What's Your Question?
What Is a Case Study?
When you’re performing research as part of your job or for a school assignment, you’ll probably come across case studies that help you to learn more about the topic at hand. But what is a case study and why are they helpful? Read on to learn all about case studies.
Deep Dive into a Topic
At face value, a case study is a deep dive into a topic. Case studies can be found in many fields, particularly across the social sciences and medicine. When you conduct a case study, you create a body of research based on an inquiry and related data from analysis of a group, individual or controlled research environment.
As a researcher, you can benefit from the analysis of case studies similar to inquiries you’re currently studying. Researchers often rely on case studies to answer questions that basic information and standard diagnostics cannot address.
Study a Pattern
One of the main objectives of a case study is to find a pattern that answers whatever the initial inquiry seeks to find. This might be a question about why college students are prone to certain eating habits or what mental health problems afflict house fire survivors. The researcher then collects data, either through observation or data research, and starts connecting the dots to find underlying behaviors or impacts of the sample group’s behavior.
During the study period, the researcher gathers evidence to back the observed patterns and future claims that’ll be derived from the data. Since case studies are usually presented in the professional environment, it’s not enough to simply have a theory and observational notes to back up a claim. Instead, the researcher must provide evidence to support the body of study and the resulting conclusions.
As the study progresses, the researcher develops a solid case to present to peers or a governing body. Case study presentation is important because it legitimizes the body of research and opens the findings to a broader analysis that may end up drawing a conclusion that’s more true to the data than what one or two researchers might establish. The presentation might be formal or casual, depending on the case study itself.
Once the body of research is established, it’s time to draw conclusions from the case study. As with all social sciences studies, conclusions from one researcher shouldn’t necessarily be taken as gospel, but they’re helpful for advancing the body of knowledge in a given field. For that purpose, they’re an invaluable way of gathering new material and presenting ideas that others in the field can learn from and expand upon.
MORE FROM QUESTIONSANSWERED.NET
Activate your 30 day free trial to unlock unlimited reading.
How to write, analyze and present the case studies
You are reading a preview.
Activate your 30 day free trial to continue reading.
Check these out next
Download to read offline
This document is equally important for working professionals, university lecturers and graduates of higher education, especially in the management sciences.
More Related Content
Slideshows for you (9).
Viewers also liked (14)
Similar to How to write, analyze and present the case studies (20)
More from Rolling Plans Pvt. Ltd. (20)
Recently uploaded (20)
- 1. APPLYING CASE STUDY APPROACH IN MANAGEMENT STUDIES PREPARED BY C P RIJAL, PHD IN LEADERSHIP DIRECTOR, MBA PROGRAM GLOBAL COLLEGE INTERNATIONAL KATHMANDU, NEPAL PREPARED FOR GLOBAL COLLEGE INTERNATIONAL (GCI) KATHMANDU, NEPAL IN AFFILIATION WITH SHINAWATRA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY (SIU) PATHUM THANI, THAILAND LAST UPDATE AUGUST, 2015
- 2. Rijal, C. P. (2015). Applying case study approach in management studies. Kathmandu: Author. Page 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS SN CONTENTS PAGE 1 PREAMBLE………………………………………………………………….2 2 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE CASE STUDY…………………………………..5 3 ANALYZING THE CASE STUDY…………………………………………5 4 RULE 1: STARTEGIC APPROACH OF CASE ANALYSES……………...5 5 RULE 2: THE PROBLEM-TREE APPROACH……………………………10 6 WRITING A CASE STUDY……………………………………………….12 7 ADDITIONAL INPUTS TO BE CONSIDERED………………………….14 8 SIGNIFICANCE OF FINANCIAL ANALYSES IN A CASE STUDY…...15 9 BRING CASE DISCUSSION TO THE LIFE OF TEACHING-LEARNING…………………………………………………..21
- 3. Rijal, C. P. (2015). Applying case study approach in management studies. Kathmandu: Author. Page 2 APPLYING CASE STUDY APPROACH IN MANAGEMENT STUDIES By Chanakya P Rijal, PhD in Leadership 1. PREAMBLE A case study presents an account of ‘what happened’ to a business or industry or an institution over time. Here, the term ‘what happened’ refers to a problematic incident, event or situation. In business studies, it is applied in the study of various situations that the people in organizations, mostly the managers, are expected to deal, or have already dealt with problem situations. For example, the changes in the competitive environment may lead to changes in management responses, which usually involve changing the corporate, business, product or service-level strategy. A case study may be understood as a description of a real life business situation involving decision-making for problem-solving or taking benefit of evolving opportunities. It can be based on real situation that actually has happened just as described, or some portion is disguised for reasons of privacy. Most of the case studies are written in such a way that the reader takes the place of the manager whose responsibility is to make decision to solve the problem explained in the case situation. In almost all case studies, a decision must be made, even though the decision might be leaving the situation as it is and doing nothing. The case method is based on a philosophy that combines knowledge acquisition with significant student involvement. In the words of Alfred North Whitehead, the case method rejects the doctrine that students first learn passively, and then apply the knowledge. The case method is based on what John Dewey has stated -- Only by wrestling with the conditions of this problem at hand, seeking and finding his own way out, does [the student] think... If he cannot devise his own solution (not, of course, in isolation, but in correspondence with the teacher and other pupils) and find his own way out he will not learn, not even if he can recite some correct answer with a hundred percent accuracy. The case method brings reality into the classroom, if it is developed and presented effectively with rich and interesting details. Cases keep conceptual discussions grounded in the reality. Experience shows that simple fictional accounts of situations and collections of actual organizational data and articles from public sources are not as effective for learning as are fully developed cases. A comprehensive case presents the learners with a partial clinical study of a real-life situation faced by an organization or a practicing manager. A case presented in a narrative form provides motivation for involvement as it deals with the depth analyses of a specific situation. By framing alternative strategic actions and by confronting the complexity and ambiguity of the practical world, case analysis provides extraordinary power for learner involvement with a personal, experiential learning opportunity in a more pragmatic manner.
