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- What Is a Case Study? | Definition, Examples & Methods
What Is a Case Study? | Definition, Examples & Methods
Published on May 8, 2019 by Shona McCombes . Revised on January 30, 2023.
A case study is a detailed study of a specific subject, such as a person, group, place, event, organization, or phenomenon. Case studies are commonly used in social, educational, clinical, and business research.
A case study research design usually involves qualitative methods , but quantitative methods are sometimes also used. Case studies are good for describing , comparing, evaluating and understanding different aspects of a research problem .
Table of contents
When to do a case study, step 1: select a case, step 2: build a theoretical framework, step 3: collect your data, step 4: describe and analyze the case.
A case study is an appropriate research design when you want to gain concrete, contextual, in-depth knowledge about a specific real-world subject. It allows you to explore the key characteristics, meanings, and implications of the case.
Case studies are often a good choice in a thesis or dissertation . They keep your project focused and manageable when you don’t have the time or resources to do large-scale research.
You might use just one complex case study where you explore a single subject in depth, or conduct multiple case studies to compare and illuminate different aspects of your research problem.
Once you have developed your problem statement and research questions , you should be ready to choose the specific case that you want to focus on. A good case study should have the potential to:
- Provide new or unexpected insights into the subject
- Challenge or complicate existing assumptions and theories
- Propose practical courses of action to resolve a problem
- Open up new directions for future research
Unlike quantitative or experimental research , a strong case study does not require a random or representative sample. In fact, case studies often deliberately focus on unusual, neglected, or outlying cases which may shed new light on the research problem.
However, you can also choose a more common or representative case to exemplify a particular category, experience or phenomenon.
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While case studies focus more on concrete details than general theories, they should usually have some connection with theory in the field. This way the case study is not just an isolated description, but is integrated into existing knowledge about the topic. It might aim to:
- Exemplify a theory by showing how it explains the case under investigation
- Expand on a theory by uncovering new concepts and ideas that need to be incorporated
- Challenge a theory by exploring an outlier case that doesn’t fit with established assumptions
To ensure that your analysis of the case has a solid academic grounding, you should conduct a literature review of sources related to the topic and develop a theoretical framework . This means identifying key concepts and theories to guide your analysis and interpretation.
There are many different research methods you can use to collect data on your subject. Case studies tend to focus on qualitative data using methods such as interviews , observations , and analysis of primary and secondary sources (e.g., newspaper articles, photographs, official records). Sometimes a case study will also collect quantitative data.
The aim is to gain as thorough an understanding as possible of the case and its context.
In writing up the case study, you need to bring together all the relevant aspects to give as complete a picture as possible of the subject.
How you report your findings depends on the type of research you are doing. Some case studies are structured like a standard scientific paper or thesis , with separate sections or chapters for the methods , results and discussion .
Others are written in a more narrative style, aiming to explore the case from various angles and analyze its meanings and implications (for example, by using textual analysis or discourse analysis ).
In all cases, though, make sure to give contextual details about the case, connect it back to the literature and theory, and discuss how it fits into wider patterns or debates.
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What's the difference between and
Case vs. Example
An actual event, situation, or fact.
‘For a change, in this case, he was telling the truth.’; ‘It is not the case that every unfamiliar phrase is an idiom.’; ‘In case of fire, break glass. [sign on fire extinguisher holder in public space]’;
Something that is representative of all such things in a group.
A given condition or state.
Something that serves to illustrate or explain a rule.
A piece of work, specifically defined within a profession.
‘It was one of the detective's easiest cases.’; ‘Social workers should work on a maximum of forty active cases.’; ‘The doctor told us of an interesting case he had treated that morning.’;
Something that serves as a pattern of behaviour to be imitated (a good example) or not to be imitated (a bad example).
(academia) An instance or event as a topic of study.
‘The teaching consists of theory lessons and case studies.’;
A person punished as a warning to others.
(legal) A legal proceeding, lawsuit.
A parallel or closely similar case, especially when serving as a precedent or model.
(grammar) A specific inflection of a word depending on its function in the sentence.
‘The accusative case canonically indicates a direct object.’; ‘Latin has six cases, and remnants of a seventh.’;
An instance (as a problem to be solved) serving to illustrate the rule or precept or to act as an exercise in the application of the rule.
Grammatical cases and their meanings taken either as a topic in general or within a specific language.
‘Jane has been studying case in Caucasian languages.’; ‘Latin is a language that employs case.’;
To be illustrated or exemplified (by).
(medicine) An instance of a specific condition or set of symptoms.
‘There were another five cases reported overnight.’;
One or a portion taken to show the character or quality of the whole; a sample; a specimen.
(programming) A section of code representing one of the actions of a conditional switch.
That which is to be followed or imitated as a model; a pattern or copy.
‘For I have given you an example, that ye should do as I have done to you.’; ‘I gave, thou sayest, the example; I led the way.’;
A box that contains or can contain a number of identical items of manufacture.
That which resembles or corresponds with something else; a precedent; a model.
‘Such temperate order in so fierce a causeDoth want example.’;
A box, sheath, or covering generally.
‘a case for spectacles; the case of a watch’;
That which is to be avoided; one selected for punishment and to serve as a warning; a warning.
‘Hang him; he'll be made an example.’; ‘Now these things were our examples, to the intent that we should not lust after evil things, as they also lusted.’;
A piece of luggage that can be used to transport an apparatus such as a sewing machine.
An instance serving for illustration of a rule or precept, especially a problem to be solved, or a case to be determined, as an exercise in the application of the rules of any study or branch of science; as, in trigonometry and grammar, the principles and rules are illustrated by examples.
An enclosing frame or casing.
‘a door case; a window case’;
To set an example for; to give a precedent for; to exemplify; to give an instance of; to instance.
‘Burke devoted himself to this duty with a fervid assiduity that has not often been exampled, and has never been surpassed.’;
an item of information that is representative of a type;
‘this patient provides a typical example of the syndrome’; ‘there is an example on page 10’;
A piece of furniture, constructed partially of transparent glass or plastic, within which items can be displayed.
a representative form or pattern;
‘I profited from his example’;
The outer covering or framework of a piece of apparatus such as a computer.
something to be imitated;
‘an exemplar of success’; ‘a model of clarity’; ‘he is the very model of a modern major general’;
A shallow tray divided into compartments or "boxes" for holding type, traditionally arranged in sets of two, the "upper case" (containing capitals, small capitals, accented) and "lower case" (small letters, figures, punctuation marks, quadrats, and spaces).
punishment intended as a warning to others;
‘they decided to make an example of him’;
The nature of a piece of alphabetic type, whether a “capital” (upper case) or “small” (lower case) letter.
an occurrence of something;
‘it was a case of bad judgment’; ‘another instance occurred yesterday’; ‘but there is always the famous example of the Smiths’;
(poker slang) Four of a kind.
a task performed or problem solved in order to develop skill or understanding;
‘you must work the examples at the end of each chapter in the textbook’;
(US) A unit of liquid measure used to measure sales in the beverage industry, equivalent to 192 fluid ounces.
a thing characteristic of its kind or illustrating a general rule
‘advertising provides a good example of an industry where dreams have faded’;
(mining) A small fissure which admits water into the workings.
a written problem or exercise designed to illustrate a rule
‘a workbook and a data set will enable the researcher to follow worked examples’;
A thin layer of harder metal on the surface of an object whose deeper metal is allowed to remain soft.
a person or thing regarded in terms of their fitness to be imitated
‘it is important that parents should set an example’; ‘he followed his brother's example and deserted his family’;
(obsolete) To propose hypothetical cases.
be illustrated or exemplified
‘the extent of Allied naval support is exampled by the navigational specialists provided’;
(transitive) To place (an item or items of manufacture) into a box, as in preparation for shipment.
(transitive) To cover or protect with, or as if with, a case; to enclose.
To survey (a building or other location) surreptitiously, as in preparation for a robbery.
(poker slang) The last remaining card of a particular rank.
‘He drew the case eight!’;
A box, sheath, or covering; as, a case for holding goods; a case for spectacles; the case of a watch; the case (capsule) of a cartridge; a case (cover) for a book.
A box and its contents; the quantity contained in a box; as, a case of goods; a case of instruments.
