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Paraphrase & Quotation (ELL)

Wr 111: essential lesson 2.

Our Essential Lessons are a sequence of lessons that form the backbone of the Writing Program curriculum, illustrating what we want all students to learn across our program’s diverse course topics. Most multilingual students, especially those newer to North American academic contexts, need work understanding and practicing paraphrase, as distinct from both quotation and from patch-writing or plagiarism. This lesson builds on what students already know about summary and can help them write more complex summaries or pieces of analysis in the future.

Students will be able to convey accurately the meaning of an academic text and avoid plagiarism by paraphrasing and quoting effectively.

plagiarism, paraphrase, quotation, summary, citation, attribution, academic misconduct

Introduce these concepts to students at the start of WR 111 Unit 2, “Writing for and with Others.” At this point, students will be familiar with summarizing, as they will have submitted the basic summary, and been introduced to the concepts of paraphrase and quotation. In addition, students will have been exposed to the basic elements of BU’s Academic Conduct Codeas part of the acculturation unit. Paraphrasing can be compared and contrasted with summarizing as well as using quotations.

Conceptual Framework

Genre awareness.

This lesson precedes WR 111 students’ study of genre, but students should be made aware that genre does dictate when and whether we cite a source. In a newspaper article, for example, the writer may refer in words to the source of information or a quotation, but MLA citation, for example, is not required. Scientific research papers, law journal articles, and other academic papers may require footnotes rather than in-text citations.


This lesson begins with a question about students’ prior knowledge and has them reflect on the differences between their home country’s approach to intellectual property and plagiarism as compared with that of the U.S. It later asks students to reflect on what they know, and what they think they know, about what plagiarism is and what types of work are governed by the concept of plagiarism. You may assign a brief write-up on the challenges students experienced when reconciling the cultural conventions of attribution of their home countries and the U.S.



Key terms and definitions Summarizing is used to express the main idea of a written work. It omits small details and does not use the author’s words and structure. Paraphrasing is used when it’s important to convey every idea in the original piece of writing. It does not use the author’s words and structure. Quoting is used when the writer’s exact words are important because they are well-known or historically significant, or because they express a concept in a unique or noteworthy way, such as: “I have a dream,” or “We hold these truths to be self-evident.”
Reasons to paraphrase (vs. quote) Your paraphrase demonstrates that you understand the text. You can make challenging material easier to understand by paraphrasing.   You will be able to smoothly integrate the paraphrase into a paper you’re writing by using the same style, structure, and organization.    A direct quotation may have details you don’t want to include in your paper. American academic practice values using your own words and discourages using quotations.


Key principles for paraphrase Use your own words to express the concepts of the original passage. Use your own sentence structure and organization, not the author’s. Provide attribution in correct citation form for the passage you paraphrased.
Key strategies for paraphrase Read the portion of text you want to paraphrase. Make sure you understand it. After you’ve read the text, make notes of what you read, without using the author’s words or structure. Using only your notes, write all of the important ideas of the text using own words. Compare your paraphrase with the original text to be sure you’ve included all of the ideas in the text and stated those ideas accurately. Review and revise your passage for grammar and spelling errors.

Variations and Follow-Ups

Alternative lesson ideas.

Suggested follow-ups

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Further Reading

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See all Writing Program Essential Lessons Remote Implementation of Essential Lesson Activities

8 Key Points: Discuss the Importance of Paraphrasing

Table of contents.

It is necessary to discuss the importance of paraphrasing because it is a skill that students need to write clear and precise writings.

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When people write, they often use information from published sources to learn something new. This is an essential part of research. Paraphrasing is a useful tool to find new and unique ways to get a message across .

Plagiarizing a text that already exists while claiming to add new information is one of the worst things anyone can do. That’s why it’s important to learn how to make your content or text that isn’t copied. 

This article will answer the question “What is paraphrasing?” and tell you why it’s important. Let’s jump in!

It is necessary to discuss the important of paraphrasing because it is a skill.

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Can We Discuss the Importance of Paraphrasing?

Paraphrasing is the process of taking what the original author has written or said and putting it in your own words . Paraphrasing helps you write in your style and focus on the most crucial text elements.

If you use someone else’s idea in an essay, you must credit the person who came up with it.

To discuss the importance of paraphrasing is to show that creativity and originality are not all that make good writing.

Eight Important Reasons to Paraphrase

Without further ado, here are some of the top notch reasons why we paraphrase:

1. Enhances Memory Performance

People tend to forget a lot of things. Our brains can only hold so many memories before they start to discard old information to make room for new ones.

We write to make sure we don’t forget. Notes are taken in class to help us remember all the essential things we have learned. No matter how well we listen and understand, we are bound to forget some things.

The exciting thing is that we don’t write down what we hear word for word. Instead, we take notes by using our own words and phrases.

Our subconscious mind knows that altering phrases gets our brains active, therefore writing them in our way helps us remember them.

And that’s the divine power of paraphrasing. It helps us remember things that we might forget otherwise.

2. Organizes the Mind

A person needs to be able to figure out what he’s thinking to put it into words. But the words that come to mind aren’t always the best ones. It’s essential to change how we say things to make ourselves and what we mean more explicit.

Paraphrasing helps us write our thoughts more clearly. We organize our minds first to communicate our ideas and researched works in writing.

3. to Drive Home the Point

Students get involved in a lot of debates. Debating is a game of wordplay. If you use the right words correctly, it’s easier for you to win.

So, you need to know how to back up your argument with the right words. Precise, well-chosen terms give our line of argument more strength.

4. Acts As a Confidence Booster

We feel like we’ve done something good when we say things more clearly. This is true both when we speak and when we write. Making the notes in our way also makes us feel like we have more freedom to say what we want.

Writing well gives you a way to put your thoughts to rest and helps logical reasoning. You can use the rewording method to work on your writing and improve it.

5. Enhances Good Communication

Writing helps people talk to each other better. When you write, you can choose your words more carefully than you would if you just said them without thinking. If you keep using the restatement technique, you will notice a clear difference in how you talk.

A well-written CV, email, etc., can go a long way toward making sure your point gets across.

6. Decreases the Need for Quotes

Quotes are an excellent way to get specific information across, but too many of them can make text boring and repetitive.

Quotes may also indicate that one doesn’t understand the original document well enough. By paraphrasing a text, a writer cuts down on the number of quotes in their work, making it easier to read.

7. Puts an Argument in Its Proper Place

You can set the stage for your ideas when you paraphrase. When you rework another author’s words, you can guide the reader and frame your argument. So, a reader can see how an idea or concept has changed from one author or setting to another.

8. Shortens a Long Read

Paraphrasing is a great way to cut out fluff in a piece of writing into a few lines or pages. When paraphrasing, we go straight to the primary idea and aim and do not utilize extraneous language.

Paraphrasing is a means to summarize or re-create what has already been said and written. When done well, paraphrasing adds value to the original text and encourages deeper thought .

8 Key Points: Discuss the Importance of Paraphrasing

Pam is an expert grammarian with years of experience teaching English, writing and ESL Grammar courses at the university level. She is enamored with all things language and fascinated with how we use words to shape our world.

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Techniques for effective paraphrasing

On this page, techniques for paraphrasing, getting started, effective paraphrasing.

Paraphrasing is an important skill for academic writing, and yet it is very often misunderstood. Commonly, paraphrasing is expressed as “restating someone else’s ideas in your own words.” While this is technically accurate, it can lead students to believe that paraphrasing is simply about finding synonyms to replace the words in the original author’s text. Paraphrasing is most effective and useful when you think about it as a way to explain someone else’s ideas in relation to, or in the context of, your own argument.  

When writers are new to paraphrasing, they might think it’s acceptable to simply substitute certain words with synonyms. Here is an example, taken from the writing handbook They Say/I Say by Gerald Graff and Cathy Birkenstein :

“Whenever you enter into a conversation with others in your writing, then, it is extremely important that you go back to what those others have said, that you study it very closely, and that you not confuse it with something you already believe” (2014, p. 33).

If a writer was told to “put this sentence into her own words,” and simply tried to find synonyms, they might end up with something like this:

Anytime someone dialogues with different authors, it is crucial that they return to what those different authors have said, that they scrutinize it, and that they avoid mistaking it for what they previously accepted (Graff & Birkenstein, 2014, p. 33).

You will notice that this example uses very few of the same words as the original quotation (i.e., it has been put into the author’s “own words”). However, it might be difficult for the reader to understand.

More seriously, this paraphrase could be considered plagiarism or patch-writing —even though the source is cited! Why?

Substituting synonyms for some of the author’s original words does not explain the source, highlight its importance, or show the reader how the source helps convey the paper’s argument. To do these things, an acceptable paraphrase must also change the structure of the author’s expression.

Here is an example of an effective paraphrase of the quotation above:

Graff and Birkenstein (2014) argue throughout their book They Say/I Say that writing is a conversation. When engaging in this conversation, they caution that writers must read carefully in order to ensure that they both understand, and provide fair consideration to, the ideas of others.