- 4. Rijal, C. P. (2015). Applying case study approach in management studies. Kathmandu: Author. Page 3 1. Case analysis requires learners practice important managerial skills -- diagnosing, making decisions, observing, listening, and persuading while preparing for a case discussion. 2. Cases require learners relate analyses and actions to develop realistic and concrete actions despite the complexity and partial knowledge characterizing the situation being studied. 3. Students must confront the intractability of reality as they are supposed to complete the whole story in absence of needed detailed information, an imbalance between needs and available resources, and conflicts among competing objectives. As illustrated above, the case method can help effective management conscious people develop their analytical and judgment skills. Case analysis also helps learn how to ask the right questions, i.e., the questions that focus on the core strategic issues included within a case. Learners aspiring to be effective and efficient managers can improve their ability to identify underlying problems, rather than focusing on superficial symptoms, through development of the skills required to probing with the use of appropriate questions. The particular set of cases a trainer chooses to assign the learning community can expose them to a wide variety of organizational cultures and managerial situations. The approach vicariously broadens the learners’ experience base and provides insights into many types of managerial situations, tasks, and responsibilities. Such indirect experience can help them make a more informed career decision about the industry and managerial situations they believe to be challenging and satisfying. More importantly, the truthful experience in analyzing cases definitely enhances the skill competence and maturity in dealing with issue-based probing and problem-solving. Further, when the learners practice the oral and written presentations, their communication skill will be improved as they go on using case methods of teaching learning. Of course, these added skills depend on participants’ personal preparation and facilitation of teaching learning. However, the primary responsibility for excellence goes to the learners, how they equip themselves. The quality of case discussion is generally acknowledged to require, at a minimum, a thorough mastery of case facts and some independent analyses of them. The case method, therefore, first requires that the learners thoroughly read and think carefully about each case. The case method of analyses in university classrooms is a teaching learning tool in which the students and instructors participate through direct discussions on given cases, as opposed to the lecture or story telling method, where the instructor speaks and students listen and take notes, or nod their heads. In case study method, the students learn to teach themselves, with the instructor being an active guide or facilitator rather than just a talking head delivering content. The focus is on students’ learning through their joint, co- operative or collaborative efforts.
- 5. Rijal, C. P. (2015). Applying case study approach in management studies. Kathmandu: Author. Page 4 Assigned cases are first prepared by the students under closer guidance of the instructor. Such preparation forms the basis for guided class discussion. Students learn, often unconsciously, how to evaluate a problem, how to make decisions, and how to orally argue a point of view. Using this method, they also learn how to think in terms of the problems faced by an administrator. In courses where the case method is used extensively, a significant part of students’ learning evaluation may rest with classroom discussion amid lively participation, with another substantial portion resting on written case analyses. For these reasons, using the case method tends to be a very intensive for both students and instructors. Case studies are used extensively though out most of the programs at the university level, business administration classes with no exception. In this respect, we have been receiving an overwhelming response from our learners of Leadership, Organizational Psychology, Strategic Management, Business Management, Human Resource Management, Organizational Development and Change, Brand Management, Advertising and Promotions Management, Managerial Communication, Consumer Behavior, Critical Thinking, Management Information System, Global Business, Research and Innovation, and other similar areas of teaching learning. Our past experience confirms that a case embedded approach of teaching learning practice helps setting a new height and excellence in learners’ professional career of university level teaching or managerial positions. The rational learners must understand for their life-term learning that this approach of teaching-learning may expose them with a bag full of collection of cases which may be directly applicable in their business endeavors. Case study approach has been proved valuable for several reasons. First, a case study provides the learners and instructors with experience of organizational problems that they did not have the opportunity to experience firsthand. In a relatively short period of time, the learners will have the chance to appreciate and analyze the problems faced by many companies and to understand how managers tried to deal with them. Second, a case study provides with opportunity to relate teaching situations with real-life, illustrative discussions making entire process pragmatically more effective. The meaning and implication of the information is made clear when it is applied to case studies. The theory and concepts help reveal what is going on in the institution under observation, and allow the learning community to evaluate the solutions that specify companies adopted to deal with their problems. Consequently, such a practice will help learners transform themselves as intelligent detectives, who with a set of conceptual tools, can easily probe what happened and what or who was responsible and then marshals the evidence that provides the solution. Top managers enjoy the thrill of testing their problem-solving abilities in the real world. It is important to remember, after all, that no one knows what the right answer is. All what managers can do is to make the best guess. In fact, managers repeatedly say that they are happy if they are right only half the time in solving strategic problems. Management is an
- 6. Rijal, C. P. (2015). Applying case study approach in management studies. Kathmandu: Author. Page 5 uncertain game, and using cases to see how theory can be put into practice is one of the ways to improve your skills of diagnostic investigation. Third, case studies provide the learners with opportunity to participate in class and to gain experience in presenting their ideas to others. Instructors may sometimes call on their learners as a group to identify what is going on in a case and through classroom discussions, the issues and solutions to the case problem will reveal themselves. In such a situation, as an effective learner, one will have to organize his or her views and conclusions so that it can be presented to the class. By doing so, it helps learn how differently others have analyzed the same situation, and also how to respond to the arguments of the rest of participants so as to establish the shared learning conclusions at the end. In fact, this is how the management decisions are made in the real business world. For the purpose of graduates’ collaborative learning, it also may be assigned to individuals, but more commonly to the groups, to analyze the case/s before the whole class. The presentation must cover the issues involved, the problems facing the company or institution, and a series of recommendations for resolving the problems. The discussions then should be placed open to the class, and mostly the instructor will have to help his or her graduates defend their ideas. Through such discussions and presentations, they will experience how to convey their ideas effectively to the other members. Please remember, a great deal of managers' time is spent on these kinds of situations, presenting their ideas and engaging in discussions with other managers, who have their own views about what is going on. Thus, the students should be effectively and adequately exposed to make them experience the real life situation in the classroom before joining the real world of managing organizations. As a case-based approach of teaching learning takes on the actual process of what goes on in a business setting, it finely serves the learners by imparting in them adequate skill competence, maturity and willingness to take challenging decisions for more prosperous careers. For the working executives, it helps them reaching back to the nature. Do you know what ‘back to nature’ all is about? The individual or group will be responsible for a thirty to forty-minute presentation of the case to the class, at the same time, taking whole members to the real world of happening. This is what ‘’back to the nature’ all about. Experiencing the truth through real-life discourses on problems or issues surpassing the organizations! While working in groups to analyze the case studies, they will also learn about the group processes involved in working as a team. When people work in groups, it is often difficult to schedule time and allocate responsibility for the case analysis. While working in groups, it is quite evidential that there will be a few group members who always tend to shirk their responsibilities; at the same time, there will be a few group members who are so sure of their own ideas that they try to dominate the entire group analyses. Similarly, in business, most negotiations take place in groups. So, the learners of business management must learn to harmonize their interpersonal and group skills by working on formally assigned case studies.