A shallow tray divided into compartments or "boxes" for holding type.
An inclosing frame; a casing; as, a door case; a window case.
A small fissure which admits water to the workings.
Chance; accident; hap; opportunity.
‘By aventure, or sort, or cas.’;
That which befalls, comes, or happens; an event; an instance; a circumstance, or all the circumstances; condition; state of things; affair; as, a strange case; a case of injustice; the case of the Indian tribes.
‘In any case thou shalt deliver him the pledge.’; ‘If the case of the man be so with his wife.’; ‘And when a lady's in the caseYou know all other things give place.’; ‘You think this madness but a common case.’; ‘I am in case to justle a constable,’;
A patient under treatment; an instance of sickness or injury; as, ten cases of fever; also, the history of a disease or injury.
‘A proper remedy in hypochondriacal cases.’;
The matters of fact or conditions involved in a suit, as distinguished from the questions of law; a suit or action at law; a cause.
‘Let us consider the reason of the case, for nothing is law that is not reason.’; ‘Not one case in the reports of our courts.’;
One of the forms, or the inflections or changes of form, of a noun, pronoun, or adjective, which indicate its relation to other words, and in the aggregate constitute its declension; the relation which a noun or pronoun sustains to some other word.
‘Case is properly a falling off from the nominative or first state of word; the name for which, however, is now, by extension of its signification, applied also to the nominative.’;
To cover or protect with, or as with, a case; to inclose.
‘The man who, cased in steel, had passed whole days and nights in the saddle.’;
To strip the skin from; as, to case a box.
To propose hypothetical cases.
a comprehensive term for any proceeding in a court of law whereby an individual seeks a legal remedy;
‘the family brought suit against the landlord’;
a special set of circumstances;
‘in that event, the first possibility is excluded’; ‘it may rain in which case the picnic will be canceled’;
a problem requiring investigation;
‘Perry Mason solved the case of the missing heir’;
the actual state of things;
‘that was not the case’;
a statement of facts and reasons used to support an argument;
‘he stated his case clearly’;
a portable container for carrying several objects;
‘the musicians left their instrument cases backstage’;
a person who is subjected to experimental or other observational procedures; someone who is an object of investigation;
‘the subjects for this investigation were selected randomly’; ‘the cases that we studied were drawn from two different communities’;
a person requiring professional services;
‘a typical case was the suburban housewife described by a marriage counselor’;
the quantity contained in a case
a glass container used to store and display items in a shop or museum or home
a specific state of mind that is temporary;
‘a case of the jitters’;
nouns or pronouns or adjectives (often marked by inflection) related in some way to other words in a sentence
the housing or outer covering of something;
‘the clock has a walnut case’;
a person of a specified kind (usually with many eccentricities);
‘a real character’; ‘a strange character’; ‘a friendly eccentric’; ‘the capable type’; ‘a mental case’;
an enveloping structure or covering enclosing an animal or plant organ or part
the enclosing frame around a door or window opening;
‘the casings had rotted away and had to be replaced’;
bed linen consisting of a cover for a pillow;
‘the burglar carried his loot in a pillowcase’;
look over, usually with the intention to rob;
‘They men cased the housed’;
enclose in, or as if in, a case;
‘my feet were encased in mud’;
an instance of a particular situation; an example of something occurring
‘a case of mistaken identity’; ‘in many cases farmers do have a deep feeling for their land’;
the situation affecting or relating to a particular person or thing
‘I'll make an exception in your case’;
an incident or set of circumstances under official investigation by the police
‘a murder case’;
an instance of a disease, injury, or problem
‘200,000 cases of hepatitis B’;
a person or their particular problem requiring or receiving medical or welfare attention
‘urgent cases were turned away from the hospital’; ‘the local social services discussed Gemma's case’; ‘most breast cancer cases were older women’;
a person whose situation is regarded as pitiable or as having no chance of improvement
‘Vicky was a very sad case’;
an amusing or eccentric person.
a legal action, especially one to be decided in a court of law
‘a libel case’; ‘a former employee brought the case against the council’;
a set of facts or arguments supporting one side in a legal case
‘the case for the defence’;
a set of facts or arguments supporting one side of a debate or controversy
‘the case against tobacco advertising’;
an agreed summary of the facts relating to a legal case, drawn up for review or decision on a point of law by a higher court.
any of the forms of a noun, adjective, or pronoun that express the semantic relation of the word to other words in the sentence
‘the accusative case’;
a container designed to hold or protect something
‘a silver cigarette case’;
the outer protective covering of a natural or manufactured object
‘a seed case’;
an item of luggage; a suitcase.
a box containing twelve bottles of wine or other drink, sold as a unit
‘a case of champagne’;
each of the two forms, capital or minuscule, in which a letter of the alphabet may be written or printed.
surround in a material or substance
‘the towers are of steel cased in granite’;
enclose in a protective container
‘he cased his glasses carefully and walked out’;
reconnoitre (a place) before carrying out a robbery
‘I was casing the joint’;
Writing A Case Study
Case Study Examples
20+ Unique Case Study Examples in 2023
16 min read
Published on: Jun 26, 2019
Last updated on: Feb 28, 2023
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Many students face challenges when writing a case study.
Most people don't realize that there are specific guidelines to follow when writing a case study. If you don't know where to start, it's easy to get overwhelmed and give up before you even begin.
Don't worry! Let us help you out!
We've collected over 20+ free case study examples with solutions from top industry experts. These samples with solutions will help you win over your panel and score high marks on your case studies.
So, what are you waiting for? Let's dive in and learn the secrets to writing a successful case study.
What is a Case Study?
A case study is a research method used to study a particular individual, group, or situation in depth. It involves analyzing and interpreting data from a variety of sources to gain insight into the subject being studied.
Case studies are commonly used in fields such as psychology, business, and education to understand complex issues and develop solutions. They typically include detailed descriptions of the subject, background information, and an analysis of the key issues involved.
The goal of a case study is to provide a comprehensive understanding of the subject, as well as to identify potential solutions or recommendations.
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How Long Should a Case Study Be?
What you need to include in your story will depend on the type of discipline. For example, a kitchen remodeling company could tell its entire story with pictures. Whereas this approach may not be suitable for a software invoicing solution.
Consider this pro advice while crafting your case study:
- Most sources indicate that it should consist of 500-1500 words.
- To ensure that your message is concise and crystal clear, add a brief snapshot section of 100 words or less.
Want to understand the basics of the case study? Click right here to learn: Case study
What Is a Marketing Case Study?
This type of case study focuses on a particular marketing challenge or problem. It analyzes the strategies used to overcome the challenge and achieve a successful outcome.
Marketing case studies can be used to showcase effective marketing tactics, as well as to learn from failures and avoid common pitfalls. They often include details about the target audience, marketing channels used, and metrics to measure success.
Marketing case studies are commonly used in business courses to help students understand marketing challenges and develop strategies.
Marketing Case Study Examples
Marketing case studies are real-life stories that showcase how a business solved a problem. They often discuss how a business achieved a goal using a specific marketing strategy or tactic.
They typically describe a challenge faced by a business, the solution implemented, and the results achieved.
The purpose of a marketing case study is to demonstrate a business's expertise and ability to solve problems. This is done to show their potential to customers.
Here are some examples that show how companies use case studies as a means of marketing and promotion:
1- "Chevrolet Discover the Unexpected" by Carol H. Williams
This case study explores Chevrolet's DTU Journalism Fellows program. The case study uses the initials "DTU" to generate interest and encourage readers to learn more. There are multiple types of media such as images and videos used to explain the challenges faced. The case study concludes with an overview of the achievements that were met:
Key points from the case study include:
- Using a well-known brand name in the title can create interest.
- Combining different media types, such as headings, images, and videos, can help engage readers and make the content more memorable.
- Providing a summary of the key achievements at the end of the case study can help readers better understand the project's impact.
2- “The Met” by Fantasy
Fantasy's case study for the Metropolitan Museum of Art, titled "The Met," provides a clear and simple showcase of the museum's website redesign. The case study emphasizes the features and interface of the website by showcasing each section of the interface individually, allowing the readers to concentrate on the significant elements.