Notice three crucial things about this paraphrase:

Rather than being about words , paraphrasing is about ideas . Instead of focusing on replacing specific words in a quotation, it is more helpful when paraphrasing to think deeply about the ideas that the original author is explaining. Once you understand those ideas, you can “zoom out” and explain the most important idea (or ideas) in your own way.

Try these steps to write an effective paraphrase

Step 1: Read a paragraph from an article that you find interesting or that you are using to write a paper.

Step 2: Make notes to yourself about the most important idea or ideas presented in the paragraph (make these notes in point form, rather than in sentences)

Step 3: Put the article away and, using only your point-form notes, explain the most important idea(s) to someone else. Logo

Why is paraphrasing important?

The act of paraphrasing demonstrates that you comprehend the source well enough to write it in your own words. It is significant because it demonstrates to you and your reader (i.e., your instructor) that you have comprehended the material sufficiently to articulate it in your own terms. > span>

Paraphrasing can also be used as an effective tool for building your own knowledge base. By taking notes while listening to lectures, discussions, or interviews with experts, you can save a great deal of time by writing your own response later. This is particularly useful if you can't afford to miss any class sessions or if there are several classes that cover similar topics. In these cases, you can use your notes from one class session as a starting point for another class session . This way you are not required to listen to the same information twice - which would be impossible anyway since most instructors do not deliver their messages in just one go-around.

Finally, paraphrasing is important because it helps you develop your own thought process and analyze different perspectives on issues that may not have been considered before. This ability is valuable in itself, but it is especially necessary when you are trying to create original content . Only by considering all aspects of an issue can you come up with solutions that meet the needs of everyone involved.

Table of Contents

What is the purpose of paraphrase, why do we use paraphrasing in longer texts, how can paraphrasing strengthen your research paper, what is a paraphrase in writing, why is paraphrasing rephrasing an original statement.

It also provides a strong alternative to employing direct quotations , which should be used sparingly.

The main goal of a paraphrase is to present a new interpretation of the source material. You should try to retain the essential meaning of the original text while adding details and explaining them yourself. This way you will be able to explain things yourself when necessary. You can also use this method when addressing the reader directly, as long as you include all the relevant information for them to understand.

Paraphrases are useful because they can give a complete explanation of a topic without being redundant. They can also serve as a good reference point if there is ever a need to return to an important idea . Finally, they are easy to write so many people use them as a way to practice their writing skills.

There are several types of paraphrases: descriptive, explanatory, analytical, persuasive/argumentative, narrative/dialogic, and comical/humorous.

Descriptive paraphrases simply list characteristics or aspects of the subject matter without interpreting them. For example, "John is a friendly guy," is a descriptive paraphrase of some person named John.

To begin with, paraphrasing the text truly aids in comprehension. As previously said, paraphrasing involves more comprehension than simply duplicating the text, and this helps your reader judge that you have grasped the information rather than simply copied it. It also makes for better citation style. When writing up research papers, it is important to accurately cite sources, and since paraphrasing is repeating words from the original source, it serves as a good indicator that you have accurately reproduced what they had to say.

Paraphrasing can also be used as a tool for improvement. Since it is impossible to write entirely new content every time you need to convey information, it is helpful to repeat parts of the text instead. This shows that you have thought about what you want to say and included relevant details for your readers . It also prevents you from repeating yourself which can come off as boring or arrogant.

Finally, paraphrasing is useful in creating more readable essays. Since shorter sentences are easier to understand than long ones, splitting up large blocks of text into smaller pieces allows your readers to absorb the information better. This was already discussed in relation to question-and-answer sessions and interviews, but it can also be useful when giving speeches or presentations. You should avoid long passages of text as these can be difficult to follow and may lose your audience members who start thinking about other things while you're talking.

"Paraphrasing" is articulating the meaning of someone else's words in your own words rather than directly repeating them. You may conserve space and keep your studies more focused by successfully paraphrasing. Condense difficult material into language that laypeople can comprehend. This helps you to express yourself clearly when discussing topics such as history, science, or literature. When paraphrasing, it's important to be accurate but not word-for-word. Add additional information that will help readers understand your ideas.

Paraphrasing can be used in many different contexts within the academic world. For example, when writing a research paper, paraphrasing can help you to expand upon ideas presented in other sources by adding clarity and substance to your own work. It is important to note that paraphrasing alone does not constitute originality. However, if you can develop your own analysis or interpretation of an idea, then you have created something original which is essential for advancing your knowledge and understanding of a topic.

Using effective paraphrasing techniques can make your studies seem less tedious and help you to better understand the material you are learning. This makes all content sound more interesting and accessible to readers.

One method for using a text in your own work without explicitly quoting the original material is to paraphrase it. This can be useful when you cannot find the time or opportunity to quote from the source material accurately and completely, or when doing so would compromise your own interpretation of it.

A paraphrase is a summary of the ideas in the source material expressed in your own words. It can be as simple as copying one or more paragraphs from the source material and inserting them into your own work, but it can also be a longer process that requires some thought to achieve accuracy and clarity. For example: "In his book The Hero's Journey, Joseph Campbell describes the nine stages of storytelling mythic heroes across many cultures. These stories always include a quest, the meeting with a challenge, the struggle against the odds, the victory over the villain, and finally, the return home."

The first step in creating a good paraphrase is to identify what parts of the source material are important to the point you are trying to make. Then, summarize those parts in your own words. Finally, be sure to correctly attribute the source material.

Paraphrasing is a method of referring a source without explicitly quoting it or of describing a selected statement in greater detail . Correct paraphrasing is critical because bad paraphrasing can lead to charges of plagiarism or copying from a source without properly citing it. Good paraphrasing makes your own statement sound original and gives credit where it is due.

In writing, paraphrasing is the act of expressing one's thoughts about a subject in your own words by using phrases that already exist or can be created based on their structure or meaning. This form of imitation is used in many different contexts within academic writing as well as within business documents and email messages. Paraphrasing may involve changing some details of the original text while keeping its main idea intact. This type of editing is often necessary when quoting large amounts of information or when addressing a specific audience that might not be familiar with all the details shared in the original work.

In other words , paraphrasing is taking something said or written by someone else and putting your own spin on it. There are two types of paraphrases: explicit and implicit.

About Article Author

Shelley Harris

Shelley Harris

Shelley Harris is an avid reader and writer. She loves to share her thoughts on books, writing, and more. Her favorite topics are publishing, marketing, and the freelance lifestyle.

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The Importance Of Paraphrasing

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Why paraphrasing is important?

What is the purpose of paraphrasing?

Paraphrasing is a unique skill that is quite difficult to capture and truly understand; thus it becomes one of the most important assets in any skilled writer. Writing anything can be difficult if you do not go through hundreds of thousands of hours of content. All this reading time can be put into your own words and be made into certainly something new. Going through tons of data leads to many thoughts of your own to be created because of your understanding of the subject. Even though this happens with everyone but still not all people can put their ideas into words. Thus, paraphrasing becomes an essential skill that everyone is looking to grasp.


The Oxford Dictionary defines paraphrasing as using your own words to express someone else’s message or ideas while conserving the message.

We have already mentioned in detail about what is paraphrasing? You can check out all about it right here .


Paraphrasing has become a part of our day to day lives because of the lack of creativity which is inherent in humans. There has already been so much development that it is physically impossible to create new ideologies for the average man at this stage. Paraphrasing has become an essential aspect of both jobs as well as in the lives of almost all students.

We all see paraphrasing in movies, song lyrics and television shows yet somehow they feel unique. Once someone masters the skill of paraphrasing someone else’s ideologies can also be portrayed in your own words without breaching copyrights. This is why the art of paraphrasing is quite relevant in the lives of students and for people who are working jobs which involves lots of writing.


The life of a student is filled with writing countless articles, research papers, thesis, assignments, etc. At some point, the students can run out of ideas of their own, and they might have to rely on the internet for getting some inspiration of their own. In the academic life of a student, the skill of paraphrasing becomes quite crucial to survive School and University.

Many research-oriented studies required students to spend hours on the Internet looking at different theories and facts which are later needed to be written down in their own words for projects. Not All students are capable of successfully doing the same and sometimes rely on reword tool or online freelancers who are skilled in paraphrasing. These skilled paraphrases can give an assurance of no plagiarism in the topics and thus lead to minimal mistakes.


In the corporate world, paraphrasing becomes important when people are looking forward to presenting new ideas every month. Business ideas need to be paraphrased to attract more consumers every year. Many companies have dedicated teams who work on such ideas and provide new taglines and business models which mostly have the same meaning.

Many jobs such as that of Writers require you to keep on pushing content every year. It is true that not all writers can strike gold twice with their novels. We still see writers being successful with almost every book of theirs because they pretty much recycle their content in new words with the acquired skill of paraphrasing.


Thus in conclusion paraphrasing is important because of the following reasons –

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Importance of paraphrasing and summarizing in research

A research paper is a piece of academic writing based on research-based data and gives a detailed study, appraisal, or conclusion of a particular topic. Conducting extensive research is necessary for writing in any form of content and for any audience.

