Technical Report: What is it & How to Write it? (Steps & Structure Included)
A technical report can either act as a cherry on top of your project or can ruin the entire dough.
Everything depends on how you write and present it.
A technical report is a sole medium through which the audience and readers of your project can understand the entire process of your research or experimentation.
So, you basically have to write a report on how you managed to do that research, steps you followed, events that occurred, etc., taking the reader from the ideation of the process and then to the conclusion or findings.
Sounds exhausting, doesn’t it?
Well hopefully after reading this entire article, it won’t.
However, note that there is no specific standard determined to write a technical report. It depends on the type of project and the preference of your project supervisor.
With that in mind, let’s dig right in!
What is a Technical Report? (Definition)
A technical report is described as a written scientific document that conveys information about technical research in an objective and fact-based manner. This technical report consists of the three key features of a research i.e process, progress, and results associated with it.
Some common areas in which technical reports are used are agriculture, engineering, physical, and biomedical science. So, such complicated information must be conveyed by a report that is easily readable and efficient.
Now, how do we decide on the readability level?
The answer is simple – by knowing our target audience.
A technical report is considered as a product that comes with your research, like a guide for it.
You study the target audience of a product before creating it, right?
Similarly, before writing a technical report, you must keep in mind who your reader is going to be.
Whether it is professors, industry professionals, or even customers looking to buy your project – studying the target audience enables you to start structuring your report. It gives you an idea of the existing knowledge level of the reader and how much information you need to put in the report.
Many people tend to put in fewer efforts in the report than what they did in the actual research..which is only fair.
We mean, you’ve already worked so much, why should you go through the entire process again to create a report?
Well then, let’s move to the second section where we talk about why it is absolutely essential to write a technical report accompanying your project.
Read more: What is a Progress Report and How to Write One?
Importance of Writing a Technical Report
1. efficient communication.
Technical reports are used by industries to convey pertinent information to upper management. This information is then used to make crucial decisions that would impact the company in the future.
Examples of such technical reports include proposals, regulations, manuals, procedures, requests, progress reports, emails, and memos.
2. Evidence for your work
Most of the technical work is backed by software.
However, graduation projects are not.
So, if you’re a student, your technical report acts as the sole evidence of your work. It shows the steps you took for the research and glorifies your efforts for a better evaluation.
3. Organizes the data
A technical report is a concise, factual piece of information that is aligned and designed in a standard manner. It is the one place where all the data of a project is written in a compact manner that is easily understandable by a reader.
4. Tool for evaluation of your work
Professors and supervisors mainly evaluate your research project based on the technical write-up for it. If your report is accurate, clear, and comprehensible, you will surely bag a good grade.
A technical report to research is like Robin to Batman.
Best results occur when both of them work together.
So, how can you write a technical report that leaves the readers in a ‘wow’ mode? Let’s find out!
How to Write a Technical Report?
When writing a technical report, there are two approaches you can follow, depending on what suits you the best.
- Top-down approach- In this, you structure the entire report from title to sub-sections and conclusion and then start putting in the matter in the respective chapters. This allows your thought process to have a defined flow and thus helps in time management as well.
- Evolutionary delivery- This approach is suitable if you’re someone who believes in ‘go with the flow’. Here the author writes and decides as and when the work progresses. This gives you a broad thinking horizon. You can even add and edit certain parts when some new idea or inspiration strikes.
A technical report must have a defined structure that is easy to navigate and clearly portrays the objective of the report. Here is a list of pages, set in the order that you should include in your technical report.
Cover page- It is the face of your project. So, it must contain details like title, name of the author, name of the institution with its logo. It should be a simple yet eye-catching page.
Title page- In addition to all the information on the cover page, the title page also informs the reader about the status of the project. For instance, technical report part 1, final report, etc. The name of the mentor or supervisor is also mentioned on this page.
Abstract- Also referred to as the executive summary, this page gives a concise and clear overview of the project. It is written in such a manner that a person only reading the abstract can gain complete information on the project.
Preface – It is an announcement page wherein you specify that you have given due credits to all the sources and that no part of your research is plagiarised. The findings are of your own experimentation and research.
Dedication- This is an optional page when an author wants to dedicate their study to a loved one. It is a small sentence in the middle of a new page. It is mostly used in theses.
Acknowledgment- Here, you acknowledge the people parties, and institutions who helped you in the process or inspired you for the idea of it.
Table of contents – Each chapter and its subchapter is carefully divided into this section for easy navigation in the project. If you have included symbols, then a similar nomenclature page is also made. Similarly, if you’ve used a lot of graphs and tables, you need to create a separate content page for that. Each of these lists begins on a new page.
Introduction- Finally comes the introduction, marking the beginning of your project. On this page, you must clearly specify the context of the report. It includes specifying the purpose, objectives of the project, the questions you have answered in your report, and sometimes an overview of the report is also provided. Note that your conclusion should answer the objective questions.
Central Chapter(s)- Each chapter should be clearly defined with sub and sub-sub sections if needed. Every section should serve a purpose. While writing the central chapter, keep in mind the following factors:
- Clearly define the purpose of each chapter in its introduction.
- Any assumptions you are taking for this study should be mentioned. For instance, if your report is targeting globally or a specific country. There can be many assumptions in a report. Your work can be disregarded if it is not mentioned every time you talk about the topic.
- Results you portray must be verifiable and not based upon your opinion. (Big no to opinions!)
- Each conclusion drawn must be connected to some central chapter.
Conclusion- The purpose of the conclusion is to basically conclude any and everything that you talked about in your project. Mention the findings of each chapter, objectives reached, and the extent to which the given objectives were reached. Discuss the implications of the findings and the significant contribution your research made.
Appendices- They are used for complete sets of data, long mathematical formulas, tables, and figures. Items in the appendices should be mentioned in the order they were used in the project.
References- This is a very crucial part of your report. It cites the sources from which the information has been taken from. This may be figures, statistics, graphs, or word-to-word sentences. The absence of this section can pose a legal threat for you. While writing references, give due credit to the sources and show your support to other people who have studied the same genres.
Bibliography- Many people tend to get confused between references and bibliography. Let us clear it out for you. References are the actual material you take into your research, previously published by someone else. Whereas a bibliography is an account of all the data you read, got inspired from, or gained knowledge from, which is not necessarily a direct part of your research.
Style ( Pointers to remember )
Let’s take a look at the writing style you should follow while writing a technical report:
- Avoid using slang or informal words. For instance, use ‘cannot’ instead of can’t.
- Use a third-person tone and avoid using words like I, Me.
- Each sentence should be grammatically complete with an object and subject.
- Two sentences should not be linked via a comma.
- Avoid the use of passive voice.
- Tenses should be carefully employed. Use present for something that is still viable and past for something no longer applicable.
- Readers should be kept in mind while writing. Avoid giving them instructions. Your work is to make their work of evaluation easier.
- Abbreviations should be avoided and if used, the full form should be mentioned.
- Understand the difference between a numbered and bulleted list. Numbering is used when something is explained sequence-wise. Whereas bullets are used to just list out points in which sequence is not important.
- All the preliminary pages (title, abstract, preface..) should be named in small roman numerals. ( i, ii, iv..)
- All the other pages should be named in Arabic numerals (1,2,3..) thus, your report begins with 1 – on the introduction page.
- Separate long texts into small paragraphs to keep the reader engaged. A paragraph should not be more than 10 lines.
- Do not incorporate too many fonts. Use standard times new roman 12pt for the text. You can use bold for headlines.
If you think your work ends when the report ends, think again. Proofreading the report is a very important step. While proofreading you see your work from a reader’s point of view and you can correct any small mistakes you might have done while typing. Check everything from content to layout, and style of writing.
Finally comes the presentation of the report in which you submit it to an evaluator.
- It should be printed single-sided on an A4 size paper. double side printing looks chaotic and messy.
- Margins should be equal throughout the report.
- You can use single staples on the left side for binding or use binders if the report is long.
AND VOILA! You’re done.
…and don’t worry, if the above process seems like too much for you, Bit.ai is here to help.
Read more: Technical Manual: What, Types & How to Create One? (Steps Included)
Bit.ai : The Ultimate Tool for Writing Technical Reports
What if we tell you that the entire structure of a technical report explained in this article is already done and designed for you!
Yes, you read that right.
With Bit.ai’s 70+ templates , all you have to do is insert your text in a pre-formatted document that has been designed to appeal to the creative nerve of the reader.
You can even add collaborators who can proofread or edit your work in real-time. You can also highlight text, @mention collaborators, and make comments!
Wait, there’s more! When you send your document to the evaluators, you can even trace who read it, how much time they spent on it, and more.
Exciting, isn’t it?
Start making your fabulous technical report with Bit.ai today!
Few technical documents templates you might be interested in:
- Status Report Template
- API Documentation
- Product Requirements Document Template
- Software Design Document Template
- Software Requirements Document Template
- UX Research Template
- Issue Tracker Template
- Release Notes Template
- Statement of Work
- Scope of Work Template
A well structured and designed report adds credibility to your research work. You can rely on bit.ai for that part.
However, the content is still yours so remember to make it worth it.
After finishing up your report, ask yourself:
Does the abstract summarize the objectives and methods employed in the paper?
Are the objective questions answered in your conclusion?
What are the implications of the findings and how is your work making a change in the way that particular topic is read and conceived?
If you find logical answers to these, then you have done a good job!
Remember, writing isn’t an overnight process. ideas won’t just arrive. Give yourself space and time for inspiration to strike and then write it down. Good writing has no shortcuts, it takes practice.
But at least now that you’ve bit.ai in the back of your pocket, you don’t have to worry about the design and formatting!
Have you written any technical reports before? If yes, what tools did you use? Do let us know by tweeting us @bit_docs.
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How to Write a Technical Report
Last Updated: November 21, 2022 References
This article was co-authored by wikiHow staff writer, Christopher M. Osborne, PhD . Christopher Osborne has been a wikiHow Content Creator since 2015. He is also a historian who holds a PhD from The University of Notre Dame and has taught at universities in and around Pittsburgh, PA. His scholarly publications and presentations focus on his research interests in early American history, but Chris also enjoys the challenges and rewards of writing wikiHow articles on a wide range of subjects. There are 7 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. This article has been viewed 61,109 times. Learn more...
