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10 Fun Facts About Owls

mla citation owl website

There is something about owls that fascinates people. Perhaps it’s because they’re the cutest birds of prey; perhaps it’s because they’re one of the most mysterious. Either way, learn more about these beloved birds with these 10 fun facts:

Silent Flight

One reason owls may be labeled as mysterious is that they can fly through the sky without making a peep. Their feathers muffle noise and reduce sound when they’re soaring through the air, so they often do so without anyone noticing.

mla citation owl website

Owls in Love

Some types of owls, such as the boreal owl, like to stick with one mating partner, and they often raise their young together. The couple stays busy hunting for prey for their babies. But when prey is easy to find and doesn’t require too much extra effort, both the mom and dad boreal owls are likely to go find themselves a little partner or two on the side.

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Eating Etiquette

When they eat their prey, owls don’t exactly have the best table manners. They typically crush whatever they catch until it’s dead and swallow it whole, bones and all. What the body can’t digest, the owl throws back up in a pellet shape.

mla citation owl website

Playing Favorites

While human parents claim they don’t have favorite children, owls aren’t quite so kind. When they don’t have enough food for all of their young, they pick out the healthiest ones to feed and let the others starve.

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Owls can’t move their eyes, but they can turn their necks up to 270 degrees, aCC0rding to Audubon. When they rotate their heads, however, it cuts off their circulation, but they have a system that collects extra blood to keep their eyes, brain and other above the neck functions working correctly.

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Spotting Prey

Despite the fact that owls can’t move their eyes, they have amazing vision. The Northern Hawk Owl, for example, can spot its prey up to half a mile away from its perch in the trees, aCC0rding to Audubon. This is how barn owls are able to catch and eat prey in total darkness.

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Hunting Each Other

What’s the barred owl’s most terrifying predator? Another owl. Great horned owls are at the top of the food chain, and while owls enjoy insects and small mammals, they also have some cannibalistic tendencies.

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Most owls live in trees, but some, like the long-legged burrowing owl, actually live underground. While they may dig their own homes, they typically look for one already built by another creature, like a prairie dog, and take it over. ACC0rding to Mental Floss, they place dung all around the entrance of their newly-stolen homes and sit there all day waiting for dung beetles to eat.

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Pest Control

Farmers often dislike using poison to keep mice and other varmints out off their properties, because it’s not safe for the other animals, both wild and domestic. As a matter of fact, eating mice that have consumed poison is often deadly for an owl. This is why many farmers go out of their way to welcome owls to their farms to keep pests, like gophers and mice, away. An average family of owls will eat 3,000 mice in four months, aCC0rding to Mental Floss.

mla citation owl website

You’ve heard of a murder of crows, but did you know a group of owls is called a parliament? The description comes from the CS Lewis book “The Chronicles of Narnia.”

mla citation owl website


mla citation owl website

Purdue Online Writing Lab College of Liberal Arts

mla citation owl website

MLA Formatting and Style Guide

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Welcome to the Purdue OWL

This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue University. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice.

Copyright ©1995-2018 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.

MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (9 th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.

The following overview should help you better understand how to cite sources using MLA  9 th edition, including how to format the Works Cited page and in-text citations.

Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in MLA. See also our MLA vidcast series on the Purdue OWL YouTube Channel .


Creating a Works Cited list using the ninth edition

MLA is a style of documentation that may be applied to many different types of writing. Since texts have become increasingly digital, and the same document may often be found in several different sources, following a set of rigid rules no longer suffices.

Thus, the current system is based on a few guiding principles, rather than an extensive list of specific rules. While the handbook still describes how to cite sources, it is organized according to the process of documentation, rather than by the sources themselves. This gives writers a flexible method that is near-universally applicable.

Once you are familiar with the method, you can use it to document any type of source, for any type of paper, in any field.