After detailed research, you will have a complete idea about a topic. These different concepts or ideas broaden the mind of writers to write content by using two writing skills:

Paraphrasing is essential to show a solid understanding of the original piece of content because, in paraphrasing, you write content in your own words.

With the help of summarizing, students can learn to consider important topics and relevant data in a book or discard irrelevant concepts unrelated to those ideas. The objective of providing a summary of a theory or work is to offer context for your argument by concisely presenting the most important points of views.

You can paraphrase your content to make it unique in plagiarism-free content. You can also sum up your extensive data with the help of summarizing. These two methods help you in creating a unique piece of writing. In this article, we are going to discuss the importance of summarizing and paraphrasing in writing a research paper.

What Is Paraphrasing?

When you restate the meaning of sentences using your own words, It is called “paraphrasing .”When you paraphrase, you put anything that another person wrote into your own words to explain what they had written.

Writing it in your own words will help you make the message clear, more relevant to the audience, or give it more impact.

You can utilize already paraphrased content to create a more extensive research paper, but the content’s original meaning and length should be maintained. You can use paraphrasing tools to facilitate your writing process while writing a research paper. If you want to paraphrase well, and you have the ability to:

Importance of paraphrasing in research work

Helps in avoiding plagiarism.

When you rephrase anything in your own words instead of directly copying someone else’s words, you avoid the possibility of unintentionally copying someone else’s work while maintaining the ability to convey the meaning you want. Furthermore, it avoids any legal complications that may arise from someone for copyright infringement.

To paraphrase online effectively, you need to utilize your own words and come up with your concepts after researching a topic. This indicates that the reader will only get information from a single point of view, as opposed to the perspectives of several different sources.

The most prevalent kind of plagiarism is when students copy content from other works without giving credit to their original authors and then submit those passages as their work.

When you rephrase anything, you are writing content in your own words, which means that it is not an exact duplicate of the original content. This makes it much simpler to avoid committing this sort of plagiarism. So this helps in preventing plagiarism in research papers.

Able to Concentrate More on different Ideas

When you paraphrase another person’s work, you are not just copying and pasting the original text into your own work as it is. Because you are taking the important points and concepts and then writing them into your own words, you are improving your understanding of the concepts presented by the original author.

Your writing will also come across as more natural as a result of this, giving the impression that it was written by you rather than by another individual.

better understanding of the topic

When paraphrasing, you must rewrite the source content using your own words instead of the original ones.

This may assist you in better understanding the point that was stated as well as enhancing the quality of your own writing. In addition, by elaborating your thoughts, you can make it simpler for your audience to read and understand it.

Writers need to develop their paraphrasing skills. With the help of paraphrasing, you can write your research paper that is more understandable, precise, clear, and accurate.

Enhance the Quality of Your Writing.

You will improve your writing skills as a writer if you take the time to paraphrase your phrases properly. When it comes to text that has been paraphrased, you have the ability to avoid making blunders that are quite typical.

Make sure you find authentic sources to back up anything you assert in your essay, as readers are eager to discover the truth.

When you successfully paraphrase online, you not only ensure that the central meaning of the original content is conveyed, but you also avoid any potential confusion. This is crucial to remember, particularly if you are writing for a specific audience.

Paraphrasing improves your punctuation and grammar and avoids spelling mistakes. And you can easily convey your concepts to your audience naturally.

Help in proving arguments

A successful paraphrasing is an explanation or interpretation that you have given of the thoughts written by another person. In academic writing, paraphrasing is a valuable method for restating or clarifying the ideas presented by another author.

As a result, you need to make sure you use the right words to support your point. You can strongly prove your arguments when you use properly chosen phrases and paraphrase your content. So, you can strengthen your argument by using the paraphrasing strategy.

How do you paraphrase properly?

Read and make notes.

First, you should read the passage you want to paraphrase online carefully. Mark with a highlighter, underline or take notes on significant words and concepts that you need to keep in mind.

Use synonyms

Find other words or phrases that mean the same thing as the ones you’ve selected so that you may use them instead. This is what we call a synonym . It will be helpful to use a dictionary or thesaurus or do an internet search for this purpose.

You have to choose synonyms carefully because it is important to maintain the original text’s sense, especially when working with technical or scientific words.

Change parts of speech .

When using the paraphrasing method, the original nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs are changed into new parts of speech. This style of paraphrasing is highly useful for creating a unique piece of writing.

Change sentence Structure

Changing the structure of the sentence is required for better paraphrasing, which might result in the creation of a passive voice from an active voice or vice versa. You can cut down lengthy sentences into short and short sentences into longer ones. These techniques will give a new look to your content.

What is summarizing?

Summarizing results in a summary is a concise outline of the whole content or argument. You can describe a whole discussion or research paper in a single paragraph, or you can use a series of bullet points to do so while utilizing your own words and approach. Moreover, if you are unable to do that on your own, a summarizer tool can help you in it.

When the original content is lengthy, or when people want only important facts or arguments, then you need to summarize. In summaries, details, and examples that may divert the reader’s attention from the most relevant information are removed. Moreover, complex arguments, syntax, and terminology are reduced to their most basic components using summarizing tools.

Summarizing tools help you generate a summary of your text. A summarizer tool reduces your text up to 20% approx. Concluding your whole content.

When used appropriately, summarizing and paraphrasing will save you time, raise your level of comprehension, and provide you with high-quality content.

Importance of summarizing in research paper

The summary is a piece of content in which you eliminate irrelevant or unimportant text. You need to be able to extract essential points and important arguments in order to make your content the most effective and relevant to your topic. Let’s look at the factors that make summarizing a critical writing skill.

Extract importance points and arguments

In academia, it is common practice to write a summary of one’s argument and results to effectively extract and express the most important concepts.

You can effectively record your ideas by using summarization, which prevents you from being overwhelmed with the amount of content or losing essential aspects of what you want to say.

It is helpful for readers, especially those who don’t have enough time to read a complete paper. It offers a sufficient amount of information on the topic to enable one to get a more in-depth understanding of the topic.

Improved credibility of your work

When you summarize your content, not only will it add interest, but it will also provide more credibility to your research paper.

It helps you stay on track while conveying the most important information in a simple and easy-to-read structure. The reader won’t lose interest and skim over or avoid what you’ve written.

Gives a variety of perspectives on the topic

The skill to summarize offers many perspectives on a topic and is beneficial for a variety of other reasons as well. When you are writing a research paper, it will make managing time easier for you, and it will save you space by compressing ideas without reducing their value to the reader.

In addition, a summary makes it possible for others who aren’t already very knowledgeable about your study field to obtain the information. It broadens our understanding and provides us with fresh idea.

Gives access to relevant information

By summarizing, you will be able to present your readers with information that is both relevant and simple to understand. Your whole experience of learning a certain topic will improve as a result.

By summarizing, you are capable of effectively conveying your thoughts and concepts in a concise way. Readers can easily understand your point of view in a short time.

Draws attention to the most important points

A book or article should have a summary written of it so that the most important facts and arguments are communicated engagingly. You will achieve this goal by recognizing and discussing significant ideas needed to fully understand what was said.

Summarizing enables readers to get an understanding of the important points of an article without having to read the whole text. Anyone may have a better understanding of the important points that are discussed in the text.

This is because of the fact that the content is condensed into something that is simple for everyone to understand in a short time.

How do you summarize?

Read content carefully.

If you want to be sure that you understand a specific topic, you should read it more than once. Reading is broken up into three phases for maximum effectiveness:

Separating the text into its many subsections will make it easier to comprehend its various points and more manageable overall.

Suppose the piece of writing is scientific research that belongs to a typical conceptual model. It has most likely already been structured into clearly recognized sections due to the nature of the research. These sections often consist of an introduction, methods, findings, and discussion.

Determine the most important points of each section .

It is time to look over each part, identify relevant information, and remove irrelevant data. What information does your reader want in order to comprehend the general argument, as well as the conclusion, presented in the article?

Always remember that providing a summary does not need paraphrasing each paragraph of the original material. Your aim is to get the most important points from the text and write them in your own words.

Summarize whole content

After fully understanding the most important points that the author wants to convey, the next step is for you to restate these ideas using your own words in a natural way.

It is crucial to correctly summarize the author’s thoughts in order to prevent plagiarism, and it will show that you have a deep understanding of the topic. You are not permitted to copy and paste any portion of the article, not even just one or two sentences, or to paraphrase the whole content word for word.

Putting aside the article and writing down what you think are the most important points about the topic is the best method to write a summary. You can summarize your ideas in a paragraph or make bullet points. Using bullet points or numbered lists is an appropriate way to write a summary.

Paraphrasing and summarizing are two important writing skills that are very important while writing a research paper . Students must acquire the skills to accurately summarize and paraphrase to write content in their own words.

When you appropriately summarize and paraphrase your content, you can save your time, raise your level of understanding and provide your work with stronger credibility. Many online paraphrasing and summarizing tools will help you in writing a summary and paraphrasing a paragraph while maintaining the original meaning of the content.