Engineers, scientists, and medical professionals need to be good writers too—and technical reports prove it! A good technical report presents data and analysis on a specified topic in a clear, highly-organized, and effective manner. Before you begin writing, define your message and audience, and make an outline. Then, write the main body of the report and surround it with the other necessary sections, according to your chosen layout.
Planning Your Report
- For instance, you may want to convey the message that a new technique for extracting a particular chemical compound is both safer and more cost-effective.
- The best technical reports remain clear and focused throughout—they have a specific purpose and convey the information in a logical order.
- Work with advisors, supervisors, or colleagues to fine-tune the message and/or goal of your report. These can vary widely depending on whether the report is being produced for academic, business, or other purposes.
- If others in your field will be reading the report, it can be more “technical” in language and detail. In many cases, though, technical reports are intended for those outside of your particular discipline. If so, cut back on the jargon for non-expert readers.
- Consider having a non-expert friend look over your report throughout the process to give you feedback on its accessibility to a broad audience.
- Determine which particular sections your report must or may have. Consult the person or organization to whom you’ll be submitting the report for any layout requirements.
Writing the Main Body of the Report
- In most cases, the introduction will likely be 1-3 paragraphs in length.
- The end of the introduction should clearly state what the report “does.” It might do so by way of a direct statement (“This report analyzes…”), or by providing a series of questions (which may in some cases be bulleted or numbered) to be addressed.
- Essentially, you want readers who may be new to the subject matter to feel like they have at least a rudimentary grasp of it after reading this section.
- If, for instance, your report is focused on a particular experiment, be specific on the way it was conceived, set up, and conducted.
- This is sometimes called a “methods” section, since you are describing the methods used to conduct your research.
- It can be hard to determine how much data to present. Giving too little can significantly weaken your analysis and the overall report. Giving too much, however, can drown the reader in a sea of tables and figures. Make sure you provide all essential data, and err on the side of providing a bit too much unless otherwise instructed.
- Present your data in a logical order, so that each table or figure leads into the next one.
- Be as bold in your conclusions as your data and analysis permits you to be. Don’t use terms like “might,” “perhaps,” “could,” and so forth—write something like, “The data shows that…” However, don’t draw conclusions that aren’t supported by your data.
Adding Components in the Proper Layout
- Executive Summary
- Table of Contents
- List of Figures / List of Tables
- Main Report: Introduction; Background / Literature Review; Project Description; Data / Description of Data; Conclusion
- For a typical title page (and overall report layout), see https://my.mech.utah.edu/~rusmeeha/references/Writing.pdf
- Write the abstract after you’ve written the actual report. You want it to be a condensed description of what you have written, not of what you intend to write.
- Check to see if there is a specific word limit for your abstract. Even if there isn’t, 300 words is a good word limit to aim for.
- The executive summary should focus on your findings, conclusions, and/or recommendations, and allow the report itself to present the data—although highlights of the data should be provided.
- Depending on your situation, you may need to write an abstract, an executive summary, or both.
- Check for any formatting guidelines for these sections. If the format is left up to you, keep things simple and straightforward.
- This section typically runs 1-2 paragraphs, and follows a fairly simple “The author would like to thank…” format.
- In some cases, you may also be expected to provide a listing of works you have consulted but not specifically cited in the work. Check with the relevant department, organization, individual, etc., if you’re not sure.  X Research source
- Use a consistent, easy-to-navigate format when creating appendices. They aren’t meant to be dumping grounds for random snippets of data or information.
You might also like.
- ↑ https://students.unimelb.edu.au/academic-skills/explore-our-resources/report-writing/technical-report-writing
- ↑ https://www.sussex.ac.uk/ei/internal/forstudents/engineeringdesign/studyguides/techreportwriting
- ↑ http://homepages.rpi.edu/~holguj2/CIVL2030/How_to_write_search/How_to_write_a_good_technical_report.pdf
- ↑ https://www.theiet.org/media/5182/technical-report-writing.pdf
- ↑ http://www.sussex.ac.uk/ei/internal/forstudents/engineeringdesign/studyguides/techreportwriting
- ↑ https://students.unimelb.edu.au/academic-skills/explore-our-resources/report-writing/executive-summaries
- ↑ https://openoregon.pressbooks.pub/technicalwriting/chapter/10-4-table-of-contents/
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Technical reports (or scientific reports) are important sources of scientific and technical information derived from research projects sponsored by DOE; they describe the processes, progress, or results of research and development or other scientific and technological work, including recommendations or conclusions of the research and such information as the original hypotheses, approaches used, and findings. Technical reports are useful to researchers because they often include more comprehensive or detailed information than scholarly papers or presentations, including experimental designs and technical drawings. Technical reports also may document negative results, which can help prevent the misapplication of research resources.
Technical reports submitted to OSTI that are publicly releasable are available via SciTech Connect .
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Table of contents
2 structure, 3 presentation, 4 planning the report, 5 writing the first draft, 6 revising the first draft, 7 diagrams, graphs, tables and mathematics, 8 the report layout, 10 references to diagrams, graphs, tables and equations, 11 originality and plagiarism, 12 finalising the report and proofreading, 13 the summary, 14 proofreading, 15 word processing / desktop publishing, 16 recommended reading.
A technical report is a formal report designed to convey technical information in a clear and easily accessible format. It is divided into sections which allow different readers to access different levels of information. This guide explains the commonly accepted format for a technical report; explains the purposes of the individual sections; and gives hints on how to go about drafting and refining a report in order to produce an accurate, professional document.
A technical report should contain the following sections;
For technical reports required as part of an assessment, the following presentation guidelines are recommended;
There are some excellent textbooks contain advice about the writing process and how to begin (see Section 16 ). Here is a checklist of the main stages;
- Collect your information. Sources include laboratory handouts and lecture notes, the University Library, the reference books and journals in the Department office. Keep an accurate record of all the published references which you intend to use in your report, by noting down the following information; Journal article: author(s) title of article name of journal (italic or underlined) year of publication volume number (bold) issue number, if provided (in brackets) page numbers Book: author(s) title of book (italic or underlined) edition, if appropriate publisher year of publication N.B. the listing of recommended textbooks in section 2 contains all this information in the correct format.
- Creative phase of planning. Write down topics and ideas from your researched material in random order. Next arrange them into logical groups. Keep note of topics that do not fit into groups in case they come in useful later. Put the groups into a logical sequence which covers the topic of your report.
- Structuring the report. Using your logical sequence of grouped ideas, write out a rough outline of the report with headings and subheadings.
N.B. the listing of recommended textbooks in Section 16 contains all this information in the correct format.
Who is going to read the report? For coursework assignments, the readers might be fellow students and/or faculty markers. In professional contexts, the readers might be managers, clients, project team members. The answer will affect the content and technical level, and is a major consideration in the level of detail required in the introduction.
Begin writing with the main text, not the introduction. Follow your outline in terms of headings and subheadings. Let the ideas flow; do not worry at this stage about style, spelling or word processing. If you get stuck, go back to your outline plan and make more detailed preparatory notes to get the writing flowing again.
Make rough sketches of diagrams or graphs. Keep a numbered list of references as they are included in your writing and put any quoted material inside quotation marks (see Section 11 ).
Write the Conclusion next, followed by the Introduction. Do not write the Summary at this stage.
This is the stage at which your report will start to take shape as a professional, technical document. In revising what you have drafted you must bear in mind the following, important principle;
- the essence of a successful technical report lies in how accurately and concisely it conveys the intended information to the intended readership.
During year 1, term 1 you will be learning how to write formal English for technical communication. This includes examples of the most common pitfalls in the use of English and how to avoid them. Use what you learn and the recommended books to guide you. Most importantly, when you read through what you have written, you must ask yourself these questions;
- Does that sentence/paragraph/section say what I want and mean it to say? If not, write it in a different way.
- Are there any words/sentences/paragraphs which could be removed without affecting the information which I am trying to convey? If so, remove them.
It is often the case that technical information is most concisely and clearly conveyed by means other than words. Imagine how you would describe an electrical circuit layout using words rather than a circuit diagram. Here are some simple guidelines;
The appearance of a report is no less important than its content. An attractive, clearly organised report stands a better chance of being read. Use a standard, 12pt, font, such as Times New Roman, for the main text. Use different font sizes, bold, italic and underline where appropriate but not to excess. Too many changes of type style can look very fussy.
Use heading and sub-headings to break up the text and to guide the reader. They should be based on the logical sequence which you identified at the planning stage but with enough sub-headings to break up the material into manageable chunks. The use of numbering and type size and style can clarify the structure as follows;
- In the main text you must always refer to any diagram, graph or table which you use.
- Label diagrams and graphs as follows; Figure 1.2 Graph of energy output as a function of wave height. In this example, the second diagram in section 1 would be referred to by "...see figure 1.2..."
- Label tables in a similar fashion; Table 3.1 Performance specifications of a range of commercially available GaAsFET devices In this example, the first table in section 3 might be referred to by "...with reference to the performance specifications provided in Table 3.1..."
- Number equations as follows; F(dB) = 10*log 10 (F) (3.6) In this example, the sixth equation in section 3 might be referred to by "...noise figure in decibels as given by eqn (3.6)..."
Whenever you make use of other people's facts or ideas, you must indicate this in the text with a number which refers to an item in the list of references. Any phrases, sentences or paragraphs which are copied unaltered must be enclosed in quotation marks and referenced by a number. Material which is not reproduced unaltered should not be in quotation marks but must still be referenced. It is not sufficient to list the sources of information at the end of the report; you must indicate the sources of information individually within the report using the reference numbering system.
Information that is not referenced is assumed to be either common knowledge or your own work or ideas; if it is not, then it is assumed to be plagiarised i.e. you have knowingly copied someone else's words, facts or ideas without reference, passing them off as your own. This is a serious offence . If the person copied from is a fellow student, then this offence is known as collusion and is equally serious. Examination boards can, and do, impose penalties for these offences ranging from loss of marks to disqualification from the award of a degree
This warning applies equally to information obtained from the Internet. It is very easy for markers to identify words and images that have been copied directly from web sites. If you do this without acknowledging the source of your information and putting the words in quotation marks then your report will be sent to the Investigating Officer and you may be called before a disciplinary panel.
Your report should now be nearly complete with an introduction, main text in sections, conclusions, properly formatted references and bibliography and any appendices. Now you must add the page numbers, contents and title pages and write the summary.