Here is an overview of the process:

When deciding how to cite your source, start by consulting the list of core elements. These are the general pieces of information that MLA suggests including in each Works Cited entry. In your citation, the elements should be listed in the following order:

Each element should be followed by the corresponding punctuation mark shown above. Earlier editions of the handbook included the place of publication and required different punctuation (such as journal editions in parentheses and colons after issue numbers) depending on the type of source. In the current version, punctuation is simpler (only commas and periods separate the elements), and information about the source is kept to the basics.

Begin the entry with the author’s last name, followed by a comma and the rest of the name, as presented in the work. End this element with a period.

Bhabha, Homi K. The Location of Culture. Routledge, 1994.

Title of source

The title of the source should follow the author’s name. Depending upon the type of source, it should be listed in italics or quotation marks.

A book should be in italics:

Henley, Patricia. The Hummingbird House . MacMurray, 1999.

An individual webpage should be in quotation marks. The name of the parent website, which MLA treats as a "container," should follow in italics:

Lundman, Susan. "How to Make Vegetarian Chili." eHow,*

A periodical (journal, magazine, newspaper) article should be in quotation marks:

Bagchi, Alaknanda. "Conflicting Nationalisms: The Voice of the Subaltern in Mahasweta Devi's Bashai Tudu." Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature , vol. 15, no. 1, 1996, pp. 41-50.

A song or piece of music on an album should be in quotation marks. The name of the album should then follow in italics:

Beyoncé. "Pray You Catch Me." Lemonade, Parkwood Entertainment, 2016,

*The MLA handbook recommends including URLs when citing online sources. For more information, see the “Optional Elements” section below.

Title of container

The eighth edition of the MLA handbook introduced what are referred to as "containers," which are the larger wholes in which the source is located. For example, if you want to cite a poem that is listed in a collection of poems, the individual poem is the source, while the larger collection is the container. The title of the container is usually italicized and followed by a comma, since the information that follows next describes the container.

Kincaid, Jamaica. "Girl." The Vintage Book of Contemporary American Short Stories, edited by Tobias Wolff, Vintage, 1994, pp. 306-07.

The container may also be a television series, which is made up of episodes.

“94 Meetings.” Parks and Recreation, created by Greg Daniels and Michael Schur, performance by Amy Poehler, season 2, episode 21, Deedle-Dee Productions and Universal Media Studios, 2010.

The container may also be a website, which contains articles, postings, and other works.

Wise, DeWanda. “Why TV Shows Make Me Feel Less Alone.”  NAMI,  31 May 2019, . Accessed 3 June 2019.

In some cases, a container might be within a larger container. You might have read a book of short stories on Google Books , or watched a television series on Netflix . You might have found the electronic version of a journal on JSTOR. It is important to cite these containers within containers so that your readers can find the exact source that you used.

“94 Meetings.” Parks and Recreation , season 2, episode 21, NBC , 29 Apr. 2010. Netflix,

Langhamer, Claire. “Love and Courtship in Mid-Twentieth-Century England.” Historical Journal , vol. 50, no. 1, 2007, pp. 173-96. ProQuest, doi:10.1017/S0018246X06005966. Accessed 27 May 2009.

Other contributors

In addition to the author, there may be other contributors to the source who should be credited, such as editors, illustrators, translators, etc. If their contributions are relevant to your research, or necessary to identify the source, include their names in your documentation.

Foucault, Michel. Madness and Civilization: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason. Translated by Richard Howard , Vintage-Random House, 1988.

Woolf, Virginia. Jacob’s Room . Annotated and with an introduction by Vara Neverow, Harcourt, Inc., 2008.

If a source is listed as an edition or version of a work, include it in your citation.

The Bible . Authorized King James Version, Oxford UP, 1998.

Crowley, Sharon, and Debra Hawhee. Ancient Rhetorics for Contemporary Students. 3rd ed., Pearson, 2004.

If a source is part of a numbered sequence, such as a multi-volume book or journal with both volume and issue numbers, those numbers must be listed in your citation.