Rayner Kiew

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plagiarism report

Prevent plagiarism, run a free plagiarism check.

The 5 Types of Plagiarism | Explanations & Examples

Published on January 10, 2022 by Raimo Streefkerk . Revised on July 5, 2022 by Jack Caulfield.

Plagiarism comes in many forms, some more severe than others—from rephrasing someone’s ideas without acknowledgement to stealing a whole essay. These are the five most common types of plagiarism:

Except for global plagiarism, these types of plagiarism are often accidental, resulting from failure to understand how to properly quote, paraphrase, and cite your sources. If you’re concerned about accidental plagiarism, a plagiarism checker , like the one from Scribbr, can help.

Table of contents

Global plagiarism: plagiarizing an entire text, verbatim plagiarism: copying words directly, paraphrasing plagiarism: rephrasing ideas, patchwork plagiarism: stitching together sources, self-plagiarism: plagiarizing your own work, frequently asked questions about plagiarism.

Global plagiarism means taking an entire text by someone else and passing it off as your own.

For example, if you get someone else to write an essay or assignment for you, or if you find a text online and submit it as your own work, you are committing global plagiarism.

Because it involves deliberately and directly lying about the authorship of a work, this is the most serious type of plagiarism, and it can have severe consequences .

Avoiding this kind of plagiarism is straightforward: just write your own essays!

Verbatim plagiarism, also called direct plagiarism, means copying and pasting someone else’s words into your own work without attribution.

This could be text that’s completely identical to the original or slightly altered. If the structure and the majority of the words are the same as in the original, this counts as verbatim plagiarism, even if you delete or change a couple of words.

In academic writing, you can and should refer to the words of others. To avoid verbatim plagiarism, you just need to quote the original source by putting the copied text in quotation marks and including an in-text citation . You can use the free Scribbr Citation Generator to create correctly formatted citations in MLA or APA Style .

Generate accurate citations with Scribbr

The Scribbr Citation Generator will automatically create a flawless APA citation

The Scribbr Citation Generator will automatically create a flawless citation

Most plagiarism checkers can easily detect verbatim plagiarism.

Example of verbatim plagiarism

Direct plagiarism detected by Turnitin

Prevent plagiarism. Run a free check.

Paraphrasing means putting a piece of text into your own words. Paraphrasing without citation is the most common type of plagiarism.

Paraphrasing, like quoting, is a legitimate way to incorporate the ideas of others into your writing. It only becomes plagiarism when you rewrite a source’s points as if they were your own. To avoid plagiarism when paraphrasing, cite your sources just as you would when quoting.

If you translate a piece of text from another language without citation, this is also a type of paraphrasing plagiarism. Translated text should always be cited; you’re still using someone else’s ideas, even if they’re in a different language.

Example of paraphrasing

Patchwork plagiarism, also called mosaic plagiarism, means copying phrases, passages, and ideas from different sources and putting them together to create a new text.

This can involve slightly rephrasing passages while keeping many of the same words and the same basic structure as the original, and inserting your own words here and there to stitch the plagiarized text together. Make sure to cite your sources whenever you quote or paraphrase to avoid plagiarism.

This type of plagiarism requires more effort and is more insidious than just copying and pasting from one source, but plagiarism checkers like Turnitin can still easily detect it.

Example of patchwork plagiarism

Patchwork plagiarism detected by Turnitin

Self-plagiarism means reusing work that you’ve previously submitted or published. It amounts to academic dishonesty to present a paper or a piece of data as brand new when you’ve already gotten credit for the work.

The most serious form of self-plagiarism is to turn in a paper you already submitted for a grade to another class. Unless you have explicit permission to do so, this is always considered self-plagiarism.

Self-plagiarism can also occur when you reuse ideas, phrases or data from your previous assignments. Reworking old ideas and passages is not plagiarism as long as you have permission to do so and you cite your previous work to make their origins clear.

Scribbr’s Self-Plagiarism Checker

Online plagiarism scanners don’t have access to internal university databases and therefore can’t check your document for self-plagiarism.

Using Scribbr’s Self-Plagiarism Checker , you can upload your previous work and compare it to your current document. The checker will scan the texts for similarities and flag any passages where you might have self-plagiarized.

Global plagiarism means taking an entire work written by someone else and passing it off as your own. This can mean getting someone else to write an essay or assignment for you, or submitting a text you found online as your own work.

Global plagiarism is the most serious type of plagiarism because it involves deliberately and directly lying about the authorship of a work. It can have severe consequences .

To ensure you aren’t accidentally plagiarizing, consider running your work through plagiarism checker tool prior to submission. These tools work by using advanced database software to scan for matches between your text and existing texts.

Scribbr’s Plagiarism Checker takes less than 10 minutes and can help you turn in your paper with confidence.

Verbatim plagiarism means copying text from a source and pasting it directly into your own document without giving proper credit.

Even if you delete a few words or replace them with synonyms, it still counts as verbatim plagiarism.

To use an author’s exact words, quote the original source by putting the copied text in quotation marks and including an in-text citation .

If you’re worried abotu plagiarism, consider running your work through a plagiarism checker tool prior to submission, which work by using advanced database software to scan for matches between your text and existing texts.

Paraphrasing without crediting the original author is a form of plagiarism , because you’re presenting someone else’s ideas as if they were your own.

However, paraphrasing is not plagiarism if you correctly cite the source . This means including an in-text citation and a full reference, formatted according to your required citation style .

As well as citing, make sure that any paraphrased text is completely rewritten in your own words.

Patchwork plagiarism (aka mosaic plagiarism) means copying phrases, passages, or ideas from various existing sources and combining them to create a new text. While this type of plagiarism is more insidious than simply copy-pasting directly from a source, plagiarism checkers like Turnitin’s can still easily detect it.

To avoid plagiarism in any form, remember to cite your sources . Also consider running your work through a plagiarism checker tool prior to submission, which work by using advanced database software to scan for matches between your text and existing texts.

Yes, reusing your own work without acknowledgment is considered self-plagiarism . This can range from re-submitting an entire assignment to reusing passages or data from something you’ve turned in previously without citing them.

Self-plagiarism often has the same consequences as other types of plagiarism . If you want to reuse content you wrote in the past, make sure to check your university’s policy or consult your professor.

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.

Streefkerk, R. (2022, July 05). The 5 Types of Plagiarism | Explanations & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved March 16, 2023, from

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Raimo Streefkerk

Raimo Streefkerk

Other students also liked, what is self-plagiarism | definition & how to avoid it, how to avoid plagiarism | tips on citing sources, consequences of mild, moderate & severe plagiarism, what is your plagiarism score.


Mar 30, 2017

Why is Paraphrasing Important?

One of the most important and crucial aspects of writing is paraphrasing. People hire online paraphrasing service in order to get their research papers, documents and other academic yet non-academic work paraphrased for a better impact. It is important because it helps the student to get the idea of the written work in a better and more refined way so that they are able to write it in their own words and still not lose the essence and the core meaning of it. It enables the students to polish their own creativity and showcase their skill of writing while remaining confined to the meaning of the original work.

Not every writer can paraphrase and it is an art however to paraphrase the work is an ability everyone can try their luck at.

For students:

In academic field, paraphrasing is an important skill to be mastered by the students because it helps them to get through many research papers, thesis, projects and other assignments in a smooth and organized manner. Many subjects need thorough study and producing own notes. In this case the students have to go through hours of labor to get the relevant knowledge and then reproduce it at various levels. In this case paraphrasing is of core importance so that they can regenerate authentic work and also must not quote the work of the original author to avoid repetition. Students also get the help of professionals of essay paraphrasing, assignment writers and other professional paraphrasing sites in order to get their work done in a more fruitful and reliable way without the chances of any mistakes.

For office work and business related tasks:

The success of any business depends on many factors in which, good marketing is of great importance. If your publicity skills, your proposals, your memorandums and other business deals are unique, attractive and of authentic yet appealing content, chances of success are higher than ever. Various companies hire professional paraphrasing teams in order to get their work done. This way you can keep the essence of the original work and also can set a high bar for the competitors in the field. Paraphrasing help you renovate your documents and official paperwork without losing the main idea and the core originality of the strategies thus, newer plans are reproduce in a way that can appeal more clients and help the business grow and flourish more .

This shows the importance of paraphrasing in the corporate world and in the academic field, it is clear that both the walks need it as an important tool for better results.

More from Paraphraser

Paraphraser works as a paraphrasing assistant only. Paraphrasing involves rewriting or rephrasing the text to make it different from the source yet retaining it

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Why Punctuation Is Important. The Importance Of Punctuation.

Why Punctuation Is Important_featured image

Punctuation is an important set of symbols used to help make the meaning of sentences clearer, such as periods, commas, and semicolons. Grammar refers to the rules for how words should be put together in order to form correct sentences.

Punctuating your sentences will also help you avoid making embarrassing mistakes like running two sentences together with no space between them.