For those who prefer text, each feature includes an objective description. The case study also includes a "Contact Us" call-to-action at the bottom of the page, inviting visitors to get in touch with the company.
Key points from this case study include:
- Keeping the case study simple and clean can help readers focus on the most important aspects.
- Presenting the features and solutions with a visual showcase can be more effective than writing a lot of text.
- Including a clear call-to-action at the end of the case study can encourage visitors to contact the company for more information.
3- "In-Depth Performance Marketing Case Study," by Switch
This impressive case study presented by an international marketing agency, Switch, effectively communicates its client's success without revealing their name. To keep non-marketers in the loop, Switch includes a glossary of terms. The case study is presented in a fourteen-page PDF that's easy to skim, featuring big fonts and white space. Each page covers a different strategy, making it easy to navigate.
To provide readers with an overview of the client's requirements and reasons for approaching Switch, the Switch case study employs titles such as "Scenario," "Approach," and "In-Depth Performance Marketing Case Study" at a higher level. The PDF also features a CTA page and contact information for prospective clients.
Key points from the Switch case study:
- Include a glossary of terms to make specialized information accessible to non-specialists.
- Make your case study easy to navigate by using titles and separating sections.
- Close with a CTA page and include contact information for prospective clients.
4- “Better Experiences for All” by Herman Miller
Herman Miller's minimalist approach to furniture design translates to their case study page for a Dubai hospital. The page features a captivating video with closed-captioning and expandable text for accessibility.
The case study presents a wealth of information in a concise format, enabling users to comprehend the intricacies of the strategy with ease. It concludes with a client testimonial and a list of furniture items purchased from the brand.
Key points from the case study:
- Make sure your case study is user-friendly by including accessibility features like closed captioning and expandable text.
- Include a list of products that were used in the project to guide potential customers.
5- “NetApp” by Evisort
The NetApp case study by Evisort is an excellent example of an informative, thorough, and compelling case study. Evisort starts off the case study with an at-a-glance overview of the client, NetApp. This approach helps to focus the attention on the client rather than the company or team.
The case study features client quotes and delves into the obstacles that NetApp encountered during the COVID pandemic. By highlighting how its services helped NetApp during tough times, Evisort demonstrates its value as a partner to their clients.
To make the case study accessible in a wider variety of formats, Evisort provides access to download their study in PDF format. This is an important consideration for making the case study easy to share and reference.
Key points from the Evisort example:
- Provide an overview of the company in the client’s words and put focus on the customer.
- Highlight how your services can help clients during challenging times.
- Make your case study accessible by providing it in various formats.
6- "Red Sox Season Campaign," by CTP Boston
The case study for the Red Sox Season Campaign by CTP Boston showcases a perfect blend of different media, such as video, text, and images. Upon visiting the page, the video plays automatically, and as you scroll, you'll find more videos featuring Red Sox players, social media images, and print ads that can be enlarged with a click.
The page features a clean and cohesive design that is visually appealing and invites viewers to appreciate CTP's well-rounded campaign for Boston's beloved baseball team. At the bottom, the page includes a call-to-action that encourages viewers to learn how CTP can create a similar campaign for their own brand.
Key points to take away:
- Including a variety of media such as video, images, and text can make your case study more engaging and compelling.
- Include a call-to-action at the end of your study that encourages viewers to take the next step towards becoming a customer or prospect.
7- “Zapier Case Study” by Ryan Berg
Ryan Berg's SEO case study on Zapier is an excellent example of an explanatory case study that can be used for marketing purposes. The study provides a comprehensive breakdown of Zapier's SEO strategy and how they created over 25,000 unique landing pages to improve their search rankings for different search terms.
One of Zapier's key strategies involved targeting relevant long-tail keywords such as "app A + app B integration," which helped them generate significant organic traffic over the long term. By analyzing the success of industry leaders and breaking down their strategies, businesses can borrow their brand power and credibility.
Explanatory case studies like this one are particularly useful when clients are not comfortable with sharing detailed information about their growth tactics. Such case studies can demonstrate a company's expertise and credibility to potential clients, proving their ability to help them succeed in their industry.
- Targeting relevant long-tail keywords is an effective strategy for generating organic traffic.
- Analyzing the success of industry leaders can provide valuable insights for developing a successful strategy.
- Explanatory case studies can demonstrate a company's expertise and credibility to potential clients.
8- “Video Marketing Case Study” by L’Oréal and YouTube
The case study on L’Oréal and YouTube showcases the success of their video marketing campaign to launch a new product. The global marketing team members explain how they strategically used YouTube ads to achieve impressive results, including establishing the new product as the second-best in its category and generating 34% of all mass sales among online retailers.
The case study provides a detailed breakdown of the various stages of the campaign, from awareness to loyalty, highlighting the effective use of YouTube at each step. It serves as a great example of a third-person implementation case study that demonstrates the power of video marketing.
Key points for learning:
- Use YouTube ads strategically for different stages of a campaign, from awareness to loyalty.
- Effective use of video marketing can lead to impressive results, such as establishing a new product as a leading player in its category and generating significant sales.
- Third-person implementation case studies can showcase your expertise and the success of your marketing strategies to potential clients.
9- “Airbnd + Zendesk” by Zendesk
The case study by Zendesk, titled "Airbnb + Zendesk: building a powerful solution together" showcases a true partnership between Airbnb and Zendesk. The article begins with an intriguing opening statement, "Halfway around the globe is a place to stay with your name on it. At least for a weekend," and uses stunning photographs of beautiful Airbnb locations to captivate readers.
Instead of solely highlighting Zendesk's product, the case study is crafted to tell a good story and highlight Airbnb's service in detail. This strategy makes the case study more authentic and relatable.
Key points to take away from this case study:
- Use client's offerings' images rather than just screenshots of your own product or service.
- To begin the case study, it is recommended to include a distinct call to action. For instance, Zendesk presents two alternatives, namely to initiate a trial or seek a solution.
10- “Influencer Marketing” by Trend and WarbyParker
The case study from Trend and Warby Parker highlights the potential of influencer marketing, even when working with a limited budget. The "Wearing Warby" campaign involved influencers wearing Warby Parker glasses during their daily activities, providing a glimpse of the brand's products in use.
This strategy helped to make the brand more relatable to the influencers' followers. Although the case study does not delve deeply into the tactics used, it demonstrates the effectiveness of third-person case studies in showcasing the results of a campaign.
- Influencer marketing can be effective even with a limited budget.
- Showcasing products being used in everyday life can make a brand more approachable and relatable.
- Third-person case studies can be useful in highlighting the success of a campaign.
Marketing Case Study
Marketing Case Study Templates
Struggling to understand the correct case study format ? Check this case study format guide and perfect structure your case study today.
Business Case Study Examples
A business case study examines a business’s specific challenge or goal and how it should be solved. Business case studies usually focus on a number of details related to the initial challenge and proposed solution.
To help you out, here are some samples of business case studies.
Here are some more business case study examples:
Business Case Study on How Social Media led to Potential Customer Loss
Business Case Study Template on the Two Sides of Blog Posts In 2023
Typically, a business case study discovers one of your customer's stories and how you solved a problem for them. It will allow your prospects to see how your solutions address their needs.
Sales Case Study Examples
Case studies are important tools for sales teams to learn from in order to improve their own performance. By examining sales successes, teams can gain insights into effective strategies and create action plans to employ similar tactics.
By researching case studies of successful sales campaigns, sales teams can more accurately identify challenges and develop solutions.
Interview Case Study Examples
When seeking to answer complex questions, case studies are an invaluable tool. This type of analysis dives deeply into a specific subject, taking a close look at factors like demographics .
So, interview case studies provide businesses with invaluable information. This data allows them to make informed decisions related to certain markets or subjects.
Interview case study PDF
Successful interviews provide a snapshot of individuals' perspectives. This helps inform businesses seeking to expand their services or create better products for their target audience.
Watch this video to learn the correct analysis of a business case study.
Case Study Examples Medical
Medical case studies are an essential part of medical education. They help students to understand how to diagnose and treat patients.
Here are some medical case study examples pdf to help you.
Medical Case Study Example
Nursing Case Study Examples
Want to understand the various types of case studies? Check out our types of case study blog to select the perfect type.