- 7. Rijal, C. P. (2015). Applying case study approach in management studies. Kathmandu: Author. Page 6 2. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE CASE STUDY In our understanding, a business case study is a powerful decision-making tool in business management studies due to some specific reasons. First, it forces the decision makers to follow a predetermined process or format to ensure all factors have been considered. Next, it inherently points the user to determine the risk factors and other major success factors. Finally, it allows multiple parties to review the case and its assumptions. The alternative to a business case study is decision making ‘on the fly’, ‘on the instinct’, or ‘back of the envelop’. All of these are shortcuts of doing the work and formally documenting the research, assumptions, and analyses. 3. ANALYZING A CASE STUDY As just mentioned, the purpose of the case study is to let the learners apply the concepts learnt while analyzing the issues facing a specific situation. To analyze a case study, therefore, one must examine closely the issues which the institution is confronted with. Most often, it may require a learner read the case several times - once to grasp the overall picture of what is happening to the company and then several times to discover and grasp the specific problems and issues and also the underlying reasons, and also making a sense of consequences of delaying or not resolving them. 4. RULE 1: THE STRATEGIC APPROACH OF CASE ANALYSES To be strategically oriented, a detailed analysis of a case study should include these eight areas: 1. Analyze the firm’s history, development, and growth over time 2. Identify the firm’s internal strengths and weaknesses 3. Scan the nature of the external environment surrounding the institution 4. Perform the firm’s SWOT analyses 5. Review the kind of corporate level strategy pursued by the institution 6. Assess the nature of company's business level strategy 7. Know about the company's structure and control systems and how they match its strategy 8. Produce recommendations for managerial implications and compliances 1. Analyze the company's history, development, and growth: A convenient way to investigate how a company's past strategy and structure affects it in the present is to chart the critical incidents in its history - that is, the events that were the most unusual or the most essential for its development into the company it is today. Some of the events have to be explored should include its founding history, inception stage offering, how it made new-product and market decisions, and how it developed and chose functional competencies to pursue. Its entry into new businesses and shifts in its main lines of business are also important milestones to consider while assessing the historical developments and growth. 2. Identify the company's internal strengths and weaknesses: Once the historical profile is completed, the learners can then begin with the SWOT analyses using all the incidents charted to develop an account of the company's strengths and
- 8. Rijal, C. P. (2015). Applying case study approach in management studies. Kathmandu: Author. Page 7 weaknesses as they have emerged historically. It is equally important to examine each of the value creation functions of the company, and identification of the functions in which the company is currently strong and the areas it is weak. A few companies might be weak in marketing, where others might be strong in research and development. The efficient learners must work in collaboration to make a list of these strengths and weaknesses. The SWOT analyses checklist gives examples of what might go in these lists. Figure: The SWOT Analyses Checklist Orientation of analyses Positive aspects Negative/problematic aspects Internal to the firm Strengths Weaknesses External to the firm Opportunities Threats/Constraints 3. Analyze the external environment: The next step is to identify environmental opportunities and threats or strategic constraints. Here, the learners should apply all information that has been acquired from the industry and macro environment to analyze the environment that the company is confronting. An important model that is widely used in performing external environment analyses at industry level is Porter's Five Forces Analyses [1. Chance of new entry, 2. Chance of substitution, 3. Bargaining power of the customers, 4. Bargaining power of the suppliers, and 5. Emergence of competitive rivalry among the firms] and another equally important model is the Life Cycle Model which assesses the overall level of maturity of the market and position of the firm’s offerings amid such maturity. Which factors in the macro environment will appear salient depends on the specific company case being analyzed. However, it should be attempted to use each factor in turn (for instance, demographic factors) to see whether it is relevant for the company in question. Having done this analysis, the participants undergoing case study will have generated both an analysis of the company's environment and a list of opportunities and threats specific to the institution or the company under observation. 4. Evaluate the SWOT analyses: Having identified the company's external opportunities and threats as well as its internal strengths and weaknesses, the learners
- 9. Rijal, C. P. (2015). Applying case study approach in management studies. Kathmandu: Author. Page 8 need to consider what their findings mean. That is, they need to balance the strengths and weaknesses against opportunities and threats. Is the company or institution in an overall strong competitive position? Can it continue to pursue its current business or corporate level strategy profitably? What can this institution do to turn weaknesses into strengths and threats into opportunities? Can it develop new functional, business, or corporate strategies to accomplish this change? Never merely generate the SWOT analyses and then put it aside. Because it provides a concise summary of the company's condition, a good SWOT analysis is the key to all the analyses that follow. 5. Analyze the institutional or corporate level strategies: To analyze a company's corporate-level strategy, first it is required to review the company's strategic thrusts [mission, vision, goals, objectives, value system, etc.]. If they do not have one, the reviewers must define and establish the strategic thrusts for them. Sometimes the mission and goals are stated explicitly in the case; at other times it may require to infer them from available information. The information needed to collect to find out the company's corporate strategy includes the factors like its line/s of business and the nature of its subsidiaries and acquisitions. It is important to analyze the relationship among the company's businesses. Do they trade or exchange resources? Are there gains to be achieved from synergy? Alternatively, is the company just running a portfolio of investments? This analysis should enable in defining the corporate strategy that the company is pursuing (for example, related or unrelated diversification or a combination of both) and to conclude whether the company operates in just one core business. Then, using the SWOT analyses, a debate should be established in favor of the merits of this strategy. Is it appropriate, given the environment the company is in? Could a change in corporate strategy provide the company with new opportunities or transform a weakness into strength? For example, should the company diversify from its core business into new businesses? Other issues should be considered as well. How and why has the company's strategy changed over time? What is the claimed rationale for any changes? Often it is a good idea to analyze the company's businesses or products to assess its situation and identify which divisions contribute the most to or detract from its competitive advantage. It is also useful to explore how the company has built its portfolio over time. Did it acquire new businesses, or did it internally venture its own? All these factors provide clues about the company and indicate ways of improving its future performance. 6. Analyze the business level strategies: Once the company's corporate level strategy is known and aligned in the SWOT analysis, the next step is to identify the company's business level strategy. If the company is a single business entity, its business level strategy is identical to its corporate level or institutional strategy. If the institution or the company is in many businesses, each business will have its own business level strategy.