Table of Contents

Are punctuation and grammar the same thing?

Many people think that punctuation and grammar are the same thing, while others know they are two different things.

Grammar on the other hand deals with structure; it consists of word order and choices that we make while writing our sentences so that everything flows together smoothly without any confusion between ideas.

The most common punctuation marks are periods, question and exclamation points, commas, semicolons, colons, brackets [ ], ellipses … These can be combined to produce a variety of effects.

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How to use a period in a sentence

It’s common for people to say “full stop” when they want someone else to use punctuation in general and not just periods.

How to use a comma in a sentence

The most commonly recognized style of using a comma is as follows:

Commas are often overlooked, but they can make a huge impact on the meaning of your sentence. Did you know that there is an exception to every rule?

If there were no comma between “eggs” and “potatoes,” for example, someone reading your recipe might think they’re making eggs with potatoes instead of just eggs or potatoes separately.

How to use a semicolon in a sentence

Semicolon usage is widely debated among grammar experts, but there is one thing that most agree on: semicolons should never be overused.

Are punctuation marks inside of quotation marks?

Exceptions include periods, dashes, colons and semicolons which often go outside these symbols. Question marks and exclamation points can be found on either side of the quote depending on context.

Are punctuation marks necessary in writing dialogue?

Punctuation marks are often the key to telling the reader what is happening in a sentence. Without punctuation, it can be difficult to discern who is talking or where they are.

Do punctuation marks create tone?

Semicolons indicate that two statements have been separated into separate ideas though these cannot exist without introducing another thought.

Punctuation can change the meaning of a sentence

A light-hearted look at how punctuation can change meaning

When did punctuation become standardized?

These marks help make reading easier because it tells you when there is an emphasis on one word versus another within text.

Does punctuation in text messages matter?

Punctuation can help us make sure that somebody is reading correctly so there are no misunderstandings because some words may have different meanings if used incorrectly.

Should punctuation be italicized?

Should punctuation be used in bullet points.

Many people argue that punctuation should be used in bullet points. However, there are those who believe that it is not necessary to use punctuation and they say that a list of bulleted items can be easily understood without any commas or periods.

Should punctuation be bolded?

This new rule makes it easier to read for people who are reading faster than normal speed by removing unnecessary confusion with differing fonts.

What punctuation is used to introduce a list?

Other methods include using parentheses, brackets, dashes, or asterisks; all have their own particular uses and should be used depending on the situation.

Popular Questions Asked:

Why is punctuation so important, what is the importance of punctuation marks and capitalization, does punctuation marks play important role in writing.

Punctuation is important to the structure of sentences. Without it, most meaning can be lost in a simple typo or misplaced comma.

Resources relating to the importance of punctuation:

Importance of punctuation in research papers (part 1) – enago, why you should consider the importance of punctuation, punctuation – niu – effective writing practices tutorial, the basics of punctuation | skillsyouneed, the importance of punctuation in writing an essay..

University of New Haven

Paraphrasing, Summarizing, and Quoting

By: Selena Soto

When we integrate information from our sources into our writing, we usually utilize paraphrasing, summarizing, or quoting, and in some cases a combination of all three. Utilizing these three tools in our writing is also important in regards to how we analyze and synthesize our information. Before I go into describing the difference between the three, when to use them, and how to effectively incorporate them into your writing, it is important to explore why we use them in the first place.

We use paraphrasing, summarizing, and quoting for a variety of reasons that include (John E. Mayfield Library, 2014):

There is a clear difference between paraphrasing, summarizing, and quoting but they do share some rules in common if you are going to utilize them. The first rule that they share in common is that when using these three tools you need to reference the original source that you are taking information from. The second rule that they share in common is that when you are referencing the original source that you are drawing information from, you need to include in-text citations in your writing in the appropriate styling format you are being asked to use (Ex. APA, MLA, etc.) If you need to refresh your memory or need some guidance on how to successfully include in-text citations in your writing, I have included a link below to Purdue Owl Writing Lab (OWL), a highly recommended source.

Source: Purdue OWL // Purdue Writing Lab

Below I have included a table that discusses the major difference between paraphrasing, summarizing, and quoting that I found on a website and thought was super helpful:

(Table from Custom Essay Meister, 2019)


You should paraphrase in your writing: (George Mason University The Writing Center, 2021):

How to paraphrase (The University of Arizona Global Campus Writing Center, 2021):

Example (University of Connecticut Library Guides, 2020):

(Replacing a few words and not writing it in your own words is considered plagiarism)

For more information on the Do’s and Don’ts of Paraphrasing check out the link below:

Source: How to Paraphrase: Dos, Don’ts, and Strategies for Success | Scribendi


You should summarize when (George Mason University The Writing Center, 2021):

How to summarize (The University of Arizona Global Campus Writing Center, 2021):

Original Source:

(Randler, C. (2009). Proactive people are morning people. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 39(12), 2787-2797.)

Summarized Version:

You should use quoting in your writing when:

Use the ICE method (Introduce, Cite, and Explain) method when you are quoting (The University of Arizona Global Campus Writing Center, 2021):

Example (APA format):

I hope that this this was helpful and here is a friendly reminder that YOU GOT THIS!!!

Reference (In APA Format):

Inc, S. (n.d.). How to PARAPHRASE: Dos, DON’TS, and strategies for success. Retrieved March 07, 2021, from

Custom Essay Meister. (2019). Quote vs paraphrase vs summary. Retrieved March 07, 2021, from

George Mason University.(n.d.). When to summarize, paraphrase, and quote. Retrieved March 07, 2021, from

John E. Mayfield Library. (2014). Online library workshops: Quoting, paraphrasing and summarizing.  Retrieved March 07, 2021, from

The University of Arizona Global Campus Writing Center (n.d.). Quoting, paraphrasing, & summarizing.Retrieved March 07, 2021, from

University of Connecticut. (n.d.). Understand citations: Quoting, paraphrasing, summarizing. Retrieved March 07, 2021, from


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discuss the importance of paraphrasing 5 marks

Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing

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This handout is intended to help you become more comfortable with the uses of and distinctions among quotations, paraphrases, and summaries. This handout compares and contrasts the three terms, gives some pointers, and includes a short excerpt that you can use to practice these skills.

What are the differences among quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing?

These three ways of incorporating other writers' work into your own writing differ according to the closeness of your writing to the source writing.

Quotations must be identical to the original, using a narrow segment of the source. They must match the source document word for word and must be attributed to the original author.

Paraphrasing involves putting a passage from source material into your own words. A paraphrase must also be attributed to the original source. Paraphrased material is usually shorter than the original passage, taking a somewhat broader segment of the source and condensing it slightly.

Summarizing involves putting the main idea(s) into your own words, including only the main point(s). Once again, it is necessary to attribute summarized ideas to the original source. Summaries are significantly shorter than the original and take a broad overview of the source material.

Why use quotations, paraphrases, and summaries?

Quotations, paraphrases, and summaries serve many purposes. You might use them to:

Writers frequently intertwine summaries, paraphrases, and quotations. As part of a summary of an article, a chapter, or a book, a writer might include paraphrases of various key points blended with quotations of striking or suggestive phrases as in the following example:

In his famous and influential work The Interpretation of Dreams , Sigmund Freud argues that dreams are the "royal road to the unconscious" (page #), expressing in coded imagery the dreamer's unfulfilled wishes through a process known as the "dream-work" (page #). According to Freud, actual but unacceptable desires are censored internally and subjected to coding through layers of condensation and displacement before emerging in a kind of rebus puzzle in the dream itself (page #).

How to use quotations, paraphrases, and summaries

Practice summarizing the essay found here , using paraphrases and quotations as you go. It might be helpful to follow these steps:

There are several ways to integrate quotations into your text. Often, a short quotation works well when integrated into a sentence. Longer quotations can stand alone. Remember that quoting should be done only sparingly; be sure that you have a good reason to include a direct quotation when you decide to do so. You'll find guidelines for citing sources and punctuating citations at our documentation guide pages.

How to Paraphrase (Without Plagiarizing a Thing)

Matt Ellis

A paraphrase (or paraphrasing) is a restatement of another piece of writing with new words or phrases while keeping the same meaning, usually to modify the language or simply  avoid plagiarism . For example, Shakespeare’s famous line, “To be or not to be,” could be paraphrased as, “Is it better to exist or not exist at all?” 

Paraphrasing is an important communication technique, especially in research papers , to avoid copying an original source verbatim. However, learning how to paraphrase can take some practice, so below we explain what you need to know, starting with a simple paraphrase definition. 

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What is paraphrasing? 

Paraphrasing takes an original passage and uses different words or phrases to express the same meaning. Essentially, a paraphrase just rewrites the original text in its own way. 

A paraphrase always uses unique wording, something you come up with that’s different from the original source. Because they’re unique, paraphrases do not require  quotation marks as direct quotes do. 

What is the purpose of paraphrasing? 