Dolby, Nadine. “Research in Youth Culture and Policy: Current Conditions and Future Directions.” Social Work and Society: The International Online-Only Journal, vol. 6, no. 2, 2008, Accessed 20 May 2009.

Quintilian. Institutio Oratoria. Translated by H. E. Butler, vol. 2, Loeb-Harvard UP, 1980.

The publisher produces or distributes the source to the public. If there is more than one publisher, and they are all are relevant to your research, list them in your citation, separated by a forward slash (/).

Klee, Paul. Twittering Machine. 1922. Museum of Modern Art, New York. The Artchive, Accessed May 2006.

Women's Health: Problems of the Digestive System . American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 2006.

Daniels, Greg and Michael Schur, creators. Parks and Recreation . Deedle-Dee Productions and Universal Media Studios, 2015.

Note : The publisher’s name need not be included in the following sources: periodicals, works published by their author or editor, websites whose titles are the same name as their publisher, websites that make works available but do not actually publish them (such as  YouTube ,  WordPress , or  JSTOR ).

Publication date

The same source may have been published on more than one date, such as an online version of an original source. For example, a television series might have aired on a broadcast network on one date, but released on  Netflix  on a different date. When the source has more than one date, it is sufficient to use the date that is most relevant to your writing. If you’re unsure about which date to use, go with the date of the source’s original publication.

In the following example, Mutant Enemy is the primary production company, and “Hush” was released in 1999. Below is a general citation for this television episode:

“Hush.” Buffy the Vampire Slayer , created by Joss Whedon, performance by Sarah Michelle Gellar, season 4, Mutant Enemy, 1999 .

However, if you are discussing, for example, the historical context in which the episode originally aired, you should cite the full date. Because you are specifying the date of airing, you would then use WB Television Network (rather than Mutant Enemy), because it was the network (rather than the production company) that aired the episode on the date you’re citing.

“Hush.” Buffy the Vampire Slayer, created by Joss Whedon, performance by Sarah Michelle Gellar, season 4, episode 10, WB Television Network, 14 Dec. 1999 .

You should be as specific as possible in identifying a work’s location.

An essay in a book or an article in a journal should include page numbers.

Adiche, Chimamanda Ngozi. “On Monday of Last Week.” The Thing around Your Neck, Alfred A. Knopf, 2009, pp. 74-94 .

The location of an online work should include a URL.  Remove any "http://" or "https://" tag from the beginning of the URL.

Wheelis, Mark. "Investigating Disease Outbreaks Under a Protocol to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention." Emerging Infectious Diseases , vol. 6, no. 6, 2000, pp. 595-600, Accessed 8 Feb. 2009.

When citing a physical object that you experienced firsthand, identify the place of location.

Matisse, Henri. The Swimming Pool. 1952, Museum of Modern Art, New York .

Optional elements

The ninth edition is designed to be as streamlined as possible. The author should include any information that helps readers easily identify the source, without including unnecessary information that may be distracting. The following is a list of optional elements that can be included in a documented source at the writer’s discretion.

Date of original publication:

If a source has been published on more than one date, the writer may want to include both dates if it will provide the reader with necessary or helpful information.

Erdrich, Louise. Love Medicine. 1984. Perennial-Harper, 1993.

City of publication:

The seventh edition handbook required the city in which a publisher is located, but the eighth edition states that this is only necessary in particular instances, such as in a work published before 1900. Since pre-1900 works were usually associated with the city in which they were published, your documentation may substitute the city name for the publisher’s name.

Thoreau, Henry David. Excursions . Boston, 1863.

Date of access:

When you cite an online source, the MLA Handbook recommends including a date of access on which you accessed the material, since an online work may change or move at any time.

Bernstein, Mark. "10 Tips on Writing the Living Web." A List Apart: For People Who Make Websites, 16 Aug. 2002, Accessed 4 May 2009.

As mentioned above, while the MLA handbook recommends including URLs when you cite online sources, you should always check with your instructor or editor and include URLs at their discretion.