- 10. Rijal, C. P. (2015). Applying case study approach in management studies. Kathmandu: Author. Page 9 The learners need to identify the company's generic competitive strategies -- differentiation, low-cost, preemptive move, or focus and its investment strategy, given the company's relative competitive position and the stage of the life cycle. The company also may market different products using different business level strategies. For example, it may offer a low-cost product range and a line of differentiated products. One should be sure to give a full account of the company's business level strategy to show how it competes. Identifying the functional strategies that a company pursues to build competitive advantage through superior efficiency, quality, innovation, and customer responsiveness to achieve its business level strategy is very important. The SWOT analysis provides with information on company's functional competencies. The learners should further investigate the company’s production, marketing and research and development strategy to gain clear a picture and direction where the company is heading. For example, pursuing a low-cost or a differentiation strategy successfully requires a very different set of competencies. Has the company developed the right ones? If it has, how can it exploit them further? Can it pursue both a low-cost and a differentiation strategy simultaneously? The SWOT analysis is especially important at this point if the industry analysis, particularly Porter's model, has revealed the threats to the company from the competitive environment. Can the company deal with these threats? How should it change its business level strategy to counter them? To evaluate the potential of a company's business level strategy, a thorough SWOT analyses has to be performed to capture the essence of its problems. Once you complete this analysis, you will have a full picture of the way the company is operating and be in a position to evaluate the potential of its strategy. Thus, the learners will be able to make recommendations concerning the pattern of its future actions. However, first consideration should be on strategic implementation, or the way the company tries to execute its strategy to achieve the stated goals. 7. Analyze structure and control systems: The aim of this analysis is to identify what structure and control systems the company or institution is using to implement its strategy and to evaluate whether that structure is the appropriate one for the company. Different corporate and business strategies require different structures. For example, does the company have the right level of vertical differentiation? Does it have appropriate number of levels in the hierarchy or decentralized control or horizontal differentiation? Does it use a functional structure when it should be using a product structure? Similarly, is the company using the right integration or control systems to manage its operations? Are managers being appropriately rewarded? Are there right rewards in place for encouraging cooperation among divisions? These are a few issues to be considered. In some cases there will be little information on these issues, whereas in others there will be a lot. Obviously, in analyzing each case one should gear the analysis toward its most salient issues. For example, organizational conflict, power, and politics will
- 11. Rijal, C. P. (2015). Applying case study approach in management studies. Kathmandu: Author. Page 10 be important issues for some companies. The emphasis must be on analyzing the reasons of occurrence of the problems or issues. Do they occur because of bad strategy formulation or because of bad strategy implementation? Organizational change is an issue in many cases because the institutions will be attempting to alter their strategies or structures to solve strategic problems. Thus, as a part of the analyses, a reviewer might suggest a plan of action that the company in question could use to achieve its goals. It might be listed in a logical sequence the steps the company would need to follow to alter its business level strategy from differentiation to focus. 8. Make recommendations: The last part of the case analyses process involves making recommendations based on overall observations and reviews. Obviously, the quality of recommendations is a direct result of the thoroughness with which the case analyses has been prepared. The efforts vested into the case analyses will be obvious from the instructor’s side as a professor to make the graduates internalize the problems and make real-life, sustainably suitable recommendations for managerial implications. Recommendations are directed at solving whatever strategic problem the company is facing and at increasing its future profitability. The recommendations should be in line with the analyses, i.e., they should follow logically from the previous discussion. For example, the recommendation generally will center on the specific ways of changing functional, business, and corporate strategy and organizational structure and control to improve business performance. The set of recommendations will be specific to each case, and thus it is difficult to discuss these recommendations here. Such recommendations might include an increase in spending on specific research and development projects, the divesting of certain businesses, a change from a strategy of unrelated to related diversification, an increase in the level of integration among divisions by using task forces and teams, or a move to a different kind of structure to implement a new business level strategy. Again, it has to be confirmed that the recommendations are mutually consistent and are written in the form of an action plan. The plan might contain a timetable that sequences the actions for changing the company's strategy and a description of how changes at the corporate level will necessitate changes at the business level and subsequently at the functional level. After following all these stages, each learner has to perform thorough analyses of the case and to be in a position to join in class discussion or present the ideas to the class, based on a format suggested by instructor, or required by the situation. Adequate consideration must be placed on tailoring the analyses to suit the specific issues discussed in the case. In some cases, it may require a complete omission one or a few of the steps discussed above because all steps may not be relevant to the situation considered. Each learner and instructor must be sensitive to the needs of the case and not
- 12. Rijal, C. P. (2015). Applying case study approach in management studies. Kathmandu: Author. Page 11 apply the framework we have discussed in this section blindly. The framework is meant only as a guide and not as an outline that must be used to perform the analyses more effectively. 5. RULE 2: THE PROBLEM-TREE APPROACH In many cases, it is required to put the learners into thinking of assessing problems or issues and their corrective measures within given problem situations, problem-tree approach (Rijal, 2015) of case analyses and presentation is more suitable. This approach of case studies/analyses is more useful in the case of small size, more critical problem situations requiring innovative thinking for providing with decision-alternatives and the overall process requires analyzing it following a sequence of seven steps presented as follows: Step I: Identify the issues or problems of the case Step II: Prioritize the issues and problems Step III: Consider whether it is necessary to determine the ‘cause’ of the problem Step IV: Brainstorm the options available to the decision-maker Step V: Evaluate the options Step VI: Select the optimum solution Step VII: Describe how the solution should be implemented Step 1: Identify the issues or problems of the case Thoroughly read the written case or watch the video case to identify a few problems or issues in the case. It is suggested to work first individually and then perform a group brainstorming to come up with a set of pertinent problems and issues governing the case in consideration. Step 2: Prioritize the issues and problems Based on the intensity and urgency of the diverse problem or issues identified, establish a priority listing of all the recognized problems and issues. The most important problem or issue must be placed with the first priority. At this stage, a few of the earlier identified problems or issues may be dropped from further consideration for analyses and presentation. Step 3: Consider whether it is necessary to determine the ‘cause’ of the problem For each problem prioritized, determine if it is really important to explore the cause of the problem or issues. For example, need for gender inclusion is an issue and exploring its cause may not be within the interest of a firm however the problems generated due to such compliance have to be well addressed. Step 4: Brainstorm the options available to the decision-maker At this stage, it requires a thorough discussion and outlining all possible options to be considered for facilitating to the decision-maker/s.
- 13. Rijal, C. P. (2015). Applying case study approach in management studies. Kathmandu: Author. Page 12 Step 5: Evaluate the options For each option, the merits and demerits must be assessed at this stage of case analyses. It requires a thorough portray of advantages and disadvantages of each option available for considering them as decision-alternatives. Step 6: Select the optimum solution After analyzing the advantages and disadvantages of each solution, the most beneficial and more impacting options must be selected for consideration in decision-making. While selecting such solutions, the intensity to create cross-impact also should be examined, i.e., a solution that has potential to nullify rest of problems should be given higher priority while selecting among available decision alternatives. Step 7: Describe how the solution should be implemented Finally, the recommendations must be developed in a chained order of procedure including what is to be done, why is it necessary to do it, who is to do it, when/where should it be done, how to do it, and finally for what outcomes should it be done. The above-mentioned method of case analyses may be accomplished using the worksheet provided as follows: Figure: Case analyses worksheet SN Working areas Working notes for analyses 1 What are the key issues or problems in the case? 1. _________________________________________ 2. _________________________________________ 3. _________________________________________ 4. _________________________________________ 5. _________________________________________ 2 Prioritize the issues or problems. Priority 1: ___________________________________ Priority 2: ___________________________________ Priority 3: ___________________________________ Priority 4: ___________________________________ Priority 5: ___________________________________ 3 Is it necessary to identify the cause of the problem? 1. Yes No 2. Yes No 3. Yes No 4. Yes No 5. Yes No
- 14. Rijal, C. P. (2015). Applying case study approach in management studies. Kathmandu: Author. Page 13 4 Brainstorm the options available for each problem solution 5 Evaluate the options Options Advantages Disadvantages 6 Select the optimum solution 7 Describe how the solution should be implemented Note: This is a tentative format only, the graduates undergoing the case analyses should prepare it in their notebooks using it as a dummy only for their structurally controlled but extended discussion. 6. WRITING A CASE STUDY Often, as part of course requirement in almost all subjects, the graduates and professors have to develop a number of cases by their own rather than relying on already available, outdated cases. Such a system better facilitates effective teaching-learning. This may be accomplished as part of individual or team work. The institutions like University Grants Commission (UGC), university departments, and a number of research and innovation centers also call for such case study projects to be accomplished as part of paid, individual as well as team research projects.