Why bother paraphrasing when you can just quote the primary or secondary source? With a variety of benefits, paraphrasing comes in handy in quite a few different situations. In particular, here are six common reasons to paraphrase:

1 Improve word choice

Sometimes you just want to rewrite the original text in your own words—maybe you want to fit it to your personal writing style, or perhaps you just prefer your own  word choice . In any case, paraphrasing gives you the chance to pick your own words or phrases while keeping the core of the message the same. 

2 Change subject matter

Paraphrasing is very useful if you like the wording of the original passage but want to change the subject to apply to something else. For example, Will Rogers’s famous quote, “I never met a man I didn’t like,” is often paraphrased, sometimes humorously, as in comedian Jim Gaffigan saying, “I never met a cheeseburger I didn’t like.” 

3 Avoid plagiarizing

Rewriting someone’s text without changing the words is plagiarism. If you want to repeat a sentiment or cite another person’s research, you have to at least put it into your own words or quote it directly, but overusing quotes can also be problematic, as we see below.

4 Avoid overusing quotes

Quotations are great when the author said it best themselves, but use too many quotes and you’re essentially just copying someone else’s work. If you’re constantly referencing others’ works, it’s best to switch between paraphrasing and direct quotes to make a piece of writing your own. 

5 Avoid problematic language

Occasionally, the language in a direct quote won’t fit what you’re writing. Often this is a mechanical mistake, such as a partial quote with the wrong  subject-verb agreement or gender pronoun . 

Other times, it could be insensitive or outdated language. For example, the famous (albeit antiquated) line “a good man is hard to find” can be paraphrased more modernly as “a good partner is hard to find.” 

6 Shorten lengthy quotes

Last, paraphrasing works wonders when you need to condense a long, verbose quote to make it more digestible. Some writers get paid by the word, so to speak, but if you’re writing something meant to be concise, you can paraphrase their original text more succinctly. 

What is the difference between paraphrasing and summarizing?

Paraphrasing and summarizing are two similar and related ideas, so it makes sense that they’re often confused with each other. 

To tell them apart, think of them like this: Paraphrasing is putting an individual passage into your own words while summarizing is putting a text or passage’s main idea, theme, or story into your own words. 

Summarizing deals with the big picture, such as an entire body of work or a complete chapter, while paraphrasing deals with specific passages, from a few words to a few paragraphs, but nothing terribly lengthy. Summaries are always shorter than their original source, but paraphrases are typically around the same length as, if not slightly shorter than, their source. 

Another distinction is that summaries tend to gloss over the details, as we mentioned when explaining how to write a summary , whereas paraphrases can still incorporate everything, as long as it’s reworded. 

How to paraphrase, with examples

Paraphrasing is one of the  five most effective methods for avoiding plagiarism , but how do you say the same thing without using the same words? Here are some simple strategies that we suggest in combination for effective paraphrasing: 

1 Use synonyms  

Replace the essential words of an original passage with other words that mean the same thing, such as using “scientist” for “researcher,” or “seniors” for “the elderly.” This is a common approach to paraphrasing, but it’s not sufficient on its own. Combine this strategy with some of the others below to make your writing appear fresh. 

Original text: 

Some plants release certain aromas to alert their plant neighbors that they’re under attack. 

Paraphrase : 

Some vegetation emits special scents to warn other plants that there’s danger nearby. 

2 Change the parts of speech

Sometimes, you can rephrase a sentence by changing the parts of speech, such as converting a  gerund into the operative verb, or turning an adjective into an adverb . This strategy depends on the wording of the original passage, so you may not always have the opportunity; we also suggest using this in combination with other strategies here for more original writing. 

Polar bears are almost undetectable by infrared cameras because of how they conserve heat.


Polar bears cannot be detected easily by infrared cameras due to their unique heat conservation. 

3 Rearrange the structure

You can switch around the order of certain phrases and clauses—or mix and match them from other sentences—to create brand new sentences. Although it may be tempting to use the  passive voice when paraphrasing, try to avoid it unless there’s no other option. 

The observable universe consists of 50,000,000,000 galaxies.

Fifty billion galaxies comprise the known universe. 

4 Add or remove pieces

If a part of a quote isn’t relevant to what you’re writing about, you can remove it and paraphrase the remainder in your own words. Likewise, you can add your own personal take to an existing quote to help contextualize it or adapt it to your topic. In either case, make sure you still reword whatever comes from the original source. 

Human eyes get used to darkness after an hour, but by then they’ll be 100,000 times more sensitive to light.

If you sit in a dark room, your eyes will eventually adjust and become 100,000 times more sensitive to light—but be careful when you turn on the light again!

Paraphrasing FAQs

Have specific questions about paraphrasing and how to paraphrase? You’re not alone! Here are some frequently asked questions about paraphrasing by others just like you. 

What is paraphrasing?

Paraphrasing is restating another author’s original text in your own words. In essence, it is a new piece of writing with the same meaning, as opposed to a direct quotation from an existing piece of writing. 

What is an example of paraphrasing? 

The original passage from the US Declaration of Independence, “All men are created equal,” can be paraphrased in a more progressive way as “All people are created equal.” 

How do you paraphrase a sentence?

Some common techniques for paraphrasing involve using synonyms, changing the parts of speech, rearranging the sentence structure, and adding/removing specific sections. 

What makes a good paraphrase?

A good paraphrase has the same meaning as the original source, but with new words or phrases. It’s best for taking another author’s sentiments and expressing them in your own personal style.

Ensure your writing is original

When writing essays, research papers, and other academic writing assignments, you’re expected to turn in documents that are wholly original and in your own words. However, unintentional plagiarism is a risk many students face. Enter Grammarly’s plagiarism detector , which checks your writing against 90 billion online texts to flag any instances of unoriginal wording. Writing with Grammarly helps you avoid plagiarism and get better grades in the process.

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When to Summarize, Paraphrase, and Quote


Summaries are significantly shorter than the original material, and they take a broad overview of the source material as a whole. Summary must be cited with in-text citations and on your reference page.

Summarize when:

You want to establish background or offer an overview of a topic

You want to describe knowledge (from several sources) about a topic

You want to determine the main ideas of a single source


Paraphrasing is stating an idea or passage in your own words. You must significantly change the wording, phrasing, and sentence structure (not just a few words here and there) of the source. These also must be noted with in-text citations and the reference page.

Paraphrase when:

You want to clarify a short passage from a text

You want to avoid overusing quotations

You want to explain a point when exact wording isn’t important

You want to explain the main points of a passage

You want to report numerical data or statistics (preferred in APA papers)

Quotations are the exact words of an author, copied directly from a source, word for word. Quotations must appear with quotation marks, and they need to be cited with in-text citations and on the reference page.

Use quotations when:

You want to add the power of an author’s words to support your argument

You want to disagree with an author’s argument

You want to highlight particularly eloquent or powerful phrases or passages

You are comparing and contrasting specific points of view

You want to note the important research that precedes your own

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Summarizing and Paraphrasing in Academic Writing

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“It’s none of their business that you have to learn to write. Let them think you were born that way.” – Ernest Hemingway

Plato considers art (and therefore writing) as being mimetic in nature. Writing in all forms and for all kinds of audience involves thorough research. Often, there is a grim possibility that an idea you considered novel has already been adequately explored; however, this also means there are multiple perspectives to explore now and thereby to learn from.

Being inspired by another’s idea opens up a world of possibilities and thus several ways to incorporate and assimilate them in writing, namely, paraphrasing , summarizing, and quoting . However, mere incorporation does not bring writing alive and make it appealing to readers . The incorporation of various ideas must reflect the writer’s understanding and interpretation of them as well.

What is Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing in Academic Writing?

Purdue OWL defines these devices of representation quite succinctly:


Therefore, paraphrasing and summarizing consider broader segments of the main text, while quotations are brief segments of a source. Further, paraphrasing involves expressing the ideas presented from a particular part of a source (mostly a passage) in a condensed manner, while summarizing involves selecting a broader part of a source (for example, a chapter in a book or an entire play) and stating the key points. In spite of subtle variations in representation, all three devices when employed must be attributed to the source to avoid plagiarism .

Related: Finished drafting your manuscript? Check these resources to avoid plagiarism now!

Why is it Important to Quote, Paraphrase, and Summarize?

Quotations, paraphrases, and summaries serve the purpose of providing evidence to sources of your manuscript. It is important to quote, paraphrase, and summarize for the following reasons:


Quotations are exact representations of a source, which can either be a written one or spoken words. Quotes imbue writing with an authoritative tone and can provide reliable and strong evidence. However, quoting should be employed sparingly to support and not replace one’s writing.

How Do You Quote?


Paraphrasing is the manner of presenting a text by altering certain words and phrases of a source while ensuring that the paraphrase reflects proper understanding of the source. It can be useful for personal understanding of complex concepts and explaining information present in charts, figures , and tables .

How Do You Paraphrase?


Summarizing involves presenting an overview of a source by omitting superfluous details and retaining only the key essence of the ideas conveyed.

How Do You Summarize?