The summary, with the title, should indicate the scope of the report and give the main results and conclusions. It must be intelligible without the rest of the report. Many people may read, and refer to, a report summary but only a few may read the full report, as often happens in a professional organisation.
- Purpose - a short version of the report and a guide to the report.
- Length - short, typically not more than 100-300 words
- Content - provide information, not just a description of the report.
This refers to the checking of every aspect of a piece of written work from the content to the layout and is an absolutely necessary part of the writing process. You should acquire the habit of never sending or submitting any piece of written work, from email to course work, without at least one and preferably several processes of proofreading. In addition, it is not possible for you, as the author of a long piece of writing, to proofread accurately yourself; you are too familiar with what you have written and will not spot all the mistakes.
When you have finished your report, and before you staple it, you must check it very carefully yourself. You should then give it to someone else, e.g. one of your fellow students, to read carefully and check for any errors in content, style, structure and layout. You should record the name of this person in your acknowledgements.
Two useful tips;
- Do not bother with style and formatting of a document until the penultimate or final draft.
- Do not try to get graphics finalised until the text content is complete.
- Davies J.W. Communication Skills - A Guide for Engineering and Applied Science Students (2nd ed., Prentice Hall, 2001)
- van Emden J. Effective communication for Science and Technology (Palgrave 2001)
- van Emden J. A Handbook of Writing for Engineers 2nd ed. (Macmillan 1998)
- van Emden J. and Easteal J. Technical Writing and Speaking, an Introduction (McGraw-Hill 1996)
- Pfeiffer W.S. Pocket Guide to Technical Writing (Prentice Hall 1998)
- Eisenberg A. Effective Technical Communication (McGraw-Hill 1992)
Updated and revised by the Department of Engineering & Design, November 2022
School Office: School of Engineering and Informatics, University of Sussex, Chichester 1 Room 002, Falmer, Brighton, BN1 9QJ [email protected] T 01273 (67) 8195 School Office opening hours: School Office open Monday – Friday 09:00-15:00, phone lines open Monday-Friday 09:00-17:00 School Office location [PDF 1.74MB]
Copyright © 2023, University of Sussex
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1 The Formal Technical Report
For technical reports, formal and informal, readers are generally most interested in process and results. Clear presentation of results is at least as important as the results themselves; therefore, writing a report is an exercise in effective communication of technical information. Results, such as numerical values, designed systems or graphs by themselves are not very useful. To be meaningful to others, results must be supported by a written explanation describing how results were obtained and what significance they hold, or how a designed system actually functions. Although the person reading the report may have a technical background, the author should assume unfamiliarity with related theory and procedures. The author must consider supplying details that may appear obvious or unnecessary. With practice, the technical report writer learns which details to include.
The formal technical report contains a complete, concise, and well-organized description of the work performed and the results obtained. Any given report may contain all of the sections described in these guidelines or a subset, depending upon the report requirements. These requirements are decided by the author and are based on the audience and expected use of the report. Audience and purpose are important considerations in deciding which sections to include and what content to provide. If the purpose is to chronicle work performed in lab, as is typical for an academic lab report, the audience is typically the professor who assigned the work and the contents usually include detailed lab procedure, clear presentation of results, and conclusions based on the evidence provided. For a technical report, the audience may be colleagues, customers, or decision makers. Knowing the audience and what they are expecting to get out of reading the report is of primary consideration when deciding on sections to include and their contents.
There are certain aspects to all reports that are common regardless of audience and expected usage. Rather than relegate these overarching report-writing considerations to a secondary position, these items are presented before detailing the typical organization and contents for technical reports.
Universal Report-Writing Considerations
The items listed in this section are often overlooked by those new to technical report writing. However, these items set the stage for how a technical report is received which can impact the author, positively or negatively. While in an academic setting, the author’s grade could be impacted. While in a professional setting, it is the author’s career that could be affected. Effective communication can make the difference in career advancement, effective influence on enacting positive change, and propelling ideas from thought to action. The list that follows should become second nature to the technical report writer.
Details to consider that affect credibility:
- Any information in the report that is directly derived or paraphrased from a source must be cited using the proper notation.
- Any information in the report that is directly quoted or copied from a source must be cited using the proper notation.
- Any reference material derived from the web or Internet must come from documentable and credible sources. To evaluate websites critically, begin by verifying the credibility of the author (e.g. – credentials, agency or professional affiliation). Note that peer reviewed materials are generally more dependable sources of information as compared to open source. Peer review involves a community of qualified experts from within a profession who validate the publication of the author. Open source information may be created by non-qualified individuals or agencies which is often not reviewed and/or validated by experts within the field or profession.
- Wikipedia is NOT a credible reference because the information changes over time and authors are not necessarily people with verifiable expertise or credentials.
- Provide an annotated bibliography of all references. Typically, annotations in technical reports indicate what the source was used for and establish the credibility of the source. This is particularly important for sources with credibility issues. However, an annotation can clarify why a source with questionable credibility was used.
- See Appendix A for information about citing sources.
Details to consider th at affect the professional tone:
- Write in an active voice using the third person in most instances. Avoid using “will” before a verb; strive to get to the verb as directly as possible.
- Passive voice: “The circuit resistance will be measured with a digital multimeter”.
- Active voice: “Measure the circuit resistance with a digital multimeter”.
- Avoid using personal pronouns such as “you”, “we”, “our”, “they”, “us” and “I”. Personal pronouns tend to personalize the technical information that is generally objective rather than subjective in nature. The exception is if the work as a whole is meant to instruct than to inform. For example, technical textbooks whose only purpose is to instruct employ personal pronouns.
- Use correct grammar, punctuation, and spelling. Pay attention to and address spell and grammar check cues from writing software such as MS Word.
Details to consider that affect the professional appearance:
- All figures and tables must be neatly presented and should be computer generated. Use a computer software package, such as Paint, Multisim or AutoCAD, to draw figures. If inserting a full-page figure, insert it so can be read from the bottom or from the right side of the page . ALL figures and tables must fit within or very close to the page margins.
- Generate ALL equations using an equation editor and provide each equation on its own line. Under normal circumstances, there is no reason to embed an equation within a paragraph. Depending on presentation and how many equations are involved, number the equations for easy reference.
- Refer to appendix B for information on how to automatically create a Table of Contents and properly number pages.
- If the report includes an abstract, it should be on an unnumbered page after the title page and before the Table of Contents or it can be included on the title page.
- For all hard copy reports, all pages of the report must be 8 ½“ X 11” in size. Any larger pages must be folded so as to fit these dimensions. HOWEVER, in this day and age, an electronic submission may be required. Keep in mind that with an electronic submission, it is easier to provide an appealing look with color since a color printer is not required.
Details to consider that affect readability:
- Every section and sub-section of the report needs to start with an introductory paragraph that provides the context for the section or sub-section.
- Every figure, graph, table, and equation needs to be introduced to the reader prior to being presented to the reader. This introduction provides the context.
- ALWAYS NUMBER AND PROVIDE A TITLE FOR ALL FIGURES .
- Make sure that the verb used can actually operate on the noun. For example, stating “the goal for this report is to observe …” implies that the report can observe when it is likely that the goal of the work reported on is to make certain observations.
- Check for spelling and grammar errors which are often highlighted with cues by the text editing software. Follow capitalization, punctuation, and indentation norms. Remember to capitalize the names of proprietary items such as licensed software.
- Define acronyms and abbreviations prior to using them.
Finally, always consider carefully the context of information provided. Know your audience. Thoughtfully consider if a statement is clearly supported by the information provided without leaving your reader confused. Remember that by the time you are writing a report, you should know the information inside and out but your reader does not.
Standard Components of a Formal Technical Report
Technical reports should be organized into sections and are typically in the order described in this section. While this is the recommended order, certain reports may lend themselves to either reordering sections and/or excluding sections.
The format for this page may vary, however, the following information is always included: report title, who the report was prepared for, who the report was prepared by, and the date of submission. This is not a numbered page of the report.
An abstract is a concise description of the report including its purpose and most important results . An abstract must not be longer than half a page and must not contain figures or make reference to them. Technical authors are generally so focused on results that they neglect to clearly state the purpose for the work. That purpose is derived from the objectives or goals, most commonly provided by the person who assigned the work. In stating the purpose, it is critical to include key words that would be used in a database search since searches of paper abstracts are commonly used by professionals to find information they need to do their jobs and make important decisions. Results are summarized in the abstract but how much quantitative information is provided varies with report audience and purpose. It is common to include maximum percent error found in the experimental results as compared to theory. Do not use any specific technical jargon, abbreviations, or acronyms. This is not a numbered page of the report.
Table of Contents
Include all the report sections and appendices. Typically, sub-sections are also listed. This is not a numbered page of the report.
The Table of Contents is easy to include if you properly use the power of the software used to generate the report. The Table of Contents can be automatically generated and updated if the author uses built in report headings provided in the styles menu. It is worth the time and effort to learn these tools since their application are ultimately time-savers for report writers. Directions are provided in Appendix B on creating a Table of Contents using section headings.
The length of the Introduction depends on the purpose but the author should strive for brevity, clarity, and interest. Provide the objective(s) of the work, a brief description of the problem, and how it is to be attacked. Provide the reader with an overview of why the work was performed, how the work was performed, and the most interesting results. This can usually be accomplished with ease if the work has clearly stated objectives.
Additionally, the introduction of a technical report concludes with a description of the sections that follow the Introduction. This is done to help the reader get some more detailed information about what might be found in each of the report sections included in the body of the report (this does not include appendices). This can feel awkward but providing that information is the accepted standard practice across industries.
Be careful not to use specific technical jargon or abbreviations such as using the term “oscope” instead of “oscilloscope”. Also, make sure to define any acronyms or abbreviations prior to using them. For example, in a surveying lab report a student might want to refer to the electronic distance measuring (EDM) device. The first time the device is referred to, spell out what the acronym stands for before using the acronym, as demonstrated in the previous sentence. Apply this practice throughout wherever an acronym or abbreviation is used but not yet defined within the report.
The purpose of this section is to include, if necessary, a discussion of relevant background theory. Include theory needed to understand subsequent sections that either the reading audience does not already comprehend or is tied to the purpose for the work and report. For example, a report on resistor-capacitor electric circuits that includes measurement of phase shift would likely include a theoretical description of phase shift. In deciding what should or should not be included as background theory, consider presenting any material specific to the work being reported on that you had to learn prior to performing the work including theoretical equations used to calculate theoretical values that are compared to measured values. This section may be divided into subsections if appropriate. Keep the discussion brief without compromising on content relevant to understanding and refer the reader to and cite outside sources of information where appropriate.