Case Study Examples Psychology
Case studies are a great way of investigating individuals with psychological abnormalities. This is why a case study is a very common assignment in psychology courses. By examining all the aspects of your subject’s life, you discover the possible causes of exhibiting such behavior.
For your help, here are some interesting psychology case study examples:
Psychology Case Study Examples PDF
Mental Health Patient Case Study Examples
Case Study Examples for Students In Daily Life
Case studies are a common requirement for students in various courses. But writing them can be tough, especially if you’re new to them. That's why we've gathered some examples from different fields that you may use as a guide.
Here are some of the examples that can help you write yours:
Software Engineering Case Study Sample
Qualitative Research Case Study Sample
Software Quality Assurance Case Study
Social Work Case Study Sample
Ethical Case Study PDF
Case Study Examples PDF
These examples can guide you on how to structure and format your own case studies.
Now that you have read multiple case study examples, hop on to our tips.
Tips to Write a Good Case Study
Here are some note-worthy tips to craft a winning case study
- Define the purpose of the case study This will help you to focus on the most important aspects of the case. The case study objective helps to ensure that your finished product is concise and to the point.
- Choose a real-life example. One of the best ways to write a successful case study is to choose a real-life example. This will give your readers a chance to see how the concepts apply in a real-world setting.
- Keep it brief. This means that you should only include information that is directly relevant to your topic and avoid adding unnecessary details.
- Use strong evidence. To make your case study convincing, you will need to use strong evidence. This can include statistics, data from research studies, or quotes from experts in the field.
- Edit and proofread your work. Before you submit your case study, be sure to edit and proofread your work carefully. This will help to ensure that there are no errors and that your paper is clear and concise.
There you go!
All about case study examples at your fingertips! We are sure that by now you have all the key essential guidelines of various case studies with samples. So grab your pen and start crafting a winning case study right away!
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Barbara P (Literature, Marketing)
Dr. Barbara is a highly experienced writer and author who holds a Ph.D. degree in public health from an Ivy League school. She has worked in the medical field for many years, conducting extensive research on various health topics. Her writing has been featured in several top-tier publications.
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What Is a Case Study?
An in-depth study of one person, group, or event
Kendra Cherry, MS, is an author and educational consultant focused on helping students learn about psychology.
Cara Lustik is a fact-checker and copywriter.
Verywell / Colleen Tighe
Benefits and Limitations
Types of case studies, how to write a case study.
A case study is an in-depth study of one person, group, or event. In a case study, nearly every aspect of the subject's life and history is analyzed to seek patterns and causes of behavior. Case studies can be used in various fields, including psychology, medicine, education, anthropology, political science, and social work.
The purpose of a case study is to learn as much as possible about an individual or group so that the information can be generalized to many others. Unfortunately, case studies tend to be highly subjective, and it is sometimes difficult to generalize results to a larger population.
While case studies focus on a single individual or group, they follow a format similar to other types of psychology writing. If you are writing a case study, it is important to follow the rules of APA format .
A case study can have both strengths and weaknesses. Researchers must consider these pros and cons before deciding if this type of study is appropriate for their needs.
One of the greatest advantages of a case study is that it allows researchers to investigate things that are often difficult to impossible to replicate in a lab. Some other benefits of a case study:
- Allows researchers to collect a great deal of information
- Give researchers the chance to collect information on rare or unusual cases
- Permits researchers to develop hypotheses that can be explored in experimental research
On the negative side, a case study:
- Cannot necessarily be generalized to the larger population
- Cannot demonstrate cause and effect
- May not be scientifically rigorous
- Can lead to bias
Researchers may choose to perform a case study if they are interested in exploring a unique or recently discovered phenomenon. The insights gained from such research can help the researchers develop additional ideas and study questions that might be explored in future studies.
However, it is important to remember that the insights gained from case studies cannot be used to determine cause and effect relationships between variables. However, case studies may be used to develop hypotheses that can then be addressed in experimental research.
Case Study Examples
There have been a number of notable case studies in the history of psychology. Much of Freud's work and theories were developed through the use of individual case studies. Some great examples of case studies in psychology include:
- Anna O : Anna O. was a pseudonym of a woman named Bertha Pappenheim, a patient of a physician named Josef Breuer. While she was never a patient of Freud's, Freud and Breuer discussed her case extensively. The woman was experiencing symptoms of a condition that was then known as hysteria and found that talking about her problems helped relieve her symptoms. Her case played an important part in the development of talk therapy as an approach to mental health treatment.
- Phineas Gage : Phineas Gage was a railroad employee who experienced a terrible accident in which an explosion sent a metal rod through his skull, damaging important portions of his brain. Gage recovered from his accident but was left with serious changes in both personality and behavior.
- Genie : Genie was a young girl subjected to horrific abuse and isolation. The case study of Genie allowed researchers to study whether language could be taught even after critical periods for language development had been missed. Her case also served as an example of how scientific research may interfere with treatment and lead to further abuse of vulnerable individuals.
Such cases demonstrate how case research can be used to study things that researchers could not replicate in experimental settings. In Genie's case, her horrific abuse had denied her the opportunity to learn language at critical points in her development.
This is clearly not something that researchers could ethically replicate, but conducting a case study on Genie allowed researchers the chance to study phenomena that are otherwise impossible to reproduce.
There are a few different types of case studies that psychologists and other researchers might utilize:
- Collective case studies : These involve studying a group of individuals. Researchers might study a group of people in a certain setting or look at an entire community. For example, psychologists might explore how access to resources in a community has affected the collective mental well-being of those living there.
- Descriptive case studies : These involve starting with a descriptive theory. The subjects are then observed, and the information gathered is compared to the pre-existing theory.
- Explanatory case studies : These are often used to do causal investigations. In other words, researchers are interested in looking at factors that may have caused certain things to occur.
- Exploratory case studies : These are sometimes used as a prelude to further, more in-depth research. This allows researchers to gather more information before developing their research questions and hypotheses .
- Instrumental case studies : These occur when the individual or group allows researchers to understand more than what is initially obvious to observers.
- Intrinsic case studies : This type of case study is when the researcher has a personal interest in the case. Jean Piaget's observations of his own children are good examples of how an intrinsic cast study can contribute to the development of a psychological theory.
The three main case study types often used are intrinsic, instrumental, and collective. Intrinsic case studies are useful for learning about unique cases. Instrumental case studies help look at an individual to learn more about a broader issue. A collective case study can be useful for looking at several cases simultaneously.
The type of case study that psychology researchers utilize depends on the unique characteristics of the situation as well as the case itself.
There are also different methods that can be used to conduct a case study, including prospective and retrospective case study methods.
Prospective case study methods are those in which an individual or group of people is observed in order to determine outcomes. For example, a group of individuals might be watched over an extended period of time to observe the progression of a particular disease.
Retrospective case study methods involve looking at historical information. For example, researchers might start with an outcome, such as a disease, and then work their way backward to look at information about the individual's life to determine risk factors that may have contributed to the onset of the illness.
Where to Find Data
There are a number of different sources and methods that researchers can use to gather information about an individual or group. Six major sources that have been identified by researchers are:
- Archival records : Census records, survey records, and name lists are examples of archival records.
- Direct observation : This strategy involves observing the subject, often in a natural setting . While an individual observer is sometimes used, it is more common to utilize a group of observers.
- Documents : Letters, newspaper articles, administrative records, etc., are the types of documents often used as sources.
- Interviews : Interviews are one of the most important methods for gathering information in case studies. An interview can involve structured survey questions or more open-ended questions.
- Participant observation : When the researcher serves as a participant in events and observes the actions and outcomes, it is called participant observation.
- Physical artifacts : Tools, objects, instruments, and other artifacts are often observed during a direct observation of the subject.
Section 1: A Case History
This section will have the following structure and content:
Background information : The first section of your paper will present your client's background. Include factors such as age, gender, work, health status, family mental health history, family and social relationships, drug and alcohol history, life difficulties, goals, and coping skills and weaknesses.
Description of the presenting problem : In the next section of your case study, you will describe the problem or symptoms that the client presented with.
Describe any physical, emotional, or sensory symptoms reported by the client. Thoughts, feelings, and perceptions related to the symptoms should also be noted. Any screening or diagnostic assessments that are used should also be described in detail and all scores reported.