A DOI, or digital object identifier, is a series of digits and letters that leads to the location of an online source. Articles in journals are often assigned DOIs to ensure that the source is locatable, even if the URL changes. If your source is listed with a DOI, use that instead of a URL.

Alonso, Alvaro, and Julio A. Camargo. "Toxicity of Nitrite to Three Species of Freshwater Invertebrates." Environmental Toxicology , vol. 21, no. 1, 3 Feb. 2006, pp. 90-94. Wiley Online Library, doi: 10.1002/tox.20155.

Creating in-text citations using the previous (eighth) edition

Although the MLA handbook is currently in its ninth edition, some information about citing in the text using the older (eighth) edition is being retained. The in-text citation is a brief reference within your text that indicates the source you consulted. It should properly attribute any ideas, paraphrases, or direct quotations to your source, and should direct readers to the entry in the Works Cited list. For the most part, an in-text citation is the  author’s name and the page number (or just the page number, if the author is named in the sentence) in parentheses :

When creating in-text citations for media that has a runtime, such as a movie or podcast, include the range of hours, minutes and seconds you plan to reference. For example: (00:02:15-00:02:35).

Again, your goal is to attribute your source and provide a reference without interrupting your text. Your readers should be able to follow the flow of your argument without becoming distracted by extra information.

How to Cite the Purdue OWL in MLA

Entire Website

The Purdue OWL . Purdue U Writing Lab, 2019.

Individual Resources

Contributors' names. "Title of Resource." The Purdue OWL , Purdue U Writing Lab, Last edited date.

The new OWL no longer lists most pages' authors or publication dates. Thus, in most cases, citations will begin with the title of the resource, rather than the developer's name.

"MLA Formatting and Style Guide." The Purdue OWL, Purdue U Writing Lab. Accessed 18 Jun. 2018.

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Filled with a wide variety of examples and visuals, our Citation Machine® MLA guide will help you master the citation process. Learn how to cite websites, books, journal articles, magazines, newspapers, films, social media, and more!

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Stay up to date! Get research tips and citation information or just enjoy some fun posts from our student blog.

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MLA Works Cited

Formatting sources at the end of your paper.

Author. Title. Title of container, other contributors, version, number, publisher, publication date, location.

With the 2016 update (8 th edition), MLA changed and simplified the way your Works Cited entries should be formatted. Instead of offering a specific way to format each and every source, MLA offers a streamlined approach using something called “containers.” The ninth edition continues to use this system.

These containers, pictured here, provide you with the required elements, order, and punctuation for each of your Works Cited entries.

Author. Title. Title of container 1, other contributors, version, number, publisher, publication date, location. Title of container 2, other contributors, version, number, publisher, publication date, location.

Two containers are required for sources that you access through places like library databases. An example of MLA’s “two container” structure is depicted at the left. Here, you will notice there is a place for the first container, with the original publication information. Below the first container, the second container provides publication information for where you retrieved that information. For example, a journal article you access through your library’s databases will have its original publication information (container 1) and access information from the online database (container 2).

On the following pages, you can access interpretations of MLA format for Works Cited entries for a wide variety of sources. These interpretations follow the MLA “container” system.

Diagram image of an MLA citations using one container.

As you work to format your Works Cited entries, you will notice that some sources require only one container, depicted at the right. These are sources that you access directly from their original publication, such as books, an online magazine article, and general websites. You should follow the order of items listed in the container, following the simplified punctuation rules you see in the container as well. You will place a period after the author and the title of the source. Then, you should place commas after each item until the end of the entry.

Diagram image of an MLA citations using two container.

On the following pages, you can access interpretations of MLA format for Works Cited entries for a wide variety of sources. These interpretations follow the MLA “container” system.

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Did you know  that almost ALL of UMA Libraries' catalogs and databases will  create citations for you?  When you find a resource, simply scan the database for a  "(quotation mark)"  icon, or for a label such as  Cite this Item,  or  Cite,  or  Citation Export.