- 15. Rijal, C. P. (2015). Applying case study approach in management studies. Kathmandu: Author. Page 14 Whatever the situation be, the task should be governed by certain guidelines to follow in writing a case study. Before we outline these guidelines for the use, the respective writers of case studies must make sure that they do not conflict with any directions we have set in this respect. It is believed that at this level of profession, the structure of written piece should be not only more comprehensive, but also equally critical. In fact, the discussions provided in the previous section already must have provided with a vision of a good structure for a written case. All reports begin with an introduction to the case. But the captions entirely belong to the makers of them; they should work from the level and zone of their own comfort. Part I: Introduction In the introductory part, it should provide with a brief account of what the company does, how it developed historically, what problems it has been experiencing, and how you are going to approach the issues in the case write-up. To make the work of writing the case a systematic one, it needs be done by establishing a preview of the case. It can be done sequentially by writing, for example, "First, we discuss the environment of Company X...Third, we discuss Company X’s business-level strategy... Last, we provide recommendations for turning around Company X’s business." Part II: Perform Strategic Analyses In the second part of the case write-up, the strategic-analysis section, briefly perform the external [customer, competitor, market, macro environment] analyses and internal [performance and strategic options] analyses and establish the SWOT analyses on the basis of various inputs gathered through environmental analyses. Then analyze and discuss the nature and intensity of problems or issues that the institution has been facing at its corporate, business or product/service level/s before analyzing its culture, structure and control systems. We should make sure that relevant headings and subheadings are used to structure the analytical write-up of the case in text. For example, separate section can be developed on an important concept or methodological tool linked with the concern of the case taken into consideration. Meaning that, for example, there may appear a separate section on Porter’s Five Forces Analyses as part of analyzing the market competitiveness. Similarly, while analyzing the portfolios, it may require a distinctively separate sub-section of Corporate Strategy Analyses. Thus, we must tailor the sections and sub-sections to the specific issues of importance in the case. Interestingly, we may find plenty of room for the use of a number of tools developed from behavioral science perspectives in marriage with quantitative and qualitative models of analyses.
- 16. Rijal, C. P. (2015). Applying case study approach in management studies. Kathmandu: Author. Page 15 Part III: Produce Decision Alternatives In the third part of the case write-up, we should present the solutions and recommendations. While doing so, it must be made comprehensive by aligning with the various realities discussed in previous section so that the recommendations could fit together and move logically from one to the next. The recommendations must be specific, measurable, attainable, realistic and time-bound. It requires a thorough probing of a number of Wh-questions – what has to be done; why is it necessary for it to be done; who is responsible for it to be done; where should it be done; by when should it be done; how should it be done; and for what outcome? In many critical incidences, the case writer may not at all provide with solutions. Rather, the case may be crafted as such that the job for recommending with solutions is left as the responsibility of the person or group analyzing it. 7. ADDITIONAL INPUTS TO BE CONSIDERED Following this framework will provide a good structure for most written reports, though obviously it must be shaped to fit the individual case being considered. Some cases are about excellent companies experiencing no problems. In such instances, it is hard to write recommendations. Instead, the focus can be on analyzing why the company is doing so well, using that analysis to structure the discussions. Following are some suggestions that can help make a good analysis even better. 1. Do not repeat the summary of large pieces of factual information available from various sources. Other people might have already read the case and may know what is going on. Rather, such information should be used to craft the thesis of problem statements, to defend with solid arguments, or to make salient points. Beyond the brief introduction of the company, one must avoid being too descriptive. Instead, you must be analytical. 2. Make sure the sections and subsections of the discussion flow logically and smoothly from one to the next to build on what has gone before so that the discussion of the case study moves toward a climax. This is particularly important for group brainstorming, because there is a tendency for people in a group to split up the work and say, "I’ll do the beginning, you take the middle, and I’ll do the end." The result is a choppy, stilted analysis because the parts do not flow from one to the next, and it is obvious for the audience to feel that no real group work has been performed. 3. Avoid grammatical and spelling errors. They make the paper sloppy. All people admire simple and short language and hardly a few of them love long sentences with newer and more complicated words. 4. In some instances, cases dealing with well-known companies do not include up- to-date research because it was not available at the time the case was written. To safeguard from this problem, the people writing case must search for more information on what has happened to the company in last the few years.
- 17. Rijal, C. P. (2015). Applying case study approach in management studies. Kathmandu: Author. Page 16 5. Among the highly pertinent sources of information required for writing cases may include, the World Wide Web, the place to start a research for building a case. In addition, the compact disk sources also provide an amazing amount of good information, including summaries of recent articles written on specific companies that can be accessed in the library; companies themselves provide information in many cases if we write and ask for it; the magazines like Fortune, Business Week, and Forbes may have many articles on company featured cases to supplement the information base. 6. Sometimes the class hand-outs also facilitate graduates in writing cases and also analyzing them. 7. The most authentic approach of developing a case study is to perform a first-hand observation backed up by different approaches of data collection via mini- research. 8. All academic project work, thesis/dissertation works and scholarly articles prepared in tune with applied research can be transformed into case studies. 8. SIGNIFICANCE OF FINANCIAL ANALYSES IN A CASE STUDY An important aspect of analyzing and writing a case study and performing its analyses is the role and use of financial information. A careful analysis of the company's financial conditions immensely improves a case write-up and its presentation discussions. After all, financial data represent the concrete results of the company's strategy and structure. Although analyzing financial statements can be quite complex, a general idea of a company's financial position can be determined through the use of ratio analysis. Financial performance ratios can be calculated from the balance sheet and income statement. These ratios can be classified into five different categories – 1. profit ratios, 2. liquidity ratios, 3. activity ratios, 4. leverage ratios, and 5. shareholder-return ratios. These ratios should be compared with the industry average or the company's prior years of performance. It should be noted that deviation from the average is not necessarily bad. It simply warrants further investigation. For example, newer companies having purchased assets at different prices will likely have different capital structures than the older ones. In addition to the ratio analysis, a company's cash flow position is of critical importance and should be assessed. Cash flow shows how much actual cash a company possesses. Profit Ratios: Profit ratios measure the efficiency with which the company uses its resources. The more efficient the company, the greater is its profitability. It is useful to compare a company's profitability against that of its major competitors in the respective industry. Such a comparison tells whether the company is operating more or less efficient than its rivals. In addition, the change in a company's profit ratios over time tells whether its performance is improving or declining. A number of profit ratios can be used, and each of them measures a different aspect of a company's performance. Some of the most