Your diagnosis : Provide your diagnosis and give the appropriate Diagnostic and Statistical Manual code. Explain how you reached your diagnosis, how the client's symptoms fit the diagnostic criteria for the disorder(s), or any possible difficulties in reaching a diagnosis.
Section 2: Treatment Plan
This portion of the paper will address the chosen treatment for the condition. This might also include the theoretical basis for the chosen treatment or any other evidence that might exist to support why this approach was chosen.
- Cognitive behavioral approach : Explain how a cognitive behavioral therapist would approach treatment. Offer background information on cognitive behavioral therapy and describe the treatment sessions, client response, and outcome of this type of treatment. Make note of any difficulties or successes encountered by your client during treatment.
- Humanistic approach : Describe a humanistic approach that could be used to treat your client, such as client-centered therapy . Provide information on the type of treatment you chose, the client's reaction to the treatment, and the end result of this approach. Explain why the treatment was successful or unsuccessful.
- Psychoanalytic approach : Describe how a psychoanalytic therapist would view the client's problem. Provide some background on the psychoanalytic approach and cite relevant references. Explain how psychoanalytic therapy would be used to treat the client, how the client would respond to therapy, and the effectiveness of this treatment approach.
- Pharmacological approach : If treatment primarily involves the use of medications, explain which medications were used and why. Provide background on the effectiveness of these medications and how monotherapy may compare with an approach that combines medications with therapy or other treatments.
This section of a case study should also include information about the treatment goals, process, and outcomes.
When you are writing a case study, you should also include a section where you discuss the case study itself, including the strengths and limitiations of the study. You should note how the findings of your case study might support previous research.
In your discussion section, you should also describe some of the implications of your case study. What ideas or findings might require further exploration? How might researchers go about exploring some of these questions in additional studies?
Here are a few additional pointers to keep in mind when formatting your case study:
- Never refer to the subject of your case study as "the client." Instead, their name or a pseudonym.
- Read examples of case studies to gain an idea about the style and format.
- Remember to use APA format when citing references .
A Word From Verywell
Case studies can be a useful research tool, but they need to be used wisely. In many cases, they are best utilized in situations where conducting an experiment would be difficult or impossible. They are helpful for looking at unique situations and allow researchers to gather a great deal of information about a specific individual or group of people.
If you have been directed to write a case study for a psychology course, be sure to check with your instructor for any specific guidelines that you are required to follow. If you are writing your case study for professional publication, be sure to check with the publisher for their specific guidelines for submitting a case study.
Simply Psychology. Case Study Method .
Crowe S, Cresswell K, Robertson A, Huby G, Avery A, Sheikh A. The case study approach . BMC Med Res Methodol . 2011 Jun 27;11:100. doi:10.1186/1471-2288-11-100
Gagnon, Yves-Chantal. The Case Study as Research Method: A Practical Handbook . Canada, Chicago Review Press Incorporated DBA Independent Pub Group, 2010.
Yin, Robert K. Case Study Research and Applications: Design and Methods . United States, SAGE Publications, 2017.
By Kendra Cherry Kendra Cherry, MS, is an author and educational consultant focused on helping students learn about psychology.
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All You Wanted to Know About How to Write a Case Study
What do you study in your college? If you are a psychology, sociology, or anthropology student, we bet you might be familiar with what a case study is. This research method is used to study a certain person, group, or situation. In this guide from our dissertation writing service , you will learn how to write a case study professionally, from researching to citing sources properly. Also, we will explore different types of case studies and show you examples — so that you won’t have any other questions left.
What Is a Case Study?
A case study is a subcategory of research design which investigates problems and offers solutions. Case studies can range from academic research studies to corporate promotional tools trying to sell an idea—their scope is quite vast.
What Is the Difference Between a Research Paper and a Case Study?
While research papers turn the reader’s attention to a certain problem, case studies go even further. Case study guidelines require students to pay attention to details, examining issues closely and in-depth using different research methods. For example, case studies may be used to examine court cases if you study Law, or a patient's health history if you study Medicine. Case studies are also used in Marketing, which are thorough, empirically supported analysis of a good or service's performance. Well-designed case studies can be valuable for prospective customers as they can identify and solve the potential customers pain point.
Case studies involve a lot of storytelling – they usually examine particular cases for a person or a group of people. This method of research is very helpful, as it is very practical and can give a lot of hands-on information. Most commonly, the length of the case study is about 500-900 words, which is much less than the length of an average research paper.
The structure of a case study is very similar to storytelling. It has a protagonist or main character, which in your case is actually a problem you are trying to solve. You can use the system of 3 Acts to make it a compelling story. It should have an introduction, rising action, a climax where transformation occurs, falling action, and a solution.
Here is a rough formula for you to use in your case study:
Problem (Act I): > Solution (Act II) > Result (Act III) > Conclusion.
Types of Case Studies
The purpose of a case study is to provide detailed reports on an event, an institution, a place, future customers, or pretty much anything. There are a few common types of case study, but the type depends on the topic. The following are the most common domains where case studies are needed:
- Historical case studies are great to learn from. Historical events have a multitude of source info offering different perspectives. There are always modern parallels where these perspectives can be applied, compared, and thoroughly analyzed.
- Problem-oriented case studies are usually used for solving problems. These are often assigned as theoretical situations where you need to immerse yourself in the situation to examine it. Imagine you’re working for a startup and you’ve just noticed a significant flaw in your product’s design. Before taking it to the senior manager, you want to do a comprehensive study on the issue and provide solutions. On a greater scale, problem-oriented case studies are a vital part of relevant socio-economic discussions.
- Cumulative case studies collect information and offer comparisons. In business, case studies are often used to tell people about the value of a product.
- Critical case studies explore the causes and effects of a certain case.
- Illustrative case studies describe certain events, investigating outcomes and lessons learned.
Case Study Format
The case study format is typically made up of eight parts:
- Executive Summary. Explain what you will examine in the case study. Write an overview of the field you’re researching. Make a thesis statement and sum up the results of your observation in a maximum of 2 sentences.
- Background. Provide background information and the most relevant facts. Isolate the issues.
- Case Evaluation. Isolate the sections of the study you want to focus on. In it, explain why something is working or is not working.
- Proposed Solutions. Offer realistic ways to solve what isn’t working or how to improve its current condition. Explain why these solutions work by offering testable evidence.
- Conclusion. Summarize the main points from the case evaluations and proposed solutions. 6. Recommendations. Talk about the strategy that you should choose. Explain why this choice is the most appropriate.
- Implementation. Explain how to put the specific strategies into action.
- References. Provide all the citations.
How to Write a Case Study
Let's discover how to write a case study.
Setting Up the Research
When writing a case study, remember that research should always come first. Reading many different sources and analyzing other points of view will help you come up with more creative solutions. You can also conduct an actual interview to thoroughly investigate the customer story that you'll need for your case study. Including all of the necessary research, writing a case study may take some time. The research process involves doing the following:
- Define your objective. Explain the reason why you’re presenting your subject. Figure out where you will feature your case study; whether it is written, on video, shown as an infographic, streamed as a podcast, etc.
- Determine who will be the right candidate for your case study. Get permission, quotes, and other features that will make your case study effective. Get in touch with your candidate to see if they approve of being part of your work. Study that candidate’s situation and note down what caused it.
- Identify which various consequences could result from the situation. Follow these guidelines on how to start a case study: surf the net to find some general information you might find useful.
- Make a list of credible sources and examine them. Seek out important facts and highlight problems. Always write down your ideas and make sure to brainstorm.
- Focus on several key issues – why they exist, and how they impact your research subject. Think of several unique solutions. Draw from class discussions, readings, and personal experience. When writing a case study, focus on the best solution and explore it in depth. After having all your research in place, writing a case study will be easy. You may first want to check the rubric and criteria of your assignment for the correct case study structure.
Read Also: 'CREDIBLE SOURCES: WHAT ARE THEY?'
Although your instructor might be looking at slightly different criteria, every case study rubric essentially has the same standards. Your professor will want you to exhibit 8 different outcomes:
- Correctly identify the concepts, theories, and practices in the discipline.
- Identify the relevant theories and principles associated with the particular study.