“Nature creates similarities. One need only think of mimicry. The highest capacity for producing similarities, however, is man’s. His gift of seeing resemblances is nothing other than a rudiment of the powerful compulsion in former times to become and behave like something else.” –Walter Benjamin

Quoting vs Paraphrasing vs Summarizing

Research thrives as a result of inspiration from and assimilation of novel concepts. However, do ensure that when developing and enriching your own research, proper credit is provided to the origin . This can be achieved by using plagiarism checker tool and giving due credit in case you have missed it earlier.


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nice work and useful advises… thank you for being with students

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Paraphrasing, Summarising and Quoting

Much of the work you produce at university will involve the important ideas, writings and discoveries of experts in your field of study. Quoting, paraphrasing and summarising are all different ways of including the works of others in your assignments.

Paraphrasing and summarising allow you to develop and demonstrate your understanding and interpretation of the major ideas/concepts of your discipline, and to  avoid plagiarism.

Paraphrasing and summarising require analytical and writing skills which are crucial to success at university.

What are the differences?



What is a quotation?  

A quotation is an exact reproduction of spoken or written words. Quotes can provide strong evidence, act as an authoritative voice, or support a writer's statements. For example:

Bell and Bell (1993) point out in their study of Australian-American cultural relations: "culture is never simply imposed 'from above' but is negotiated through existing patterns and traditions." (Bell & Bell 1993, p. 9)

Use a quote:

How to quote

Quoting should be done sparingly and support your own work, not replace it. For example, make a point in your own words, then support it with an authoritative quote.


What is paraphrasing.

Paraphrasing is a way of using different words and phrasing to present the same ideas. Paraphrasing is used with short sections of text, such as phrases and sentences.

A paraphrase offers an alternative to using direct quotations and allows you to integrate evidence/source material into assignments. Paraphrasing can also be used for note-taking and explaining information in tables, charts and diagrams.

When to paraphrase

Paraphrase short sections of work only i.e. a sentence or two or a short paragraph:

How to paraphrase


What is a summary.

A summary is an overview of a text. The main aim of summarising is to reduce or condense a text to its most important ideas. Leave out details, examples and formalities. Summarising is a useful skill for making notes, writing an abstract/synopsis, and incorporating material in assignments.

When to summarise

Summarise long sections of work, like a long paragraph, page or chapter. 

How to summarise

The amount of detail you include in a summary will vary according to the length of the original text, how much information you need, and how selective you are.

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Effective Paraphrasing Strategies

Using evidence: effective paraphrasing strategies.

Paraphrasing Sources Videos

Related resources.

If you are having trouble paraphrasing a text effectively, try following these steps:

Have I accurately addressed the author's ideas in a new way that is unique to my writing style and scholarly voice? Have I tried to replicate the author's idea or have I simply changed words around in his/her original sentence(s)?

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Paraphrasing Worksheets

Related ela standard: w.5.8.

When we have a serious task in front of us it is often helpful to reflect on work that has already been performed by others. Why reinvent the wheel or fire? We will often summarize a body of work to put the thoughts of an author in our own words. This means that we took the main points the author put forward and just redirected them. Paraphrasing is when you pinpoint an exact section of an author's words and make sense of them by putting them in your own words. You will want to paraphrase when you feel the need to clarify a short text based reading passage. It is also helpful when you are writing research pieces where you want to avoid using quotations too much. These worksheets will ask you to both summarize and paraphrase the work of other authors.

Paraphrasing Worksheets:

In Summary - You will need a 4-5 page reading passage to go along with this organizer. Write the text's main idea in one sentence. Then write only the important details that explain the main idea. Use your own words as much as possible.

Paraphrasing - You'll need more text for this one. Read the text twice, to make sure you understand it. Now set the text aside. In the thought bubble write down what you remember, in your own words, answering the questions who, what, where, when, why and how. Then use your notes to paraphrase the text on the lines.

Summarizing from your Sources - All parts of research are broken down here. When you take notes while doing research, write down only the important information and ideas. Use your own words. Be sure to make a note of each source.

Summarizing - Can you get it all in one sentence? What is the most important detail in the mix?

Summary | Paraphrase - This does flow nice. Many teachers use this as a template for their classes. It helps you get a handle on both skills in one nice worksheet.

Fishing For Information - Write the text's main idea in one sentence. Then write only the important details that explain the main idea.

Keep it Short! - Write the text's main idea in one sentence. Then write only the important details that explain the main idea. Use your own words as much as possible.

Paraphrasing - When you paraphrase, you write the ideas from the text in your own words.

Writing a Summary - Write the text's main idea in one sentence. Then write only the important details that explain the main idea.

Out for Pizza - Write the text's main idea in one sentence. Then write only the important details that explain the main idea.

In Your Own Words... - When you paraphrase, you write the ideas from the text in your own words.

Short and Sweet - Write the text's main idea in one sentence. Then write only the important details that explain the main idea.

Sharing Great Ideas - Read the text twice, to make sure you understand it. Now set the text aside.

Trick or Treat - In your own words, answer the questions who, what, where, when, why and how. Then use your notes to paraphrase the text on the lines.

The Mechanics - You will be given a reading passage about gardening that you will put your skills to work for.

Plotting - Complete all of the sentences by choosing the proper wording.

Paraphrase vs. Summarize - We compare and contrast the two closely related concepts.

Introduction - This is perfect for class discussions where you introduce the topic. It can also be used as a review worksheet.

True or False - We cover some serious detail on this technique in here.

Practice Passage - You will be given an detailed example to work off of and then asked to use this technique with a reading passage.

Citing Sheet - This is a great note sheet to have handy.

Article Practice - Find an article in a print periodical that you want to read. Read the article. Then choose a passage from the article that you find particular interesting and paraphrase it.

Inaugural Address - You read John F. Kennedy's 1961 address and reference it in your own work.

Three Things - As you conduct your research, fill out the questionnaire for each of your sources.

Fiction - We look at how to apply this skill to fictional works.

Passage Breakdown - This worksheet walks you through the steps you need to take to apply this skill to an assigned reading passage.

Sentences - You will paraphrase a series of sentences.

Explain the Concept - Why is it an important technique to learn?

Exercises - Flex your muscles and get some real quality work in on this worksheet.

What is Paraphrasing?

One of the most common tasks assigned to students in their initial stages of learning is paraphrasing. Paraphrasing is the practice of rewriting a text in your own words without adding anything to it or removing anything from the original text. While this may be aimed at strengthening the written skills of students from an early age, learning paraphrasing becomes inevitable after one reaches a stage where they have to cite and add someone else's works in their own research to substantiate their work with suitable evidences.

The Process of Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is an important academic skill a student must acquire. In order to paraphrase any text, one has to thoroughly and carefully read it twice or even more times. The purpose of such a detailed reading is to understand the text to its very core, ensuring that no chunk of information in the actual text is left unnoticed. Once careful reading is done, the person has to rewrite the whole idea in his or her own words. This rewriting does not merely mean using synonyms for words in the original text, but also includes changing sentence structure, making ideas more clear and easier to understand, and can also be a total different sequence of sub-ideas put down to ultimately convey the exact sense as has been conveyed by the original text.

What Makes a Paraphrased Text Excellent?

There are a few points to be kept in mind while paraphrasing anything to make sure that the text has been excellently paraphrased. A good paraphrased text only includes ideas that were there in the actual text and there is no addition or subtraction of ideas by the one who is paraphrasing. It is simple and cited without any personal ideas being narrated by the second author.

How To Paraphrase Properly

If your work or degree revolves around submitting written content, you probably already understand the importance of proper paraphrasing. In today's world, one can find ample information online on every possible topic. Although this can help gather data for your work, it makes writing an original piece of content extremely challenging.

Submitting poorly paraphrased work can lead to your work being categorized as plagiarized. Plagiarism is a serious offense in many countries worldwide and can cancel your admission and degree and even affect your job.

Paraphrasing or rephrasing is the use of different words, expressions, phrases, and texts to restate a passage or concept while keeping the gist of the content the same.

Paraphrasing is often used by students, writers, and professional content creators to avoid plagiarism and produce an original written piece of work. Not only does paraphrasing help avoid the consequences of submitting plagiarized work, but it also helps an individual gain recognition as a writer with good work ethic who respects intellectual property.

Step 1: Spend Time Reading the Passage Carefully

There is nothing wrong with using a book or internet sources to write your content, as a one person can't know everything. However, you must respect the original writer's intellectual property and refrain from copying their work as your own.

Instead, to paraphrase the information, spend time reading the passage carefully. Read the content three to four times before you start penning down the information. Doing so will help you understand the main concept or the gist of the information.

Step 2: Pen Down the Key Ideas

Once you have read the content thoroughly and have gained insight into the author's words, the next step is to pen down the key ideas or concepts on a rough piece of paper. Although many writers tend to skip this step, doing this will greatly help you structure your work with greater coherence.

Step 3: Get to Writing

Keep the paper containing the key ideas before you and get to writing. For this step, refrain from looking at the author's original work and stick to the key ideas you have penned down. Doing so will make help you write as originally as possible.