The purpose of this section is to provide detailed development of any design included in the report. Do not provide a design section i f there is no design aspect to the work . Be sure to introduce and describe the design work within the context of the problem statement using sentences; a series of equations without description and context is insufficient. Use citations if you wish to refer the reader to reference material. Divide this section into subsections where appropriate. For example, a project may consist of designing several circuits that are subsequently interconnected; you may choose to treat each circuit design in its own subsection. The process followed to develop the design should be presented as generally as possible then applied using specific numbers for the work performed. Ultimately, the section must provide the actual design tested and include a clear presentation of how that design was developed.
Although a theoretical analysis might be part of a design, the author needs to decide if that analysis should be included as part of the design section or a separate section. Typically, any theoretical work performed to develop the design would be included in the design section but any theoretical analysis performed on the design would be included in a separate section. Do not provide a theoretical analysis section if the theoretical work is all described as part of background theory and design sections. However, in most cases, a theoretical analysis section is included to provide important details of all analyses performed. Be brief. It is not necessary to show every step; sentences can be used to describe the intermediate steps. Furthermore, if there are many steps, the reader should be directed to the appendix for complete details. Make sure to perform the analysis with the specific numbers for the work performed leading to the theoretical values reported on and compared to experimental values in the results section of the report. Worth repeating: perform the analyses resulting in the numbers that are included as the theoretical values in the results section of the report. Upon reading the results section, the reader should be familiar with the theoretical values presented there because the reader already saw them in this section.
This section varies depending on requirements of the one who assigned the work and the audience. At a minimum, the author discuss es the procedure by describing the method used to test a theory, verify a design or conduct a process. Presentation of the procedure may vary significantly for different fields and different audiences, however, for all fields, the author should BE BRIEF and get to the point . Like with any written work, if it is unnecessarily wordy, the reader becomes bored and the author no longer has an audience. Also, the procedure section should never include specific measurements/results, discussion of results, or explanation of possible error sources. Make sure all diagrams provided are numbered, titled, and clearly labeled.
Depending on the situation, there are two likely types of procedure sections. In one case, a detailed procedure may have already been supplied or perhaps it is not desirable to provide a detailed description due to proprietary work. In another case, it might be the author’s job to provide all the detail so the work can be duplicated. The latter is more common in academic lab settings. The writing guidelines for each of these possible procedure sections are provided below.
Procedure Type 1
Use this procedure type if you have been supplied with a detailed procedure describing the steps required to complete the work. Briefly describe the method employed to complete the work. This is meant to be a brief procedural description capturing the intention of the work, not the details. The reader may be referred to the appendix for detailed procedure steps. The following list are considerations for this type of procedure section.
- Example: For measurements made over a range of input settings, provide the actual range without including the details of the specific input settings or order data was taken (unless order affects results).
- If required by the person who assigned the work, include the detailed procedure in the appendix.
- MUST provide detailed diagram(s) of all applicable experimental set-ups (i.e. circuit diagram) that include specific information about the set-up, such as resistor values.
- Provide diagrams and/or pictures that will further assist the reader in understanding the procedural description.
- Provide a details of any work performed for which prescribed steps were not provided and that the author deems necessary for the reader’s comprehension.
- To test the theory of superposition, the circuit shown in Figure 1 is employed. The circuit is constructed on the lab bench and using Multism TM , a circuit simulation software. In both settings, a multimeter is used to measure the output voltage, as shown in Figure 1, for the following three cases: (1) Source 1 on and Source 2 off, (2) Source 1 off and Source 2 on, and (3) both sources on. These measurements are compared to the output voltage derived using theory as described earlier. Refer to the appendix for further detail or procedure.
- In order to test the theory of superposition, first each team member must calculate the output voltage for the circuit shown in Figure 1 for the following three cases: (1) Source 1 on and Source 2 off, (2) Source 1 off and Source 2 on, and (3) both sources on. Then one team member is assigned to build the circuit on the lab bench while the other team member constructs the circuit in Multisim. Once constructed, turn Source 1 on and Source 2 off then connect the positive lead of the meter to the positive end of the output voltage and the negative lead of the meter to the negative end of the output voltage. Record the meter reading. Next turn on Source 2 and turn off Source 1. Again measure the output voltage using the meter ….
Procedure Type 2
Use this procedure type if you have not been supplied with a detailed description of the steps required to complete the work. The reader should be able to repeat the work based on the content supplied in this section.
- Equipment use
- Equipment maintenance
- Define terms specific to the technology
- Measurement techniques and/or calibration
- The description should be sufficiently clear so that the reader could duplicate the work.
- Do not assume that the reader has prior knowledge or access to prior reports, textbooks, or handouts.
- If part of the procedure was successfully described in a previous report, either repeat the procedure or include that report in the appendix and refer the reader to it.
- Where appropriate, provide additional diagrams and/or pictures to assist the reader in understanding the procedure.
Results and Discussion
Present the results of the work performed, within the context of the problem statement, using neatly organized and completely labeled tables and/or graphs whenever possible. When comparative data is available, present the data in a way that facilitates the comparison. For example, if theoretical and experimental values are available, present the values alongside one another accompanied by percent error. If it would help the reader understand the results, include a few sample calculations but put lengthy calculations in an appendix.
ALWAYS accompany results with a meaningful discussion. The discussion explains what the results mean and points out trends. In some cases, the results speak mostly for themselves and the discussion may be brief, i.e., “Table 2 shows that the designed variable modulus counter works as expected” along with a sentence or two stating how a variable modulus counter works and referring to parts of the table that verify/justify the statement. In other cases, the meaning of the results may not be as clear requiring more detailed discussion. In most cases, the results include data from more than one source to be compared to establish validity. Meaningful discussion immediately follows presentation of results and include:
- commenting on percent difference making sure it is clear to the reader which values are being compared and establishing comparative size of the difference in relation to expectations (negligible, small, large),
- cause for the difference (error sources are discussed further in the next paragraph), and
- how the results inform the reader as framed by the work’s objectives.
All three of the points are important to a meaningful discussion but the third one is most often overlooked. Discussion related to (3) may provide a statement about the theory used to predict the measured data. That statement often includes the theoretical assumptions made to predict the results and what the measured results indicate about the applicability of those theoretical assumptions to the experimental setting.
ALWAYS discuss the possible significant sources of error and how accurate the results need to be in order to be meaningful. Do not include a discussion of possible sources of error that would not add significantly to the observed error. What counts as significant depends on the situation. For example, if the components used have a tolerance of 5% and the accuracy of the equipment is within 0.5% of the measured value, then the equipment does not add significant error. However, if the components used have only a 1% tolerance then equipment with 0.5% accuracy is problematic. In general, it is impossible to obtain error-free results, therefore when there is 0% error there is still cause for discussion to comment on the situation that may result in error-free results or meaningful justification for expectation of error-free results. Expecting some error is not an excuse for lack of attention to detail when conducting procedures that minimize the error. Errors are different from mistakes. It is unacceptable to report mistakes. If a mistake was made, the work must be repeated until acceptable tolerances are achieved before submitting a report. Please find more on discussing percent error or percent difference in Appendix C.
When working in industry, it is imperative to know how accurate results need to be. It is worth your time and effort (and in the best interest of your supervisor or client) to provide the appropriate level of accuracy. If that means repetitive measurements to check for accuracy within tolerance, then do it. If it means performing a detailed analysis prior to making measurements, then do it. In the academic setting, the result of laziness or lack of effort may only be a bad grade. In the workplace, you may get fired!
Other information pertaining to writing Results and Discussion section can be found in Appendix C. This information includes
- How to calculate percent difference/error.
- Typical magnitudes of percent error for courses where circuits are constructed.
- What to consider writing about based on questions posed by the person assigning you to write the report.
- Guidelines for graphs provided in a report.
In this final section of the body of the report, the author should briefly bring everything together. It is similar to the abstract except that now specific results are concluded upon in a quantitative way. Therefore, the conclusion should be a concise description of the report including its purpose and most important results providing specific quantitative information. The conclusion should not contain figures or make reference to them. As with the abstract, the reader should be able to read this section on its own which means that there should be no specific technical jargon, abbreviations, or acronyms used.
Anywhere within your writing that you have either copied or paraphrased another source, you must cite that source. This entails two steps. One is to provide a parenthetical citation at the location in the report where the material that is not your own resides and the other is to provide the complete bibliographic information in a References page following the Conclusion section of the report. If an annotated bibliography is required, include an annotation for ALL sources describing what the source was used for within the report and establishes the source’s credibility.
Using the APA style, the parenthetical citation at the location in the document where the copied or paraphrased material exists includes: author, publication date, and page number(s). For sources with no author, the name of the reference material is used. All this information is included within parentheses thus being referred to as a “parenthetical citation”.
The full bibliographic information for all reference material cited within your writing is collected on the References page. In technical papers, the referenced sources are usually listed in the order they are referred to in the body of the report and, in fact, many published engineering papers will simply number the references and then use that number in square brackets to replace the parenthetical citation within the body of the report. Those new to this form of technical writing, often ask about how and where to list references used but not explicitly cited in the body of the report. However, if the reference is important enough to list, that generally means that there is an appropriate place to cite it in the body of the report, perhaps in the introduction or background theory. In Appendix A you can find further information about creating citations using citation generators available on the internet that will create a properly formatted citation for you when provided with the relevant information. Although citation generators are readily available, the one I recommend is from Calvin College called KnightCite and can be found at http://www.calvin.edu/library/knightcite/ .
The References section begins on a new page; not on the same page with the conclusion. Refer to Appendix A for information on preparing the References section. A wealth of information about citation styles, including lengthy guides and short handouts, can be found at http://libraryreference.sunydutchess.edu/citations.htm .