- Evaluate legal and ethical principles and apply them to your decision-making.
- Recognize the global importance and contribution of your case.
- Construct a coherent summary and explanation of the study.
- Demonstrate analytical and critical-thinking skills.
- Explain the interrelationships between the environment and nature.
- Integrate theory and practice of the discipline within the analysis.
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Case Study Outline
Let's look at the structure of an outline based on the issue of the alcoholic addiction of 30 people.
- Statement of the issue: Alcoholism is a disease rather than a weakness of character.
- Presentation of the problem: Alcoholism is affecting more than 14 million people in the USA, which makes it the third most common mental illness there.
- Explanation of the terms: In the past, alcoholism was commonly referred to as alcohol dependence or alcohol addiction. Alcoholism is now the more severe stage of this addiction in the disorder spectrum.
- Hypotheses: Drinking in excess can lead to the use of other drugs.
- Importance of your story: How the information you present can help people with their addictions.
- Background of the story: Include an explanation of why you chose this topic.
- Presentation of analysis and data: Describe the criteria for choosing 30 candidates, the structure of the interview, and the outcomes.
- Strong argument 1: ex. X% of candidates dealing with anxiety and depression...
- Strong argument 2: ex. X amount of people started drinking by their mid-teens.
- Strong argument 3: ex. X% of respondents’ parents had issues with alcohol.
- Concluding statement: I have researched if alcoholism is a disease and found out that…
- Recommendations: Ways and actions for preventing alcohol use.
Writing a Case Study Draft
After you’ve done your case study research and written the outline, it’s time to focus on the draft. In a draft, you have to develop and write your case study by using: the data which you collected throughout the research, interviews, and the analysis processes that were undertaken. Follow these rules for the draft:
- Your draft should contain at least 4 sections: an introduction; a body where you should include background information, an explanation of why you decided to do this case study, and a presentation of your main findings; a conclusion where you present data; and references.
- In the introduction, you should set the pace very clearly. You can even raise a question or quote someone you interviewed in the research phase. It must provide adequate background information on the topic. The background may include analyses of previous studies on your topic. Include the aim of your case here as well. Think of it as a thesis statement. The aim must describe the purpose of your work—presenting the issues that you want to tackle. Include background information, such as photos or videos you used when doing the research.
- Describe your unique research process, whether it was through interviews, observations, academic journals, etc. The next point includes providing the results of your research. Tell the audience what you found out. Why is this important, and what could be learned from it? Discuss the real implications of the problem and its significance in the world.
- Include quotes and data (such as findings, percentages, and awards). This will add a personal touch and better credibility to the case you present. Explain what results you find during your interviews in regards to the problem and how it developed. Also, write about solutions which have already been proposed by other people who have already written about this case.
- At the end of your case study, you should offer possible solutions, but don’t worry about solving them yourself.
Use Data to Illustrate Key Points in Your Case Study
Even though your case study is a story, it should be based on evidence. Use as much data as possible to illustrate your point. Without the right data, your case study may appear weak and the readers may not be able to relate to your issue as much as they should. Let's see the examples from essay writing service :
With data: Alcoholism is affecting more than 14 million people in the USA, which makes it the third most common mental illness there. Without data: A lot of people suffer from alcoholism in the United States.
Try to include as many credible sources as possible. You may have terms or sources that could be hard for other cultures to understand. If this is the case, you should include them in the appendix or Notes for the Instructor or Professor.
Finalizing the Draft: Checklist
After you finish drafting your case study, polish it up by answering these ‘ask yourself’ questions and think about how to end your case study:
- Check that you follow the correct case study format, also in regards to text formatting.
- Check that your work is consistent with its referencing and citation style.
- Micro-editing — check for grammar and spelling issues.
- Macro-editing — does ‘the big picture’ come across to the reader? Is there enough raw data, such as real-life examples or personal experiences? Have you made your data collection process completely transparent? Does your analysis provide a clear conclusion, allowing for further research and practice?
Problems to avoid:
- Overgeneralization – Do not go into further research that deviates from the main problem.
- Failure to Document Limitations – Just as you have to clearly state the limitations of a general research study, you must describe the specific limitations inherent in the subject of analysis.
- Failure to Extrapolate All Possible Implications – Just as you don't want to over-generalize from your case study findings, you also have to be thorough in the consideration of all possible outcomes or recommendations derived from your findings.
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How to Create a Title Page and Cite a Case Study
Let's see how to create an awesome title page.
Your title page depends on the prescribed citation format. The title page should include:
- A title that attracts some attention and describes your study
- The title should have the words “case study” in it
- The title should range between 5-9 words in length
- Your name and contact information
- Your finished paper should be only 500 to 1,500 words in length. With this type of assignment, write effectively and avoid fluff.
Here is a template for the APA and MLA format title page:
There are some cases when you need to cite someone else's study in your own one – therefore, you need to master how to cite a case study. A case study is like a research paper when it comes to citations. You can cite it like you cite a book, depending on what style you need.
Citation Example in MLA Hill, Linda, Tarun Khanna, and Emily A. Stecker. HCL Technologies. Boston: Harvard Business Publishing, 2008. Print.
Citation Example in APA Hill, L., Khanna, T., & Stecker, E. A. (2008). HCL Technologies. Boston: Harvard Business Publishing.
Citation Example in Chicago Hill, Linda, Tarun Khanna, and Emily A. Stecker. HCL Technologies.
Case Study Examples
To give you an idea of a professional case study example, we gathered and linked some below.
Eastman Kodak Case Study
Case Study Example: Audi Trains Mexican Autoworkers in Germany
To conclude, a case study is one of the best methods of getting an overview of what happened to a person, a group, or a situation in practice. It allows you to have an in-depth glance at the real-life problems that businesses, healthcare industry, criminal justice, etc. may face. This insight helps us look at such situations in a different light. This is because we see scenarios that we otherwise would not, without necessarily being there. If you need custom essays , try our research paper writing services .
Get Help Form Qualified Writers
Crafting a case study is not easy. You might want to write one of high quality, but you don’t have the time or expertise. If you’re having trouble with your case study, help with essay request - we'll help. EssayPro writers have read and written countless case studies and are experts in endless disciplines. Request essay writing, editing, or proofreading assistance from our writing service, and all of your worries will be gone.
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Types of Case Studies
There are several different types of case studies, as well as several types of subjects of case studies. We will investigate each type in this article.
Different Types of Case Studies
There are several types of case studies, each differing from each other based on the hypothesis and/or thesis to be proved. It is also possible for types of case studies to overlap each other.
Each of the following types of cases can be used in any field or discipline. Whether it is psychology, business or the arts, the type of case study can apply to any field.
The explanatory case study focuses on an explanation for a question or a phenomenon. Basically put, an explanatory case study is 1 + 1 = 2. The results are not up for interpretation.
A case study with a person or group would not be explanatory, as with humans, there will always be variables. There are always small variances that cannot be explained.
However, event case studies can be explanatory. For example, let's say a certain automobile has a series of crashes that are caused by faulty brakes. All of the crashes are a result of brakes not being effective on icy roads.
What kind of case study is explanatory? Think of an example of an explanatory case study that could be done today
When developing the case study, the researcher will explain the crash, and the detailed causes of the brake failure. They will investigate what actions caused the brakes to fail, and what actions could have been taken to prevent the failure.
Other car companies could then use this case study to better understand what makes brakes fail. When designing safer products, looking to past failures is an excellent way to ensure similar mistakes are not made.
The same can be said for other safety issues in cars. There was a time when cars did not have seatbelts. The process to get seatbelts required in all cars started with a case study! The same can be said about airbags and collapsible steering columns. They all began with a case study that lead to larger research, and eventual change.
An exploratory case study is usually the precursor to a formal, large-scale research project. The case study's goal is to prove that further investigation is necessary.
For example, an exploratory case study could be done on veterans coming home from active combat. Researchers are aware that these vets have PTSD, and are aware that the actions of war are what cause PTSD. Beyond that, they do not know if certain wartime activities are more likely to contribute to PTSD than others.
For an exploratory case study, the researcher could develop a study that certain war events are more likely to cause PTSD. Once that is demonstrated, a large-scale research project could be done to determine which events are most likely to cause PTSD.
