, 2020 or The National Commission for Homeopathy (NCH) Act, 2020 in FY 2021-22.

Couples of Chintan Shivir were organized by the Ministry of Health and Family welfare to promote Heal in India and Heal by India. Ministry of Ayush has also participated in these Chintan Shivir. Certain action points were identified in this Shivir to promote traditional medicine through Tourism in India. A Round Table and Plenary Session on Heal in India- Medical Value Travel were also organized during Global Ayush Investment and Innovation summit at Gandhinagar, Gujrat to promote India as the No. 1 destination for Medical Value Travel.

Observing International Day of Yoga, Ayurveda Day, Unani Day, and Siddha Day to promote traditional systems of medicine in India and to create awareness about these systems to the public. Ministry of Ayush is organizing various Arogya melas/exhibitions to promote traditional systems of medicine, stated the release. (ANI)

(This story has not been edited by Devdiscourse staff and is auto-generated from a syndicated feed.)

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