Step 4: Compare Your Work with The Original Text

Once you are done writing, compare what you have written with the original text. This step is not to copy the author's tone or expression; instead, it is to make any necessary factual or conceptual adjustments.

Step 5: Provide Accurate Citations

To write as ethically as possible, never forget to give credit to the source that helped you produce your content. Remember to provide proper citations for all the papers, journals, online sources, etc., that you used to complete your task.

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A handbook for students, search form, avoiding plagiarism - paraphrasing.

In writing papers, you will paraphrase more than you will quote. For a report or research paper, you may need to gather background information that is important to the paper but not worthy of direct quotation. Indeed, in technical writing direct quotation is rarely used.

Exactly what does "paraphrase" mean?

It means taking the words of another source and restating them, using your own vocabulary. In this way, you keep the meaning of the original text, but do not copy its exact wording.

What strategies can I use to paraphrase?

Use synonyms for all words that are not generic. Words like world, food, or science are so basic to our vocabulary that is difficult to find a synonym.

Change the structure of the sentence.

Change the voice from active to passive and vice versa.    

Change clauses to phrases and vice versa.

Change parts of speech.

A good paraphrase combines a number of strategies: the goal is to rephrase the information so that it appears in your words, not those of the author.

Example 4: Using Multiple Strategies to Paraphrase

Example 5: Unacceptable Paraphrase


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  1. Paraphrase & Quotation (ELL)

    Students will be able to convey accurately the meaning of an academic text and avoid plagiarism by paraphrasing and quoting effectively. Key Terms plagiarism, paraphrase, quotation, summary, citation, attribution, academic misconduct Timing Introduce these concepts to students at the start of WR 111 Unit 2, "Writing for and with Others."

  2. 8 Key Points: Discuss the Importance of Paraphrasing

    Eight Important Reasons to Paraphrase 1. Enhances Memory Performance 2. Organizes the Mind 3. to Drive Home the Point 4. Acts As a Confidence Booster 5. Enhances Good Communication 6. Decreases the Need for Quotes 7. Puts an Argument in Its Proper Place 8. Shortens a Long Read To Wrap Up

  3. How to Paraphrase

    Paraphrasing is an alternative to quoting (copying someone's exact words and putting them in quotation marks ). In academic writing, it's usually better to integrate sources by paraphrasing instead of quoting. It shows that you have understood the source, reads more smoothly, and keeps your own voice front and center.

  4. Techniques for effective paraphrasing

    Paraphrasing is most effective and useful when you think about it as a way to explain someone else's ideas in relation to, or in the context of, your own argument. Getting started When writers are new to paraphrasing, they might think it's acceptable to simply substitute certain words with synonyms.

  5. Why Is Paraphrasing Important?

    Finally, paraphrasing is important because it helps you develop your own thought process and analyze different perspectives on issues that may not have been considered before. This ability is valuable in itself, but it is especially necessary when you are trying to create original content.

  6. The Importance Of Paraphrasing

    The Importance of Using Paraphrase Paraphrasing is a way of referencing a source without directly quoting it or of further explaining a selected quote. Correct paraphrasing is important in that poor paraphrasing can result in accusations of plagiarism, or copying from a source without correctly citing it.

  7. Why is paraphrasing important?

    Answer (1 of 13): When writing your own essay/paper, you are trying to convey your ideas and thoughts about a certain topic. You can choose to back up your arguments by either quoting or paraphrasing. By paraphrasing, you're proving that you understand the argument from the source you're referri...

  8. Why paraphrasing is important?

    CONCLUSIONS. Thus in conclusion paraphrasing is important because of the following reasons -. It helps you to create content when you run out of your own ideas. Allows students and creators to avoid the dreaded plagiarism scare. It helps to improve your overall writing skill and thus your grasp over the language. ← What Does Paraphrase Mean?

  9. Importance of paraphrasing and summarizing in research

    Paraphrasing. Summarizing. Paraphrasing is essential to show a solid understanding of the original piece of content because, in paraphrasing, you write content in your own words. With the help of summarizing, students can learn to consider important topics and relevant data in a book or discard irrelevant concepts unrelated to those ideas.

  10. The 5 Types of Plagiarism

    These are the five most common types of plagiarism: Global plagiarism means passing off an entire text by someone else as your own work. Verbatim plagiarism means directly copying someone else's words. Paraphrasing plagiarism means rephrasing someone else's ideas to present them as your own. Patchwork plagiarism means stitching together ...

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    Paraphrasing involves rewriting or rephrasing the text to make it different from the source yet retaining it Follow More from Medium Bryan Ye in Better Humans How To Wake Up at 5 A.M. Every Day...

  12. Why Punctuation Is Important. The Importance Of Punctuation

    One way is with capitalization, which helps convey information about the structure of sentences and unique words within them. Every word that starts off a new sentence should be written as such: first letter uppercase; all other letters lowercase (unless they're proper nouns).

  13. Paraphrasing, Summarizing, and Quoting

    We use paraphrasing, summarizing, and quoting for a variety of reasons that include (John E. Mayfield Library, 2014): Providing support for claims Integrating sources into your paper Giving examples of several points of view on a subject Highlighting and discussing a position that you agree or disagree with

  14. Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing

    Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing. This handout is intended to help you become more comfortable with the uses of and distinctions among quotations, paraphrases, and summaries. This handout compares and contrasts the three terms, gives some pointers, and includes a short excerpt that you can use to practice these skills.

  15. Quoting, Paraphrasing, & Summarizing

    Paraphrasing is preferred over quoting (other than in the specific examples provided above) because it shows that you understand the outside material you are using and it gives you more agency over your paper by allowing you to explain the expert opinions, research studies, or other evidence to your reader as it relates to your topic and thesis.

  16. How to Paraphrase (Without Plagiarizing a Thing)

    1 Use synonyms. Replace the essential words of an original passage with other words that mean the same thing, such as using "scientist" for "researcher," or "seniors" for "the elderly.". This is a common approach to paraphrasing, but it's not sufficient on its own. Combine this strategy with some of the others below to make ...

  17. QuillBot's Guide to Paraphrasing

    The word "paraphrase" has two definitions, depending on the part of speech it represents in the sentence. As a verb, "to paraphrase" means "to express the meaning of the writer or speaker (or something written or spoken) using different words, especially to achieve greater clarity.". As a noun, "paraphrase" is defined as "a ...

  18. How To Paraphrase Without Plagiarizing (5 Steps Plus Tips)

    How to paraphrase. If you want to get better at expressing other people's ideas in your own words, here is how to do it: 1. Reread the original text to understand its meaning. The first step to effective paraphrasing is to read and understand the content from the original source. Skipping this step exposes the writer to the risk of depending on ...

  19. The Writing Center

    Paraphrasing. Paraphrasing is stating an idea or passage in your own words. You must significantly change the wording, phrasing, and sentence structure (not just a few words here and there) of the source. These also must be noted with in-text citations and the reference page. Paraphrase when: You want to clarify a short passage from a text

  20. Summarizing and Paraphrasing in Academic Writing

    Paraphrasing is the manner of presenting a text by altering certain words and phrases of a source while ensuring that the paraphrase reflects proper understanding of the source. It can be useful for personal understanding of complex concepts and explaining information present in charts, figures, and tables. How Do You Paraphrase?

  21. Paraphrasing, Summarising and Quoting

    A paraphrase offers an alternative to using direct quotations and allows you to integrate evidence/source material into assignments. Paraphrasing can also be used for note-taking and explaining information in tables, charts and diagrams. When to paraphrase. Paraphrase short sections of work only i.e. a sentence or two or a short paragraph:

  22. Using Evidence: Effective Paraphrasing Strategies

    Effective Paraphrasing Strategies. If you are having trouble paraphrasing a text effectively, try following these steps: Reread the original passage you wish to paraphrase, looking up any words you do not recognize, until you think you understand the full meaning of and intention behind the author's words. Next, cover or hide the passage.

  23. PDF Principles of Paraphrasing

    2 Tutorial Outline • Module 1: Defining Correct Paraphrasing • Module 2:Module 2: Rules for Quoting Summarizing andRules for Quoting, Summarizing, and Paraphrasing • Module 3: Tips and Strategies for Successful Paraphrasing • Self Check:Self Check: Paraphrasing Skills Worksheet (with TextsParaphrasing Skills Worksheet (with Texts by HGSE Faculty) and Answer Key

  24. Paraphrasing Worksheets

    Paraphrasing Worksheets: In Summary - You will need a 4-5 page reading passage to go along with this organizer. Write the text's main idea in one sentence. Then write only the important details that explain the main idea. Use your own words as much as possible. Paraphrasing - You'll need more text for this one.

  25. Avoiding Plagiarism

    Avoiding Plagiarism - Paraphrasing. In writing papers, you will paraphrase more than you will quote. For a report or research paper, you may need to gather background information that is important to the paper but not worthy of direct quotation. Indeed, in technical writing direct quotation is rarely used.