One final note on references and providing bibliographic information concerns use of sources that may appear to be questionable. There is no doubt that information from a wiki is questionable since, by definition, it can be changed by users including unqualified users. Although most wikis are reviewed and erroneous or misleading information corrected, at any given time there could be erroneous and misleading information. However, depending on the work presented in the report, internet sources including .com sites that have industry bias and .org sites that have policy bias may have valuable information. Even .edu sites can be problematic if the page is from an individual rather than an educational group within the institution since the former is likely not to have any editors and the latter is likely to be monitored and curated by the group. In order to establish credibility or usefulness of a source, especially a questionable one, provide an annotation to the bibliographic information that provides further information as to why the source was included and perspective on its application to the work reported. Information about annotated bibliographies is provided in Appendix A.
This section may not always be present. Materials included in an appendix may include lab sheets, parts list, diagrams, extensive calculations, error analyses, and lengthy computer programs. Introduce numbered or lettered appendices rather than putting different items in one appendix.
Technical Report Writing Guidelines by Leah M. Akins is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.
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Mpox Technical Reports
2022 multi-national mpox outbreak.
Due to the trajectory of the mpox outbreak, the mpox technical reports will be produced as needed moving forward, and not on a regular cadence.
These are technical reports intended for scientific audiences. Additional information, including materials targeted to the general public, are available on CDC’s mpox site .
New New Supplementary Analysis
This addition to Technical Report 4 , is intended to provide updated national reproduction number estimates and to report newly created sub-national reproduction number estimates.
New New Technical Report 4
The Multi-National Mpox Outbreak Report provides updates regarding CDC’s ongoing response to the mpox outbreak and includes preliminary results of new analyses that can improve understanding of the outbreak and inform further scientific inquiry.
- Technical Report 3
- Technical Report 2
- Technical Report 1
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Soybeans Rebound with New Highs in Meal, Corn and Wheat See More Technical Selling: Cattle Firm with Higher Cash, Hogs See Profit Taking
Markets Now Early Markets 3-6-23
Early technical selling in corn and wheat after lower weekly closes, report positioning and talks progressing on the Black Sea Export deal. Soybeans rebound with meal making new highs on Argentina crop concerns. Cattle firmer with new highs in feeders on strong cash cattle trade on Friday. Profit taking in hogs.
USDA issued a proposed rulemaking on Monday that would effectively close the "Product of the U.S.A." loophole that has been in effect since the repeal of COOL in 2015.
Soybeans up with new highs in meal, but wheat is pulling down the corn. Cattle higher with strong cash, but hogs can't get traction with lagging cash and cutouts. Mark Schultz with Northstar Commodity has more.
Technical selling in corn & wheat, report positioning and hope on the Black Sea Export deal. Soybeans rebound w/meal making new highs on Argentina crop concerns. Cattle up with strong cash. Profit taking in hogs.
Could agriculture face a Southwest-type meltdown?
Experts agree there’s potential in the jug if used correctly and under the right expectations. Here are eight tips experts say can maximize your ROI of biologicals this growing season.
Three precision ag features lead the updates being made to John Deere’s 7, 8 and 9 Series Tractors for the new model year
Technical Writing is Easy
Jan 16, 2019
What is Technical Writing Report?
Faq on technical writing.
In this article, I will tell you what a technical report is, why companies need it and how to write it.
What is a technical report?
Technical report is a document that describes the progress, process, or results of scientific or technical research. It also can include some recommendations and conclusions. Technical reports may be considered as grey literature because they rarely undergo comprehensive independent peer review before publication.
Technical reports are a great source of technical or scientific information. They can be written both for wider or internal distribution. In order to establish novelty, technical reports can be considered as a primary form of scientific paper when researchers don’t want to wait when academic journals publish their work.
So, as you see, a technical report is key part of the research that also should be written according to established rules. Below, you will find some tips on how to write it.
Technical Report Elements
A typical technical report consists of the following elements:
- The title page
- The introduction
- The summary
- Experimental details
- Results and discussions
The conclusion may include:
Tips on how to write a technical report
A technical report doesn’t differ much from other types of technical documents. First steps are the same — learn your audience, goals of the technical report, what recourses (articles, blogs) can help you write a good report, and so on.
Then list all your ideas of topics as they come to your mind, sort them into groups — it will be a rough outline of your future technical report. Now, you’re ready for a first draft. I want to provide you with some tips on how to write a good technical report in order to help you create a great first draft and save your time:
- When you’re searching for information on the Internet, keep in mind, that not all the information is reliable, so check it twice. The best way is to read relevant books, journals, and articles.
- Speaking of formatting, stick to one format — don’t use different fonts in your work. If you want to highlight an idea, use bold or italic.
- Heading and subheadings should be clear in order to ease the searching for necessary information. They also help readers get the main idea quickly. In my recent post called ‘ Using Humor in Technical Documentation ’ I showed an example of using humor in the table of contents, and it’s not a good idea — nothing is clear.
- It’s ok to use the information of other people but use citation — plagiarism is not a good idea of writing content. Check out Top 10 Free Plagiarism Detection Tools in order to be sure that you cite all sources.
- Proofread your content using these tips or a free grammar checker .
How best to present your report?
A presentation is important part of the final outlook of your work. So, what do you need to do:
- Write a script . Your report should be printed on an A4 paper on one side. It should not be hand-written because it’s not accepted.
- You should number those pages that contain the content , so, a title page and a summary are exceptions.
- Staple your report at the top left; if a report is too long, you should bind it.
- Formatting : usually the font size is 12, style is Times New Roman, the spacing is 1.5 or 2.
As you see, a technical report is not something difficult. You can write it easily sticking these tips, and also it’s a good idea to read technical reports of other authors. You will get the experience and build your style. However, my main recommendation is to write concisely. Concise was the word of 2017, but I think, it’s still relevant ;)
How did I become a technical writer? What skills do you need? Read FAQ on Technical Writing .
Many people who are interested in technical writing frequently ask me a lot of different questions, but here are the…
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- Water Utility Risk Assessment
EPA Cybersecurity for the Water Sector
Implementing cybersecurity best practices is critical for water and wastewater utilities to reduce the risk of cyber threats. The resources below can bring your utility one step closer to cyber resilience.
EPA released a memorandum stressing the need for states to assess cybersecurity risk at drinking water systems to protect our public drinking water. The memorandum conveys EPA’s interpretation that states must include cybersecurity when they conduct periodic audits of water systems (called “sanitary surveys”) and highlights different approaches for states to fulfill this responsibility. Read the memo and guidance .
On this page:
- Report Cybersecurity Incidents
Assessing Cybersecurity in Sanitary Surveys
- Cybersecurity Training for the Water Sector
- Additional Cybersecurity Resources and Tools
- Alerts – National Cyber Awareness System
- Other US Government and Partner Cybersecurity Resources
- Cybersecurity Reports to Congress
Report Cyber Incidents
Click the link below for information on reporting cyber incidents and to report an active cyber incident.
- Cyber Incident Reporting Factsheet (pdf) (99.49 KB, 2/27/23, 810-F-23-003)
- Report Cybersecurity Incident Here
- Addressing Public Water System Cybersecurity in Sanitary Surveys or an Alternate Process (pdf) (380.2 KB, 03/03/2023)
- Guidance on Evaluating Cybersecurity During Public Water Sanitary Surveys (pdf) (883.93 KB, 02/23, 817-B-23-001)
- Fact Sheet: Increasing Cybersecurity Resilience at Public Water Systems (pdf) (225.93 KB, 03/03/2023, 810-F-23-004)
- Fact Sheet: Addressing Cybersecurity Resilience with Sanitary Surveys (pdf) (219.62 KB, 03/03/2023, 810-F-23-004)
Resources to Conduct Cybersecurity Assessments
- EPA: Guidance on Evaluating Cybersecurity During Public Water Sanitary Surveys (pdf) (883.93 KB, 02/23, 817-B-23-001) (Checklist in Appendix)
- CISA: Cyber Resilience Review
- CISA: Cross-Sector Cybersecurity Performance Goals
- CISA: Cybersecurity Evaluation Tool
- NIST: AXIO Cybersecurity Program Assessment Tool
Third-Party Assessment Resources
- CISA: CISA Cybersecurity Advisor
- EPA: Water Sector Cyber Evaluation Program
Tool for State Primacy Agencies to Evaluate Cybersecurity Practices during Sanitary Survey
- EPA: Water Cybersecurity Assessment Tool and Risk Mitigation Plan Template (xlsx) (102.35 KB, 03/03/2023)
EPA: Cyber Technical Assistance Program for the Water Sector : The Cyber Technical Assistance Program will support primacy agencies and water systems in implementing cybersecurity measures. Users may submit questions or request to consult with a subject matter expert regarding cybersecurity in PWS sanitary surveys or other cybersecurity matters.
EPA: Water Sector Cybersecurity Evaluation Program : EPA’s Cyber Evaluation Program will conduct a cybersecurity assessment for PWSs. The assessment will follow the checklist in the guidance on Evaluating Cybersecurity in PWS Sanitary Surveys which will then generate a report that will highlight gaps in cybersecurity, including potential significant deficiencies.
Cybersecurity 101 Training
Cybersecurity 101 Webinar: This webinar is an introduction to the basic principles of cybersecurity. The presentation slides can be downloaded here: Cybersecurity 101 Webinar Slides (pdf) (1.81 MB, 03/03/23) .
Additional Cybersecurity Resources and Tools
Cybersecurity Incident Action Checklist (pdf) (1.38 MB) : Guidance for preparation, response, and recovery of a cyber incident.
Develop and Conduct a Water Resilience Tabletop Exercise (TTX) with Water Utilities : Tool used to plan, conduct, and evaluate tabletop exercises for all-hazards scenarios, including cybersecurity incidents.
Clean Water State Revolving Fund (CWSRF) | US EPA : Provides assistance to any public, private, or nonprofit entity for measures to increase the security of publicly owned treatment works, including cybersecurity.
Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSRF) | US EPA : Provides assistance with All-Hazard Risk and Resilience Assessment, Training, Equipment, and Infrastructure, including cybersecurity
CISA State and Local Cybersecurity Grant Program (SLCGP) : Grant program for states, cities, counties and towns from state administrative agency. Sub-award applications for cities, counties and towns must be submitted to the respective state administrative agency. Find more information here on EPA's SLCGP Fact Sheet (pdf) (144.43 KB, 11/22, EPA-810-F-22-013)
Alerts - National Cyber Awareness System
CISA Alerts provide timely information about current security issues, vulnerabilities, and exploits. Find DHS CISA Alerts here .
Sign up to receive email alerts from CISA here .