Giving Credit to Whom It Is Due When you write a research paper, you must document the sources you used to produce it. When quoting or even paraphrasing another person's idea in your paper, you must give credit to that person so that the reader can find the source you cited. Sources for which you should provide full citations include books, articles, interviews, Internet sources, government documents, software, videotapes, etc. You cite the sources briefly within the text of your paper, and then give the full citation in the "Bibliography" or "Works Cited" section at the end of your paper.

Additionally, IT IS REQUIRED. See UMA's  Academic Integrity Policy  which spells out your responsibility as a student. The way to avoid plagiarism is to carefully cite all sources used. Your instructors will indicate which citation style they want you to use when citing your sources. Most often this is either APA or MLA citation style.

Please double-check citations before submitting your work! We cannot guarantee the accuracy of citations created using these free, online tools.

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The  Online Writing Lab (OWL)  at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service of the Writing Lab at Purdue. Students, members of the community, and users worldwide will find information to assist with many writing projects. Teachers and trainers may use this material for in-class and out-of-class instruction.

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Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL)

Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL)  site  is a fairly comprehensive resource for the Modern Language Association's (MLA) style and formatting rules. Use the left side bar on OWL's page to navigate to the style or other help that you need.

UPDATED TO 9th ed.

Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL)  site  is a fairly comprehensive resource for the American Psychological Association (APA) style and formatting rules. Use the left side bar of the OWL page to navigate to the style or other help that you need.

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MLA In-Text Citations                                   MLA Works Cited

MLA Style Demo (videos)                             MLA Activity (tutorial)

APA In-Text Citations                                    APA References

APA Formatting Guide                                  APA Headings (setting up the paper)

APA Activity (tutorial)                                          APA Side By Side   (compares reference, in-text citation,                                                                                                                      and in-text citation with author set-up)

Chicago Formatting Guidelines                Chicago Notes & Bibliography

Format a Citation in APA Style Using EBSCOhost

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Academic Search Complete (along with Business Source Complete, PsycInfo, and other EBSCO databases) will create a citation for you! Look for the "Cite" button to view citations in all the major citation formats.

Citation Basics & Links

Citing your sources is an important step in the research and writing process.  Choose one of the following to get started:

Documentation style depends on your area of study. For instance, the American Psychological Association (APA) citation style is often used in the social sciences, whereas the Modern Language Association (MLA) style is used in the humanities. Check with your professor to be sure you are using the right style for your papers.

Here's a short overview of citations:


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Purdue owl: research & citation resources.

The Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL) provides online access to, most popularly, citation style assistance for MLA, APA, and Chicago style. Some information is also provided for IEEE, AMA, and ASA styles.

Purdue OWL also provides general information about good writing, as well as subject-specific writing and job search writing.


  1. MLA In-text Citations OWL

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  2. Image de Citation: Apa In Text Citation Website No Author Purdue Owl

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    Creating a Works Cited list using the ninth edition · Author. · Title of source. · Title of container, · Other contributors, · Version, · Number, · Publisher

  6. PURDUE Format & PURDUE Citation Generator

    Filled with a wide variety of examples and visuals, our Citation Machine® MLA guide will help you master the citation process. Learn how to cite websites

  7. Citation Machine®: Format & Generate

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    Transcript · MLA for Dummies 8th Ed · How to Cite MLA Format (website, book, article, etc.) · MLA Style: List of Works Cited (8th Ed., 2016).

  10. Navigating Purdue OWL: MLA Works Cited Page

    Here you'll find some help navigating Purdue OWL's website for MLA Works Cited information.

  11. Purdue OWL, Excelsior OWL, and Valencia College

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    The Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL) provides online access to, most popularly, citation style assistance for MLA, APA, and Chicago style.

  14. the Purdue OWL MLA Formatting and Style Guide

    The MLA Handbook is available in most writing centers and reference libraries; it is also widely available in bookstores,. Page 2. libraries, and at the MLA web