- 18. Rijal, C. P. (2015). Applying case study approach in management studies. Kathmandu: Author. Page 17 commonly used profit ratios are gross profit margin, net profit margin, return on total assets, and return on stockholders' equity. 1. Gross profit margin: The gross profit margin simply gives the percentage of sales available to cover general and administrative expenses and other operating costs. It is defined as follows: Gross Profit Margin= Sales Revenue - Cost of Goods Sold Sales Revenue 2. Net profit margin: Net profit margin is the percentage of profit earned on sales. This ratio is important because businesses need to make a profit to survive in the long run. It is defined as follows: Net Profit Margin= Net Income Sales Revenue 3. Return on total assets: This ratio measures the profit earned by employing the assets. It is defined as: Return on Total Assets = Net Income Available to Common Stockholders Total Assets 4. Net income is the profit after preferred dividends (those set by contract) have been paid. Total assets include both current and noncurrent assets. 5. Return on stockholders' equity. This ratio measures the percentage of profit earned on common stockholders' investment in the company. In theory, a company attempting to maximize the wealth of it stockholders should be trying to maximize this ratio. It is defined as follows: Return on Stockholders' Equity = Net Income Available to Common Stockholders Stockholders' Equity Liquidity Ratios: A company's liquidity is a measure of its ability to meet short-term obligations. An asset is deemed liquid if it can be readily converted into cash. Liquid assets are current assets such as cash, marketable securities, accounts receivable, and so on. The two commonly used liquidity ratios are current ratio and quick ratio. 1. Current ratio: The current ratio measures the extent to which the claims of short- term creditors are covered by assets that can be quickly converted into cash. Most companies should have a ratio of at least 1, because failure to meet these commitments can lead to bankruptcy. The ratio is defined as follows: Current Ratio = Current Assets Current Liabilities
- 19. Rijal, C. P. (2015). Applying case study approach in management studies. Kathmandu: Author. Page 18 2. Quick ratio: The quick ratio measures a company's ability to pay off the claims of short-term creditors without relying on the sale of its inventories. This is a valuable measure since in practice the sale of inventories is often difficult. It is defined as follows: Quick Ratio = Current Assets -Inventory Current Liabilities Activity Ratios: Activity ratios indicate how effectively a company is managing its assets. Inventory turnover and days sales outstanding (DSO) are particularly useful: 1. Inventory turnover: This measures the number of times inventory is turned over. It is useful in determining whether a firm is carrying excess stock in inventory. It has been portrayed as follows: Inventory Turnover = Cost of Goods Sold Inventory Cost of goods sold is a better measure of turnover than sales, since it is the cost of the inventory items. Inventory is taken at the balance sheet date. Some companies choose to compute an average inventory, beginning inventory, plus ending inventory, but for simplicity use the inventory at the balance sheet date. 2. Day’s sales outstanding (DSO), or average collection period: This ratio is the average time a company has to wait to receive its cash after making a sale. It measures how effective the company's credit, billing, and collection procedures are. It is defined as follows: DSO = Accounts Receivable Total Sales/360 Accounts receivable is divided by average daily sales. The use of 360 is standard number of days for most financial analysis. Leverage Ratios: A company is said to be highly leveraged if it uses more debt than equity, including stock and retained earnings. The balance between debt and equity is called the capital structure. The optimal capital structure is determined by the individual company. Debt has a lower cost because creditors take less risk; they know they will get their interest and principal. However, debt can be risky to the firm because if enough profit is not made to cover the interest and principal payments, bankruptcy can occur. Three commonly used leverage ratios are debt-to-assets ratio, debt-to-equity ratio, and times-covered ratio. 1. Debt-to-assets ratio: The debt-to-asset ratio is the most direct measure of the extent to which borrowed funds have been used to finance a company's investments. It is defined as follows: Debt-to-Assets Ratio = Total Debt Total Assets
- 20. Rijal, C. P. (2015). Applying case study approach in management studies. Kathmandu: Author. Page 19 Total debt is the sum of a company's current liabilities and its long-term debt, and total assets are the sum of fixed assets and current assets. 2. Debt-to-equity ratio: The debt-to-equity ratio indicates the balance between debt and equity in a company's capital structure. This is perhaps the most widely used measure of a company's leverage. It is defined as follows: Debt-to-Equity Ratio = Total Debt Total Equity 3. Times-covered ratio: The times-covered ratio measures the extent to which a company's gross profit covers its annual interest payments. If the times-covered ratio declines to less than 1, then the company is unable to meet its interest costs and is technically insolvent. The ratio is defined as follows: Times-Covered Ratio = Profit Before Interest and Tax Total Interest Charges Shareholder-Return Ratios: Shareholder-return ratios measure the return earned by shareholders from holding stock in the company. Given the goal of maximizing stockholders' wealth, providing shareholders with an adequate rate of return is a primary objective of most companies. As with profit ratios, it can be helpful to compare a company's shareholder returns against those of similar companies. This provides a yardstick for determining how well the company is satisfying the demands of this particularly important group of organizational constituents. Four commonly used ratios are total shareholder returns, price-earnings ratio, market to book value, and dividend yield. 1. Total shareholder returns: Total shareholder returns measure the returns earned by time t + 1 on an investment in a company's stock made at time t. (Time t is the time at which the initial investment is made.) Total shareholder returns include both dividend payments and appreciation in the value of the stock (adjusted for stock splits) and are defined as follows: Total Shareholder Returns= Stock Price (t + 1) - Stock Price (t) + Sum of Annual Dividends per Share Stock Price (t) Thus, if a shareholder invests $2 at time t, and at time t + 1 the share is worth $3, while the sum of annual dividends for the period t to t + 1 has amounted to $0.2, total shareholder returns are equal to (3 - 2 + 0.2)/2 = 0.6, which is a 60 percent return on an initial investment of $2 made at time t. 2. Price-earnings ratio: The price-earnings ratio measures the amount investors are willing to pay per dollar of profit. It is defined as follows:
- 21. Rijal, C. P. (2015). Applying case study approach in management studies. Kathmandu: Author. Page 20 Price-Earnings Ratio = Market Price per Share Earnings per Share 3. Market to book value: Another useful ratio is market to book value. It helps measure a company's expected future growth prospects. It is defined as follows: Market to Book Value = Market Price per Share Earnings per Share 4. Dividends yield: The dividend yield measures the return to shareholders received in the form of dividends. It is defined as follows: Dividend Yield = Dividend per Share Market Price per Share Market price per share can be calculated for the first of the year, in which case the dividend yield refers to the return on an investment made at the beginning of the year. Alternatively, the average share price over the year may be used. A company must decide how much of its profits to pay to stockholders and how much to reinvest in the company. Companies with strong growth prospects should have a lower dividend payout ratio than mature companies. The rationale is that shareholders can invest the money elsewhere if the company is not growing. The optimal ratio depends on the individual firm, but the key decider is whether the company can produce better returns than the investor can earn elsewhere. Cash Flows: Cash flow position is simply cash received minus cash distributed. The net cash flow can be taken from a company's statement of cash flows. Cash flow is important for what it tells about a company's financing needs. A strong positive cash flow enables a company to fund future investments without having to borrow money from bankers or investors. This is desirable because the company avoids the need to pay out interest or dividends. A weak or negative cash flow means that a company has to turn to external sources to fund future investments. Generally, companies in strong-growth industries often find themselves in a poor cash flow position (because their investment needs are substantial), whereas successful companies based in mature industries generally find themselves in a strong cash flow position. A company's internally generated cash flow is calculated by adding back its depreciation provision to profits after interest, taxes, and dividend payments. If this figure is insufficient to cover proposed new-investment expenditures, the company has little choice but to borrow funds to make up the shortfall or to curtail investments. If this figure exceeds proposed new investments, the company can use the excess to build up its liquidity (that is, through investments in financial assets) or to repay existing loans ahead of schedule. 9. THE LEARNING POINTS When writing and evaluating a case, it is important to be systematic and logical. One must write and/or analyze a case in a logical fashion, beginning with the identification of
- 22. Rijal, C. P. (2015). Applying case study approach in management studies. Kathmandu: Author. Page 21 operating and financial strengths and weaknesses and environmental opportunities and threats. While doing so, adequate emphasis should be placed on assessing the value of a company's current strategies only when the person on this job is fully conversant with the SWOT analysis of the company. We should ask ourselves whether the company's current strategies make sense, given its SWOT analysis. If they do not, we should be able to portray alternative changes to be made. We also should be concerned on what recommendations are made. If the recommendations are not pragmatic, our effort does not make any sense. Above all, we should try to link all strategic recommendations with the SWOT analysis. We should state explicitly how the strategies identified would bring about advantages to the company, provided its existing strengths are fully exploited taking benefits of the prevailing environmental opportunities. It is equally important to provide strategic insights on how to counter the internal weaknesses and environmental threats. 10. BRING CASE DISCUSSION TO THE LIFE OF TEACHING-LEARNING The work of completing a case can be divided up into three components – preparation before the class discussion, class discussion proceedings of the case, and anything required after the class discussion has taken place. For maximum effectiveness, it is essential that we duly respect all three components. Here are the subcomponents: Before the class discussion: 1. Read the reading assignments (if any) 2. Use the Short Cycle Process to familiarize yourself with the case. 3. Use the Long Cycle Process to analyze the case 4. Usually there will be group meetings to discuss your ideas. 5. Write up the case (if required) During the class discussion: 6. Someone will start the discussion, usually at the prompting of the Instructor. 7. Listen carefully and take notes. Pay close attention to assumptions. Insist that they are clearly stated. 8. Take part in the discussion. Your contribution is important, and is likely a part of graduate evaluation for the course. After the class discussion: 9. Review as soon as possible after the class. Note what the key concept was and how the case fits into the course. It helps to have a system when sitting down to prepare a case study as the amount of information and issues to be resolved can initially seem quite overwhelming. The following is a good way to start.
- 23. Rijal, C. P. (2015). Applying case study approach in management studies. Kathmandu: Author. Page 22 A. The Short Cycle Process 1. Quickly read the case. If it is a long case, at this stage one may want to read only the first few and last paragraphs. For this, one should then be able to answer the following questions: a. Who is/are the decision maker/s in this case, and what is his/her/their position and responsibilities? b. What appears to be the issue of concern, problem, challenge, or opportunity and its significance for the organization? c. Why has the issue arisen and why is the decision maker involved now? d. When does the decision maker have to decide, resolve, act or dispose of the issue? What is the urgency to the situation? 2. Take a look at the exhibits to see what numbers have been provided. 3. Review the case sub-titles to see what areas are covered in more depth. 4. Review the case questions if they have been provided. This may give the analyzer some clues on knowing the main issues that are to be resolved. B. The Long Cycle Process At this point, the task consists of two parts: 1. A detailed reading of the case, and then 2. Analyzing the case. Most, but not all case studies will follow this format which comprises of a number of coherent actions. The purpose here is to thoroughly understand the situation and the decisions that will need to be made. We should take our time, make notes, and keep focused on the intended study objectives. At the same time, we should be sure that the overall task comprises of at least all these actions -- defining the issues or problems, analyzing the situation, analyzing the case data or information, generating alternatives, establishing cost-benefit analysis, selecting effective decision criteria, analyzing and evaluating alternatives, choosing among the most relevant alternatives for critical problem solving, developing a plan of action for the implementation of the plan. Step 1: Be familiar a. In general, determine who, what, how, where and when (the critical facts in a case). b. In detail, identify the places, persons, activities, and contexts of the situation. As the first step of an effective case analysis process, it is recommended to become familiar with the facts featured in the case and the focal firm's situation. Initially, one must become familiar with the focal firm's general situation (who, what, how, where, and when). Thorough familiarization demands appreciation of the nuances as well as the key issues in the case.