Log4j Vulnerability Alert
Hive Ransomware Alert
Remote Monitoring and Management Software Alert
EXSiArgs Ransomware Alert
Other US Government and Partner Cybersecurity Resources
- CISA Services Catalog offers significant resources, guidance, and tools to assist critical infrastructure facilities, including water and wastewater systems, with cybersecurity.
- Presidential Policy Directive 41 : Information on roles that government agencies will perform in the event of a cyber incident.
- United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Rural Development Circuit Rider Program
- Water Information Sharing and Analysis Center (WaterISAC)
- Multi-State ISAC
Cybersecurity Reports to Congress
- Prioritization Framework for Technical Cybersecurity Support to Public Water Systems – Report to Congress (pdf) (366.83 KB)
- Technical Cybersecurity Support Plan for Public Water Systems - Report to Congress (pdf) (314.46 KB)
- Academic Skills
- Report writing
Technical report writing
A quick guide to writing technical reports in Engineering.
The main purpose of an Engineering technical report is to present a solution to a problem in order to prompt action. Technical reports provide a record of your developing expertise and are a legal record of your work and decision making.
What is a technical report?
Technical reports are a central part of your professional success and are usually designed to:
- Convince the reader of your position
- Persuade them to act, or
- Inform them of your findings.
They are an opportunity for you to:
- Clearly communicate a solution to a problem
- Recommend action, and
- Aid decision making.
Technical reports are designed for quick and easy communication of information, and use:
- Sections with numbered headings and subheadings, and
- Figures and diagrams to convey data.
How do I structure a technical report?
Regardless of the specific purpose of your technical report, the structure and conventions rarely differ. Check your subject requirements and expand the sections below to learn more about each section. Download a Technical Report template here.
Technical reports usually require a title page. To know what to include, follow the conventions required in your subject.
A technical report summary (or abstract) should include a brief overview of your investigation, outcomes and recommendations. It must include all the key information your reader needs to make a decision, without them having to read your full report. Don’t treat your summary as an introduction; it should act as a stand-alone document.
Tip: Write your summary last.
Help your reader quickly and easily find what they are looking for by using informative headings and careful numbering of your sections and sub-sections. For example:
A technical report introduction:
- provides context for the problem being addressed,
- discusses relevant previous research, and
- states your aim or hypothesis.
To help, consider these questions:
- What have you investigated?
- How does your study fit into the current literature?
- What have previous studies found in the area?
- Why is it worth investigating?
- What was the experiment about?
- Why did you do it?
- What did you expect to learn from it?
The body of a technical report is structured according to the needs of your reader and the nature of the project. The writer decides how to structure it and what to include.
To help, ask yourself:
- What does the reader need to know first?
- What is the most logical way to develop the story of the project?
Tip: look at other technical reports in your discipline to see what they’ve included and in what order.
Technical reports include a mixture of text, tables, figures and formulae. Consider how you can present the information best for your reader. Would a table or figure help to convey your ideas more effectively than a paragraph describing the same data?
Figures and tables should:
- Be numbered
- Be referred to in-text, e.g. In Table 1 …, and
- Include a simple descriptive label - above a table and below a figure.
Equations and formulae should be:
- Referred to in-text, e.g. See Eq 1 for …
- Centred on the page, and
- On a separate line.
Your conclusion should mirror your introduction.
Be sure to:
- Refer to your aims
- Summarise your key findings, and
- State your major outcomes and highlight their significance.
If your technical report includes recommendations for action. You could choose to report these as a bullet point list. When giving an answer to your problem, be sure to include any limitations to your findings.
Your recommendations can be presented in two ways:
- Action statements e.g. Type approval should be issued for tunnel ventilation fans.
- Conditional statements e.g. If fan blades are painted with an anti-corrosion coating system, it is likely that… e.g. The research has found that the fan hub should be constructed from forged steel and the fan housing should be constructed from hot dipped galvanised steel, but future research…
Acknowledge all the information and ideas you’ve incorporated from other sources into your paper using a consistent referencing style. This includes data, tables and figures. Learn more about specific referencing conventions here: https://library.unimelb.edu.au/recite
If you have data that is too detailed or lengthy to include in the report itself, include it in the appendix. Your reader can then choose to refer to it if they are interested. Label your appendix with a number or a letter, a title, and refer to it the text, e.g. For a full list of construction phases, see Appendix A.
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Penn State University Libraries
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Engineering Instruction Librarian
Technical reports describe the process, progress, or results of technical or scientific research. Include in-depth experimental details, data, and results.
Reasons to Use
Technical reports are usually produced to report on a specific research need. They can serve as a report of accountability to the organization funding the research. They provides access to the information before it is published elsewhere.
How to Evaluate
Technical Reports are usually not peer-reviewed. They need to be evaluated on how the problem, research method, and results are described.
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- Last Updated: Sep 16, 2022 12:59 PM
- URL: https://guides.libraries.psu.edu/techreports
The Guide to Technical Report Writing: How to Do It Properly Based on 3 Examples
- The introduction to technical report writing – what is it?
- The structure of a technical report – which sections to include?
- Planning of writing a technical report – what to do first, second, and final?
- Technical report writing tips – how to write a technical report successfully?
- The presentation of technical reports in public – how to present so that everything will be clear to the audience?
Find it useful to follow this article? Don’t waste your time and go on reading it!
A Technical Report: The Introduction to Writing
A technical report is a common document describing the process and results of technical or scientific research. It may include in-depth experimental details, data, and further research recommendations. If you have some questions about this type of writing, you’re welcome to find the main answers below:
- What is the reason to write a technical report? Technical reports are usually written to report on a specific research problem/question.
- What are the main characteristics of technical reports? All the technical information must be presented in a clear and easily accessible format. It must be divided into sections which allow readers to access different types of information.
- Which disciplines are specialized in writing technical reports? Physical sciences, engineering, agriculture, medical and health sciences, education, etc.
- Why are students required to write a technical report? It is a common academic task set to test the student’s ability to do independent research and analysis and present it in a clear way. After learning to do it at college or university, it will be much easier to do it with ease in the future during a professional career.
- How are technical reports evaluated? Usually, technical reports aren’t peer-reviewed but evaluated mostly on how the problem, research methods, and results are described in a paper. If the data is to the point, there won’t be any problem. Moreover, if it is formatted properly, it will be highly appreciated.
- What is a technical report format? The report must be written single-sided on white A4 paper. All four margins must be at least 2.54 cm. It can be issued in print, microform, digital. Don’t forget about consecutively numbered pages starting at 1. As for types of style guides, you can use IEEE , TRB , ASCE or APA 6th edition styles.
In general, technical report writing is a means of allocating and summarizing knowledge that is gained through the observation of a certain process, experiment, or phenomena. To write a technical report, the writer has to bear a clear and objectified understanding of the subject matter. It is important to be meticulous and record as many details as possible when studying the problem.
Find more mathematics and technical tools at Mathauditor.com
So, ready to work on your own technical report? Let’s go!
The Structure of a Technical Report: 8 Points to Include
One of the conditions of successful report writing is that there is a particular structure to follow. There are 8 sections that make up the technical report:
- Title page;
- Table of contents;
- Body of the report;
- Appendices (if needed).
So, your technical report should have at least 8 pages – keep it in mind, but don’t limit this number! For example, the body that is an essential part of a report may include many other subsections, points, subpoints, etc. Let’s look at what each section must have so that you won’t miss anything. Check yourself if you’ve already written a report or you’re going to do it right now. It is better to have this outline always at hand.
- An abstract of a technical report summarizes the report briefly – what the subject matter is, what the main research results and conclusions are. Be concise in the abstract so that you’ll manage to write a one-paragraph summary of the report. Stick to a word count, for example, maximum 500 words, when writing an abstract.
- In the table of contents, as the name implies, list everything that is in the report. All the main sections of the report must be listed with page numbers. Besides, you can list second/third-level headings to have a more detailed table of contents. For some students, it can be quite confusing – so, don’t ignore the general principles for designing headings .
- An introduction is a part that states the objectives of writing the report and some extra information on how the topic is covered in the report. Lead the reader straight into the report itself from the first phrases, “This report focuses on … .”. The introduction should state the importance of the research being reported. Don’t include too much background information on the topic – be as specific as possible.
- The body of the report is divided into numbered and headed sections – methods, materials, analysis procedure, findings, discussion, and solutions. It makes it easier for the reader to understand what you are talking about in your report. All these sections point out the main ideas in a logical order of a step-by-step analysis of any given problem/phenomenon.
- The conclusion summarises the key ideas that can be drawn from the report based on the significance of the findings reported. Keep in mind that conclusions are quite often read first without paying attention to the whole report. The final phrases are always valuable as they are supposed to contain the answers that are provided by a study or test. That’s why focus on the following:
- The reference list or bibliography proves your evidence dramatically – the reader sees that you consult some sources of information during your research for the report. Mind the difference between a bibliography and a reference list!
- Appendices (if appropriate) consists of information that can support your report – tables, diagrams, etc. Although all this extra information included in the appendix is not needed to be explained in details in the report, this part must directly relate to the research problem or the report’s aim.
Technical Report Writing: What to Remember?
- Firstly, when writing a technical report, you should gather background knowledge on the subject. It is wise to be acquainted with the subject matter before attending the observed experiment to understand what is happening. After you gain sufficient background knowledge on the studied topic, you should aim to take as many notes as possible on the observed situation. Whether it is a lab experiment, a production line tour, or an analysis of the local ecology, you should provide maximum attention to important details. Some notes taken may be invaluable in the process of writing the report, but still, take them anyway to deepen your own knowledge on the topic.
- Secondly, it is important for the report to be as informative as possible. The gathered data should not simply provide a text representation of the observed phenomena but be valuable for those who will work on it.
- Thirdly, when actually writing the report, you as a report writer should remember to maintain scientific objectivity and omit any references to personal opinions. A technical report is, first of all, a work of technological information, it should bear rare data and observations, rather than personal experiences.
3 Technical Report Samples: Look at What You Need to Write in Your Report
The technical report examples provided below should shed some light on the writing process. We are sure these technical report writing examples can help you get acquainted with the process of writing such a task.