Exploratory case studies are very popular in psychology and the social sciences. Psychologists are always looking for better ways to treat their patients, and exploratory studies allow them to research new ideas or theories.
Multiple-Case Studies or Collective Studies
Multiple case or collective studies use information from different studies to formulate the case for a new study. The use of past studies allows additional information without needing to spend more time and money on additional studies.
Using the PTSD issue again is an excellent example of a collective study. When studying what contributes most to wartime PTSD, a researcher could use case studies from different war. For instance, studies about PTSD in WW2 vets, Persian Gulf War vets, and Vietnam vets could provide an excellent sampling of which wartime activities are most likely to cause PTSD.
If a multiple case study on vets was done with vets from the Vietnam War, the Persian Gulf War, and the Iraq War, and it was determined the vets from Vietnam had much less PTSD, what could be inferred?
Furthermore, this type of study could uncover differences as well. For example, a researcher might find that veterans who serve in the Middle East are more likely to suffer a certain type of ailment. Or perhaps, that veterans who served with large platoons were more likely to suffer from PTSD than veterans who served in smaller platoons.
An intrinsic case study is the study of a case wherein the subject itself is the primary interest. The "Genie" case is an example of this. The study wasn't so much about psychology, but about Genie herself, and how her experiences shaped who she was.
Genie is the topic. Genie is what the researchers are interested in, and what their readers will be most interested in. When the researchers started the study, they didn't know what they would find.
They asked the question…"If a child is never introduced to language during the crucial first years of life, can they acquire language skills when they are older?" When they met Genie, they didn't know the answer to that question.
An instrumental case study uses a case to gain insights into a phenomenon. For example, a researcher interested in child obesity rates might set up a study with middle school students and an exercise program. In this case, the children and the exercise program are not the focus. The focus is learning the relationship between children and exercise, and why certain children become obese.
What is an example of an instrumental case study?
Focus on the results, not the topic!
Types of Subjects of Case Studies
There are generally five different types of case studies, and the subjects that they address. Every case study, whether explanatory or exploratory, or intrinsic or instrumental, fits into one of these five groups. These are:
Person – This type of study focuses on one particular individual. This case study would use several types of research to determine an outcome.
The best example of a person case is the "Genie" case study. Again, "Genie" was a 13-year-old girl who was discovered by social services in Los Angeles in 1970. Her father believed her to be mentally retarded, and therefore locked her in a room without any kind of stimulation. She was never nourished or cared for in any way. If she made a noise, she was beaten.
When "Genie" was discovered, child development specialists wanted to learn as much as possible about how her experiences contributed to her physical, emotional and mental health. They also wanted to learn about her language skills. She had no form of language when she was found, she only grunted. The study would determine whether or not she could learn language skills at the age of 13.
Since Genie was placed in a children's hospital, many different clinicians could observe her. In addition, researchers were able to interview the few people who did have contact with Genie and would be able to gather whatever background information was available.
This case study is still one of the most valuable in all of child development. Since it would be impossible to conduct this type of research with a healthy child, the information garnered from Genie's case is invaluable.
Group – This type of study focuses on a group of people. This could be a family, a group or friends, or even coworkers.
An example of this type of case study would be the uncontacted tribes of Indians in the Peruvian and Brazilian rainforest. These tribes have never had any modern contact. Therefore, there is a great interest to study them.
Scientists would be interested in just about every facet of their lives. How do they cook, how do they make clothing, how do they make tools and weapons. Also, doing psychological and emotional research would be interesting. However, because so few of these tribes exist, no one is contacting them for research. For now, all research is done observationally.
If a researcher wanted to study uncontacted Indian tribes, and could only observe the subjects, what type of observations should be made?
Location – This type of study focuses on a place, and how and why people use the place.
For example, many case studies have been done about Siberia, and the people who live there. Siberia is a cold and barren place in northern Russia, and it is considered the most difficult place to live in the world. Studying the location, and it's weather and people can help other people learn how to live with extreme weather and isolation.
Location studies can also be done on locations that are facing some kind of change. For example, a case study could be done on Alaska, and whether the state is seeing the effects of climate change.
Another type of study that could be done in Alaska is how the environment changes as population increases. Geographers and those interested in population growth often do these case studies.
Organization/Company – This type of study focuses on a business or an organization. This could include the people who work for the company, or an event that occurred at the organization.
An excellent example of this type of case study is Enron. Enron was one of the largest energy company's in the United States, when it was discovered that executives at the company were fraudulently reporting the company's accounting numbers.
Once the fraud was uncovered, investigators discovered willful and systematic corruption that caused the collapse of Enron, as well as their financial auditors, Arthur Andersen. The fraud was so severe that the top executives of the company were sentenced to prison.
This type of case study is used by accountants, auditors, financiers, as well as business students, in order to learn how such a large company could get away with committing such a serious case of corporate fraud for as long as they did. It can also be looked at from a psychological standpoint, as it is interesting to learn why the executives took the large risks that they took.
Most company or organization case studies are done for business purposes. In fact, in many business schools, such as Harvard Business School, students learn by the case method, which is the study of case studies. They learn how to solve business problems by studying the cases of businesses that either survived the same problem, or one that didn't survive the problem.
Event – This type of study focuses on an event, whether cultural or societal, and how it affects those that are affected by it. An example would be the Tylenol cyanide scandal. This event affected Johnson & Johnson, the parent company, as well as the public at large.
The case study would detail the events of the scandal, and more specifically, what management at Johnson & Johnson did to correct the problem. To this day, when a company experiences a large public relations scandal, they look to the Tylenol case study to learn how they managed to survive the scandal.
A very popular topic for case studies was the events of September 11 th . There were studies in almost all of the different types of research studies.
Obviously the event itself was a very popular topic. It was important to learn what lead up to the event, and how best to proven it from happening in the future. These studies are not only important to the U.S. government, but to other governments hoping to prevent terrorism in their countries.
Planning A Case Study
You have decided that you want to research and write a case study. Now what? In this section you will learn how to plan and organize a research case study.
Selecting a Case
The first step is to choose the subject, topic or case. You will want to choose a topic that is interesting to you, and a topic that would be of interest to your potential audience. Ideally you have a passion for the topic, as then you will better understand the issues surrounding the topic, and which resources would be most successful in the study.
You also must choose a topic that would be of interest to a large number of people. You want your case study to reach as large an audience as possible, and a topic that is of interest to just a few people will not have a very large reach. One of the goals of a case study is to reach as many people as possible.
Who is your audience?
Are you trying to reach the layperson? Or are you trying to reach other professionals in your field? Your audience will help determine the topic you choose.
If you are writing a case study that is looking for ways to lower rates of child obesity, who is your audience?
If you are writing a psychology case study, you must consider whether your audience will have the intellectual skills to understand the information in the case. Does your audience know the vocabulary of psychology? Do they understand the processes and structure of the field?
You want your audience to have as much general knowledge as possible. When it comes time to write the case study, you may have to spend some time defining and explaining terms that might be unfamiliar to the audience.
Lastly, when selecting a topic you do not want to choose a topic that is very old. Current topics are always the most interesting, so if your topic is more than 5-10 years old, you might want to consider a newer topic. If you choose an older topic, you must ask yourself what new and valuable information do you bring to the older topic, and is it relevant and necessary.
Determine Research Goals
What type of case study do you plan to do?
An illustrative case study will examine an unfamiliar case in order to help others understand it. For example, a case study of a veteran with PTSD can be used to help new therapists better understand what veterans experience.
An exploratory case study is a preliminary project that will be the precursor to a larger study in the future. For example, a case study could be done challenging the efficacy of different therapy methods for vets with PTSD. Once the study is complete, a larger study could be done on whichever method was most effective.
A critical instance case focuses on a unique case that doesn't have a predetermined purpose. For example, a vet with an incredibly severe case of PTSD could be studied to find ways to treat his condition.
Ethics are a large part of the case study process, and most case studies require ethical approval. This approval usually comes from the institution or department the researcher works for. Many universities and research institutions have ethics oversight departments. They will require you to prove that you will not harm your study subjects or participants.
This should be done even if the case study is on an older subject. Sometimes publishing new studies can cause harm to the original participants. Regardless of your personal feelings, it is essential the project is brought to the ethics department to ensure your project can proceed safely.