- 24. Rijal, C. P. (2015). Applying case study approach in management studies. Kathmandu: Author. Page 23 For gaining familiarity with a situation, it requires a thorough study at several situational levels, including interactions between and among individuals within groups, business units, the corporate offices, the local communities, and the academic society at large. Hopefully, recognizing relationships within and among these levels of discourses facilitates a more thorough understanding of the specific situation. It is also important that we should evaluate the information on a continuum of certainty. Information that is verifiable by several sources and judged along similar dimensions can be classified as a fact. Information representing someone's perceptual judgment of a particular situation is referred to as an inference. Information gleaned from a situation that is not verifiable is classified as speculation. Finally, information that is independent of verifiable sources and arises through individual or group discussion is an assumption. Obviously, case analysts and organizational decision makers prefer having access to facts over inferences, speculations, and assumptions. Personal feelings, judgments, and opinions evolve when people are working on case. It is important to be aware of our own feelings about the case and to evaluate the accuracy of perceived "facts" to ensure that the objectivity of our work is maximized. Step 2: Recognize the symptoms a. List all indicators (including stated "problems") that something is not as expected or as desired b. Ensure that symptoms are not assumed to be the problem (symptoms should lead to identification of the problem). Recognition of symptoms is the second step of an effective case analysis process. A symptom is an indication that something may not exactly be the same thing as someone thinks it should be. Sometimes, we may be tempted to correct the symptoms instead of searching for true problems. True problems are the conditions or situations requiring solution before an organizational, unit-wise, or individual performance can improve. Identifying and listing symptoms early in the case analysis process tends to reduce the temptation to label symptoms as problems. The focus of analyses should be on the actual causes of a problem, rather than on its symptoms. Therefore, it is important to remember that symptoms are indicators of problems; subsequent work facilitates discovery of critical causes of problems that a case recommendation must address. Step 3: Identify the goals a. Identify critical statements by major parties (people, groups, the work unit, etc.). b. List all goals of the major parties that exist or can be reasonably inferred. The third step of effective case analysis calls for identifying the goals of the major organizations, units, and/or individuals in a case. As appropriate, we should also identify each firm's strategic intent and strategic mission. Typically, these direction-setting statements (vision, mission, goals, objectives, strategies, etc.) are derived from comments
- 25. Rijal, C. P. (2015). Applying case study approach in management studies. Kathmandu: Author. Page 24 of the central characters in the organization, business unit, or top management team described in the case and/or from public documents, for example, annual report. Completing this step successfully sometimes can be difficult. However, the outcomes attained from this step may be essential to an effective case analysis because identifying goals, intent, and mission better helps clarify the major problems featured in a case and to evaluate alternative solutions to those problems. Direction-setting statements are not always stated publicly or prepared in written format. When this occurs, we must infer goals from other available factual data and information. Step 4: Conduct the analysis a. Decide which ideas, models, and theories seem useful. b. Apply these conceptual tools to the situation. c. As new information is revealed, cycle back to sub-steps ‘a’ and ‘b’. The fourth step of effective case analysis is concerned with acquiring a systematic understanding of the situation. Occasionally cases are analyzed in a less-than-thorough manner. Such analyses may be a product of a busy schedule or the difficulty and complexity of the issues described in a particular case. Sometimes the analyzers may face pressure on their limited amount of time and may believe that they can understand the situation described in a case with-out systematic analysis of all facts. However, experience shows that familiarity with a case's facts is a necessary, but insufficient, step to the development of effective solutions - solutions that can enhance a firm's strategic competitiveness. In fact, a less-than-thorough analysis typically results in an emphasis on symptoms, rather than problems and their causes. To analyze a case effectively, we should be skeptical of quick or easy approaches and answers. A systematic analysis helps us understand a situation and determine what works and what does not. Key linkages and underlying causal networks based on the history of the firm become apparent. In this way, we can separate causal networks from symptoms. The quality of a case analysis depends on applying appropriate tools. So, it is important that we should use the ideas, models, and theories that seem to be useful for evaluating and solving individual and unique situations. As we consider facts and symptoms, a useful theory may become apparent. Of course, having familiarity with conceptual models may be important in the effective analysis of a situation. Successful students and successful organizational strategists add to their intellectual tool kits on a continual basis. Step 5: Make diagnosis a. Identify predicaments (goal inconsistencies). b. Identify problems (discrepancies between goals and performance). c. Prioritize predicaments/problems regarding timing, importance, etc. The fifth step of effective case analysis-diagnosis is the process of identifying and clarifying the roots of the problems by comparing goals to facts. In this step, it is useful to search for predicaments. Predicaments are situations in which goals do not fit with known facts. When we evaluate the actual performance of an organization, business unit,
- 26. Rijal, C. P. (2015). Applying case study approach in management studies. Kathmandu: Author. Page 25 or individual, you may identify over or under-achievement (relative to established goals). Of course, single-problem situations are rare. Accordingly, we should recognize that the case situations we study probably will be complex in nature. Effective diagnosis requires us determine the problems affecting longer-term performance and those requiring immediate handling. Understanding these issues will aid our efforts to prioritize problems and predicaments, given available resources and existing constraints. Step 6: Do the action planning a. Specify and prioritize the criteria used to choose action alternatives. b. Discover or invent feasible action alternatives c. Examine the probable consequences of action alternatives. d. Select a course of action. e. Design the implementation plan of action. f. Create a plan for assessing the action results. The final step of an effective case analysis process is called action planning. Action planning is the process of identifying appropriate alternative actions. Important in the action planning step is selection of the criteria we use to evaluate the identified alternatives. We may derive these criteria from the analyses; typically, they are related to key strategic situations facing the focal organization. Furthermore, it is important that we prioritize these criteria to ensure a rational and effective evaluation of alternative courses of action. Typically, managers feel content when selecting courses of actions; that is, they find acceptable courses of action that meet most of the chosen evaluation criteria. A rule of thumb that has proved valuable to strategic decision makers is to select an alternative that keeps aside another possible alternative available if the one selected fails. Once we have selected the best alternative, we must specify the implementation plan. Developing a plan of action for implementation serves as a reality check on the feasibility of your alternative. We should give thoughtful considerations to all issues associated with the implementation of the selected alternative.
Public clipboards featuring this slide, select another clipboard.
Looks like you’ve clipped this slide to already.
You just clipped your first slide!
Create a clipboard
Get slideshare without ads, special offer to slideshare readers, just for you: free 60-day trial to the world’s largest digital library..
The SlideShare family just got bigger. Enjoy access to millions of ebooks, audiobooks, magazines, and more from Scribd.
You have now unlocked unlimited access to 20M+ documents!
Learn faster and smarter from top experts
Download to take your learnings offline and on the go
Instant access to millions of ebooks, audiobooks, magazines, podcasts and more.
Read and listen offline with any device.
Free access to premium services like Tuneln, Mubi and more.
Help us keep SlideShare free
It appears that you have an ad-blocker running. By whitelisting SlideShare on your ad-blocker, you are supporting our community of content creators.
When you’re performing research as part of your job or for a school assignment, you’ll probably come across case studies that help you to learn more about the topic at hand. But what is a case study and why are they helpful? Read on to lear...
Case studies are important because they help make something being discussed more realistic for both teachers and learners. Case studies help students to see that what they have learned is not purely theoretical but instead can serve to crea...
Examples of a case study could be anything from researching why a single subject has nightmares when they sleep in their new apartment, to why a group of people feel uncomfortable in heavily populated areas. A case study is an in-depth anal...
The case study should : Relate the theory to a practical situation; for example,. Points to remember : Case It is the “real life” situation.
Steps of case study writing • Determine and define the research questions • Select the cases. The case study report • • • • • • • • • • • Title.
Writing a Case Study · 1. Case Studies Mr. · 2. Case Study <ul><li>A detailed description of a particular individual that gives us insight into a person's
This will be your topic sentence. Explanation: what do you mean? Offer some evidence and explanation. Examples: make sure that you illustrate your point with
1st Draft • Note any relevant assumptions • Don't immediately jump to any conclusions. 2nd Draft • Assemble everything written so far • Be
5. Provide symptoms of the situation 6. Let student analyse the symptoms. Decide what you need to test in students through the case study.
writing case study requires clear understanding of case. So it becomes imperative that one follows step required to write a good case study.
18. Steps Involved in a Case Study 5. Analyze Data • Review all relevant documents. ... Review all interview/survey data. 6. Disseminate Findings
Title should be such that is able to catch people's attention. ... Introduction to case study: It includes main aims and themes of the study.
CASE STUDY FORMAT Title Page Executive Summary The purpose of the Executive Summary is to consolidate the principal points…
Rijal, C. P. (2015). Applying case study approach in management studies. Kathmandu: Author. Page 3 1. Case analysis requires learners practice important