Example 1: Chemistry Lab Report
Example 2: Ecology Report
Example 3: SEO Analysis Software Report
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- Nov 21, 2022
The term “report” refers to a nonfiction work that presents and/or paraphrases the facts on a specific occasion, subject, or problem. The notion is that a good report will contain all the information that someone who is not familiar with the subject needs to know. Reports make it simple to bring someone up to speed on a subject, but actually writing a report is far from simple. This blog will walk you through the fundamentals of report writing, including the structure and practice themes.
This Blog Includes:
What is a report, reporting formats, newspaper or magazine reports, business reports, technical reports, what is report writing, report writing: things to keep in mind, structure of report writing, magazine vs newspaper report writing format, report writing format for class 10th to 12th, report writing example, report writing for school students: practice questions, report writing slideshare.
- Report Writing in 7 steps
Also Read: Message Writing
A report is a short document written for a particular purpose or audience. It usually sets out and analyses a problem often recommended for future purposes. Requirements for the precise form of the report depend on the department and organization. Technically, a report is defined as “any account, verbal or written, of the matters pertaining to a given topic.” This could be used to describe anything, from a witness’s evidence in court to a student’s book report.
Actually, when people use the word “report,” they usually mean official documents that lay out the details of a subject. These documents are typically written by an authority on the subject or someone who has been tasked with conducting research on it. Although there are other forms of reports, which are discussed in the following section, they primarily fulfil this definition.
What information does reporting contain? All facts are appreciated, but reports, in particular, frequently contain the following kinds of information:
- Information about a circumstance or event
- The aftereffects or ongoing impact of an incident or occurrence
- Analytical or statistical data evaluation
- Interpretations based on the report’s data
- Based on the report’s information, make predictions or suggestions
- Relationships between the information and other reports or events
Although there are some fundamental differences, producing reports and essays share many similarities. Both rely on facts, but essays also include the authors’ personal viewpoints and justifications. Reports normally stick to the facts only, however they could include some of the author’s interpretation in the conclusion.
Reports are also quite well ordered, frequently with tables of contents of headers and subheadings. This makes it simpler for readers to quickly scan reports for the data they need. Essays, on the other hand, should be read from beginning to end rather than being perused for particular information.
Depending on the objective and audience for your report, there are a few distinct types of reports. The most typical report types are listed briefly below:
- Academic report: Examines a student’s knowledge of the subject; examples include book reports, historical event reports, and biographies.
- Identifies data from company reports, such as marketing reports, internal memoranda, SWOT analyses, and feasibility reports, that is useful in corporate planning.
- Shares research findings in the form of case studies and research articles, usually in scientific publications.
Depending on how they are written, reports can be further categorised. A report, for instance, could be professional or casual, brief or lengthy, and internal or external. A lateral report is for persons on the author’s level but in separate departments, whereas a vertical report is for those on the author’s level but with different levels of the hierarchy (i.e., people who work above you and below you).
Report formats can be as varied as writing styles, but in this manual, we’ll concentrate on academic reports, which are often formal and informational.
Major Types of Reports
While the most common type of reports corresponds to the ones we read in newspapers and magazines, there are other kinds of reports that are curated for business or research purposes. Here are the major forms of report writing which you must know about:
The main purpose of newspaper or magazine reports is to cover a particular event or happening. They generally elaborate upon the 4Ws and 1H, i.e. What, Where, When, Why, and How. The key elements of newspaper or magazine report writing are as follows:
- Headline (Title)
- Report’s Name, Place, and Date
- Conclusion (Citation of sources)
Here is an example of a news report:
Business reports aim to analyze a situation or case study by implementing business theories and suggest improvements accordingly. In business report writing, you must adhere to a formal style of writing and these reports are usually lengthier than news reports since they aim to assess a particular issue in detail and provide solutions. The basic structure of business reports include:
- Table of Contents
- Executive summary
The main purpose of the technical report is to provide an empirical explanation of research-based material. Technical report writing is generally carried out by a researcher for scientific journals or product development and presentation, etc. A technical report mainly contains
- Experimental details
- Results and discussions
- Body (elaborating upon the findings)
Must Read: IELTS Writing Tips
A report is a written record of what you’ve seen, heard, done, or looked into. It is a well-organized and methodical presentation of facts and results from an event that has already occurred. Reports are a sort of written assessment that is used to determine what you have learned through your reading, study, or experience, as well as to provide you hands-on experience with a crucial skill that is often used in the business.
Before writing a report, there are certain things you must know to ensure that you draft a precise and structured report, and these points to remember are listed below:
- Write a concise and clear title of the report.
- Always use the past tense.
- Don’t explain the issue in the first person, i.e. ‘I’ or ‘Me’. Always write in the third person.
- Put the date, name of the place as well as the reporter’s name after the heading.
- Structure the report by dividing it into paragraphs.
- Stick to the facts and keep it descriptive.
Must Read: IELTS Sample Letters
The format of a report is determined by the kind of report it is and the assignment’s requirements. While reports can have their own particular format, the majority use the following general framework:
- Executive summary: A stand-alone section that highlights the findings in your report so that readers will know what to expect, much like an abstract in an academic paper. These are more frequently used for official reports than for academic ones.
- Introduction: Your introduction introduces the main subject you’re going to explore in the report, along with your thesis statement and any previous knowledge that is necessary before you get into your own results.
- Body: Using headings and subheadings, the report’s body discusses all of your significant findings. The majority of the report is made up of the body; in contrast to the introduction and conclusion, which are each only a few paragraphs long, the body can span many pages.
- In the conclusion, you should summarize all the data in your report and offer a clear interpretation or conclusion. Usually, the author inserts their own personal judgments or inferences here.
Report Writing Formats
It is quintessential to follow a proper format in report writing to provide it with a compact structure. Business reports and technical reports don’t have a uniform structure and are generally based on the topic or content they are elaborating on. Let’s have a look at the proper format of report writing generally for news and magazines and the key elements you must add in a news report:
To Read: How to Learn Spoken English?
The report writing structure for students in grades 10 and 12 is as follows.
- Heading : A title that expresses the contents of the report in a descriptive manner.
- Byline : The name of the person who is responsible for drafting the report. It’s usually included in the query. Remember that you are not allowed to include any personal information in your response.
- (introduction) : It The ‘5 Ws,’ or WHAT, WHY, WHEN, and WHERE, as well as WHO was invited as the main guest, might be included.
- The account of the event in detail : The order in which events occurred, as well as their descriptions. It is the primary paragraph, and if necessary, it can be divided into two smaller paragraphs.
- Conclusion : This will give a summary of the event’s conclusion. It might include quotes from the Chief Guest’s address or a summary of the event’s outcome.
Now that you are familiar with all the formats of report writing, here are some questions that you can practice to understand the structure and style of writing a report.
- You are a student of Delhi Public School Srinagar handling a campus magazine in an editorial role. On the increasing level of global warming, write a report on the event for your school magazine.
- On the Jammu-Srinagar highway, a mishap took place, where a driver lost his control and skidded off in a deep gorge. Write a report on it and include all the necessary details and eyewitness accounts.
- As a reporter of Delhi times, you are assigned to report on the influx of migrants coming from other states of the country. Take an official statement to justify your report.
- There is a cultural program in Central park Rajiv Chowk New Delhi. The home minister of India is supposed to attend the event apart from other delegates. Report the event within the 150-200 word limit.
- Write today’s trend of Covid 19 cases in India. As per the official statement. include all the necessary details and factual information. Mention the state with a higher number of cases so far.
- In Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium New Delhi, a table tennis tournament was held between Delhi public school New Delhi and DPS Punjab. Report the event in 250-300 words.
Also Read: Formal Letter Format, Types & Samples
Report Writ ing in 7 steps
- Choose a topic based on the assignment
- Conduct research
- Write a thesis statement
- Prepare an outline
- Write a rough draft
- Revise and edit your report
- Proofread and check for mistakes
Make sure that every piece of information you have supplied is pertinent. Remember to double-check your grammar, spelling, tenses, and the person you are writing in. A final inspection against any structural criteria is also important. You have appropriately and completely referenced for an academic work. Check to make sure you haven’t unintentionally, purposefully, or both duplicated something without giving credit.
Any business professional’s toolkit must include business reports. Therefore, how can you create a thorough business report? You must first confirm that you are familiar with the responses to the following three questions.
Every company report starts with an issue that needs to be fixed. This could be something straightforward, like figuring out a better way to organise procuring office supplies, or it could be a more challenging issue, like putting in place a brand-new, multimillion-dollar computer system.
You must therefore compile the data you intend to include in your report. How do you do this? If you’ve never conducted in-depth research before, it can be quite a daunting task, so discovering the most efficient techniques is a real plus.
Hopefully, this blog has helped you with a comprehensive understanding of report writing and its essential components. Aiming to pursue a degree in Writing? Sign up for an e-meeting with our experts at Leverage Edu and we will help you in selecting the best course and university as well as sorting the admission process to ensure that you get successfully shortlisted.
A writer with more than 10 years of experience, including 5 years in a newsroom, Ankita takes great pleasure in helping students via study abroad news updates about universities and visa policies. When not busy working you can find her creating memes and discussing social issues with her colleagues.
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- Create an introduction. Write a short introduction to the subject. Make it a two to three sentence explanation of the purpose and background of the project.
- Lay down the facts. Present the data one by one in every paragraph. Depending on the length of the report, make sure the paragraphs are interconnected.
- Write a summary. A technical report should contain a conclusion or in other words a recommendation. Mention any comment about your evaluation.
- Set an objective. Setting an objective gives you a guide as you write your technical report. It allows you to set the right disposition.
- Do your research. Make sure you know what you are writing. Do intensive research if you are not familiar with the subject or ask help from someone who can provide you relevant inputs.
- Create an outline. Creating your outline makes it easier for you to present your data. You will know which ones should come first and which needs highlights.
- A title page
- Summary of the research
- Description of the experiment
- Results and discussions
- Make sure your research information is reliable
- Stick to one format
- Use headings and subheadings wherever necessary
- Proofread your content for any grammatical errors.
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1. identify the approach that you will use, 2. work through a defined structure for the report, 3. identify the writing style you need to implement, 4. take the time to proofread the entire document, 5. prepare for the presentation of the technical report, share this post on your network, you may also like these articles, 28+ sample behavior incident reports in pdf | ms word.
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What is a Technical Report?
What is a Technical Report?
"A technical report is a document written by a researcher detailing the results of a project and submitted to the sponsor of that project." TRs are not peer-reviewed unless they are subsequently published in a peer-review journal.
Characteristics (TRs vary greatly): Technical reports ....
- may contain data, design criteria, procedures, literature reviews, research history, detailed tables, illustrations/images, explanation of approaches that were unsuccessful.
- may be published before the corresponding journal literature; may have more or different details than its subsequent journal article.
- may contain less background information since the sponsor already knows it
- classified and export controlled reports
- may contain obscure acronyms and codes as part of identifying information
- Physical sciences, engineering, agriculture, biomedical sciences, and the social sciences. education etc.
Documents research and development conducted by:
- government agencies (NASA, Department of Defense (DoD) and Department of Energy (DOE) are top sponsors of research
- commercial companies
- non-profit, non-governmental organizations
- Educational Institutions
- Issued in print, microform, digital
- Older TRs may have been digitized and are available in fulltext on the Intranet
- Newer TRs should be born digital
Definition used with permission from Georgia Tech. Other sources: Pinelli & Barclay (1994).
- Nation's Report Card: State Reading 2002, Report for Department of Defense Domestic Dependent Elementary and Secondary Schools. U.S. Department of Education Institute of Education Sciences The National Assessment of Educational Progress Reading 2002 The Nation’s
- Study for fabrication, evaluation, and testing of monolayer woven type materials for space suit insulation NASA-CR-166139, ACUREX-TR-79-156. May 1979. Reproduced from the microfiche.
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Introduction of Technical Report
- Difficulty Level : Easy
- Last Updated : 22 May, 2020
Technical Report shows the three things of scientific research, i.e., progress, process, and result. It also can have some conclusions. It contains less information but it is technical. The areas in which one can write technical writing are physical sciences, engineering, agriculture, biomedical sciences. In industry, technical reports are used to communicate technical information. This information helps in the process of decision making. Technical reports are used to communicate information to customers and managers. A technical report includes a title page, disclaimer, abstract, etc. Normally, if we talk about an organization, it is written by a junior to senior.
Mostly technical documents are prepared in this type of writing. It is prepared by the use of previously published articles. It is a very important part of the research. It is a practical working document. It is a systematic and well-organized presentation of facts. It is very important to understand the format of the technical report. It contains technical information and it is organized in a proper format.
A good technical report must contain the following:
- Title Section This includes the name of the author or authors and the date of report preparation.
- Introduction This section has the main points about the technical report. It introduces the topic of the report. It explains the problem. It indicates the purpose of the report. It briefly outlines the report structure.
- Body of Report The body is the most important part of the technical report because it carries our content. We should introduce small subheadings in our report. This will make the work more presentable. Information is usually arranged in order of importance. Information is usually arranged in order of importance with the most important information coming first.
- Results and Discussions This is where we are expected to explain the results that we obtained from our experiments. We should give a clear explanation so that the reader cannot ask themselves any question on our results.
- Conclusion The conclusion section sums up the key points of our discussion, the essential features of our design, or the significant outcomes of our investigations.
- Acknowledgement In this section, we are supposed to list all the people that helped us in coming up with our report. This includes even those that proofread our work to make sure it is well written
Qualities of a Good Technical Report:
Examples of Technical Reports:
- Lab Reports
- Factual Data Statistics
- Forms and Surveys
- Job application Materials
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Gold price a bit firmer as powell, u.s. jobs report in focus.
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( Kitco News ) - Gold prices are slightly higher and silver near steady in early U.S. trading in quieter trading Monday. Traders and investors are awaiting two major U.S. data points of the week. April gold was last down $2.10 at $1,856.70 and May silver was down $0.013 at $21.225.
Focus is on Fed Chairman Jerome Powell’s testimony on U.S. monetary policy to Senate and House committees on Tuesday and Wednesday. Then comes the February U.S. employment situation report from the Labor Department on Friday morning. The key non-farm payrolls component of the report is expected to show a rise of 225,000 jobs, following a mammoth rise of 517,000 in the January report.
Global stock markets were mixed overnight. U.S. stock indexes are pointed mixed openings when the New York day session begins, following solid gains and technically bullish weekly high closes posted last Friday.
In overnight news, China set a 5% target for its economic growth in 2023, which is the lowest forecast in over 25 years.
The key outside markets this morning see the U.S. dollar index firmer. Nymex crude oil futures prices are down and trading around $78.50 a barrel. The yield on the benchmark U.S. 10-year Treasury note is presently fetching 3.991%--down a bit after pushing above 4.0% last week.
U.S. economic data due for release Monday includes manufacturers’ shipments and inventories.
Technically, the gold futures bulls have regained the slight overall near-term technical advantage. A downtrend on the daily bar chart has been negated. Bulls’ next upside price objective is to produce a close in April futures above solid resistance at $1,900.00. Bears' next near-term downside price objective is pushing futures prices below solid technical support at $1,800.00. First resistance is seen at last week’s high of $1,864.40 and then at $1,875.00. First support is seen at $1,850.00 and then at $1,842.00. Wyckoff's Market Rating: 5.5
The silver bears have the overall near-term technical advantage. Prices are in a steep five-week-old downtrend on the daily bar chart. Silver bulls' next upside price objective is closing May futures prices above solid technical resistance at $22.25. The next downside price objective for the bears is closing prices below solid support at $19.00. First resistance is seen at $21.50 and then at $21.75. Next support is seen at $21.00 and then at this week’s low of $20.76. Wyckoff's Market Rating: 4.0.
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A technical report is described as a written scientific document that conveys information about technical research in an objective and fact-based manner. This technical report consists of the three key features of a research i.e process, progress, and results associated with it.
The goal of a technical report abstract is to boil down the essentials of the report into about 300 words. You need to provide a very quick rundown of what the report covers and any conclusions or recommendations you make in it. Write the abstract after you've written the actual report.
Technical reports (or scientific reports) are important sources of scientific and technical information derived from research projects sponsored by DOE; they describe the processes, progress, or results of research and development or other scientific and technological work, including recommendations or conclusions of the research and such …
50 Professional Technical Report Examples (+Format Samples) A technical report example is a written document made by a researcher which contains the details about a project's results. After creating the technical report, the researcher submits it to the project's sponsor.
A technical report is a formal report designed to convey technical information in a clear and easily accessible format. It is divided into sections which allow different readers to access different levels of information.
Reports are often written for multiple readers, for example, technical and financial managers. Writing two separate reports would be time-consuming and risk offending people who are not party to all of the information. One solution to this problem is strategic use of appendices (see page 5). A guide to technical report writing - Objectives 04 2.
A technical report is a brief, accurate document that is organized and prepared consistently. It is the one area where all of a project's content is written concisely and interpretably. It increases the simplicity with which readers can find the information they're looking for. Include headings and lists in the report to make it more accessible.
The formal technical report contains a complete, concise, and well-organized description of the work performed and the results obtained. Any given report may contain all of the sections described in these guidelines or a subset, depending upon the report requirements.
Due to the trajectory of the mpox outbreak, the mpox technical reports will be produced as needed moving forward, and not on a regular cadence. These are technical reports intended for scientific audiences. Additional information, including materials targeted to the general public, are available on CDC's mpox site. November 18, 2022.
Technical selling in corn & wheat, report positioning and hope on the Black Sea Export deal. Soybeans rebound w/meal making new highs on Argentina crop concerns. Cattle up with strong cash.
Technical report is a document that describes the progress, process, or results of scientific or technical research. It also can include some recommendations and conclusions.
A technical report is a document that you write after you've completed some form of research or project. These reports might be an option for project managers, scientific researchers and those who are assessing or troubleshooting something. The key factor is that a technical report describes something physical.
A technical report is a document that presents the results of research, analysis and experimentation in a way that both experts and non-experts can understand. Professionals in STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics), and other technical fields write technical reports for a specific audience.
Technical Assistance. EPA: Cyber Technical Assistance Program for the Water Sector: The Cyber Technical Assistance Program will support primacy agencies and water systems in implementing cybersecurity measures.Users may submit questions or request to consult with a subject matter expert regarding cybersecurity in PWS sanitary surveys or other cybersecurity matters.
Technical reports are a central part of your professional success and are usually designed to: Convince the reader of your position Persuade them to act, or Inform them of your findings. They are an opportunity for you to: Clearly communicate a solution to a problem Recommend action, and Aid decision making.
Definition Technical reports describe the process, progress, or results of technical or scientific research. Include in-depth experimental details, data, and results. Reasons to Use Technical reports are usually produced to report on a specific research need. They can serve as a report of accountability to the organization funding the research.
A technical report (also scientific report) is a document that describes the process, progress, or results of technical or scientific research or the state of a technical or scientific research problem.   It might also include recommendations and conclusions of the research.
A technical report is a common document describing the process and results of technical or scientific research. It may include in-depth experimental details, data, and further research recommendations. If you have some questions about this type of writing, you're welcome to find the main answers below:
Technical Reports. The main purpose of the technical report is to provide an empirical explanation of research-based material. Technical report writing is generally carried out by a researcher for scientific journals or product development and presentation, etc. A technical report mainly contains .
A technical report, as defined by Wikipedia, "is a document that describes the process, progress, or results of technical or scientific research or the state of a technical or scientific research problem. It might also include recommendations and conclusions of the research.". It contains important details about the specifications or ...
A technical report consists of three principal features of research, including the process, progress, and results associated with the study. Some common areas in which technical reports are prevalent are in industries like agriculture, engineering, and physical and biomedical science.
"A technical report is a document written by a researcher detailing the results of a project and submitted to the sponsor of that project." TRs are not peer-reviewed unless they are subsequently published in a peer-review journal.
Introduction of Technical Report. Technical Report shows the three things of scientific research, i.e., progress, process, and result. It also can have some conclusions. It contains less information but it is technical. The areas in which one can write technical writing are physical sciences, engineering, agriculture, biomedical sciences.
2023_0227 Sound Transit Technical Advisory Group - Final Report. p. 1. 1 Report to the Sound Transit Board: Improving the Speed of Project Delivery Submitted by: Technical Advisory Group February 2023.
Kitco News. ( Kitco News) - Gold prices are slightly higher and silver near steady in early U.S. trading in quieter trading Monday. Traders and investors are awaiting two major U.S. data points of the week. April gold was last down $2.10 at $1,856.70 and May silver was down $0.013 at $21.225. Focus is on Fed Chairman Jerome Powell's testimony ...