Developing the Case Study
Once you have your topic, it is time to start planning and developing the study. This process will be different depending on what type of case study you are planning to do. For thissection, we will assume a psychological case study, as most case studies are based on the psychological model.
Once you have the topic, it is time to ask yourself some questions. What question do you want to answer with the study?
For example, a researcher is considering a case study about PTSD in veterans. The topic is PTSD in veterans. What questions could be asked?
Do veterans from Middle Eastern wars suffer greater instances of PTSD?
Do younger soldiers have higher instances of PTSD?
Does the length of the tour effect the severity of PTSD?
Each of these questions is a viable question, and finding the answers, or the possible answers, would be helpful for both psychologists and veterans who suffer from PTSD.
1. What is the background of the case study? Who requested the study to be done and why? What industry is the study in, and where will the study take place?
2. What is the problem that needs a solution? What is the situation, and what are the risks?
3. What questions are required to analyze the problem? What questions might the reader of the study have? What questions might colleagues have?
4. What tools are required to analyze the problem? Is data analysis necessary?
5. What is your current knowledge about the problem or situation? How much background information do you need to procure? How will you obtain this background info?
6. What other information do you need to know to successfully complete the study?
7. How do you plan to present the report? Will it be a simple written report, or will you add PowerPoint presentations or images or videos? When is the report due? Are you giving yourself enough time to complete the project?
The research notebook is the heart of the study. Other organizational methods can be utilized, such as Microsoft Excel, but a physical notebook should always be kept as well.
Planning the Research
The most important parts of the case study are:
1. The case study's questions
2. The study's propositions
3. How information and data will be analyzed
4. The logic behind the propositions
5. How the findings will be interpreted
The study's questions should be either a "how" or "why" question, and their definition is the researchers first job. These questions will help determine the study's goals.
Not every case study has a proposition. If you are doing an exploratory study, you will not have propositions. Instead, you will have a stated purpose, which will determine whether your study is successful, or not.
How the information will be analyzed will depend on what the topic is. This would vary depending on whether it was a person, group, or organization.
When setting up your research, you will want to follow case study protocol. The protocol should have the following sections:
1. An overview of the case study, including the objectives, topic and issues.
2. Procedures for gathering information and conducting interviews.
3. Questions that will be asked during interviews and data collection.
4. A guide for the final case study report.
When deciding upon which research methods to use, these are the most important:
1. Documents and archival records
3. Direct observations
4. Indirect observations, or observations of subjects
5. Physical artifacts and tools
Documents could include almost anything, including letters, memos, newspaper articles, Internet articles, other case studies, or any other document germane to the study.
Archival records can include military and service records, company or business records, survey data or census information.
Before beginning the study you want a clear research strategy. Your best chance at success will be if you use an outline that describes how you will gather your data and how you will answer your research questions.
The researcher should create a list with four or five bullet points that need answers. Consider the approaches for these questions, and the different perspectives you could take.
The researcher should then choose at least two data sources (ideally more). These sources could include interviews, Internet research, and fieldwork or report collection. The more data sources used, the better the quality of the final data.
The researcher then must formulate interview questions that will result in detailed and in-depth answers that will help meet the research goals. A list of 15-20 questions is a good start, but these can and will change as the process flows.
The interview process is one of the most important parts of the case study process. But before this can begin, it is imperative the researcher gets informed consent from the subjects.
The process of informed consent means the subject understands their role in the study, and that their story will be used in the case study. You will want to have each subject complete a consent form.
The researcher must explain what the study is trying to achieve, and how their contribution will help the study. If necessary, assure the subject that their information will remain private if requested, and they do not need to use their real name if they are not comfortable with that. Pseudonyms are commonly used in case studies.
The process by which permission is granted before beginning medical or psychological research
A fictitious name used to hide ones identity
It is important the researcher is clear regarding the expectations of the study participation. For example, are they comfortable on camera? Do they mind if their photo is used in the final written study.
Interviews are one of the most important sources of information for case studies. There are several types of interviews. They are:
Open-ended – This type of interview has the interviewer and subject talking to each other about the subject. The interviewer asks questions, and the subject answers them. But the subject can elaborate and add information whenever they see fit.
A researcher might meet with a subject multiple times, and use the open-ended method. This can be a great way to gain insight into events. However, the researcher mustn't rely solely on the information from the one subject, and be sure to have multiple sources.
Focused – This type of interview is used when the subject is interviewed for a short period of time, and answers a set of questions. This type of interview could be used to verify information learned in an open-ended interview with another subject. Focused interviews are normally done to confirm information, not to gain new information.
Structured – Structured interviews are similar to surveys. These are usually used when collecting data for large groups, like neighborhoods. The questions are decided before hand, and the expected answers are usually simple.
When conducting interviews, the answers are obviously important. But just as important are the observations that can be made. This is one of the reasons in-person interviews are preferable over phone interviews, or Internet or mail surveys.
Ideally, when conducing in-person interviews, more than one researcher should be present. This allows one researcher to focus on observing while the other is interviewing. This is particularly important when interviewing large groups of people.
The researcher must understand going into the case study that the information gained from the interviews might not be valuable. It is possible that once the interviews are completed, the information gained is not relevant.
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What is the Difference between a Use Case and a Case Study?
- March 3, 2022
- Creating Case Studies
Use Cases and Case Studies are similar types of B2B content that both sales and marketing teams love. However, they possess some key differences, which this article identifies.
What Is a Case Study?
A Case Study describes in detail the transformations and successes of your client that are all thanks to you. It identifies the situation the client was in before partnering with your company and adopting your solution. It showcases the results the client experienced, such as increasing revenue or saving time. In short, Case Studies allow readers to really put themselves in your client’s position and fully understand how meaningful your product or service really is to your customers.
What Is a Use Case?
Creating a Use Case is the perfect solution if you can’t create a Case Study. (For example, perhaps your clients aren’t yet seeing long-term results from your product or service.) This type of content doesn’t showcase a single client’s success. Instead, your offering is the star. This content will explain in detail what your product or service will do for clients in a certain predicament and what kinds of results and benefits they should expect to see.
Click here to read an example of a Use Case we’ve created for one of our clients.
How Are Case Studies and Use Cases Similar?
Marketing and sales teams highly value Use Cases and Case Studies because both documents achieve the same objectives. They are polished pieces of content that salespeople can use to persuade prospects. They feature content that can be used in marketing and advertising campaigns or teased on social media platforms . Furthermore, they both build confidence in your brand. All these factors lead to a boost in your revenue, leads, and customers’ trust.
Whether you need a Use Case or a Case Study, SuccessKit can help. Contact us at [email protected] to learn more about us, our process, and what we can do for you.
Stef Mates has been writing, designing, editing, and managing a variety of content types for several different industries for more than 15 years. She started at SuccessKit as a freelancer in November 2019 and became an official part of the team as the Director of Editing, Writing, and Design in June 2021.
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Learn How to Write a Case Study Correctly: Tips and Examples
Updated 26 Jan 2023
This helpful guide will explain how to write a case study by focusing on the definition, main specifics, and the purpose of such academic writing. This article will also explain the elements that make case study writing unique by providing an example to help you follow along as you write with the same quality just as with the help of plagiarism tool .
What is a Case Study?
There is no universal definition for case study writing that would match all the types of this academic task. It is usually an intensive and detailed study related to a person, a particular event, a case, situation, or series of cases that are united with the same context or a scientific objective. It must represent a clear, systematic analysis and estimation of both a single person or community to determine similarities and differences or to portray the findings by turning to specific theoretical concepts.
Depending on your course and provided instructions, you may take a comparative, analytical, explanatory, or reflective approach to case study writing among other things. The main purpose is to provide analysis and methodology based on the case study sample that you have by defining the key arguments that help you achieve an outcome.
- How long should a case study be?
Learning how to write a case study, most college students keep asking about the length of case study writing. It will depend on your academic approach, discipline, and the case study itself. In the majority of cases, your case study writing should be from 500 to 1,500 words in total.
The Difference Between Research Paper and Case Study
The major difference lies in the purpose as the research paper must focus on finding the most efficient solution to a certain problem. The case study, on the other hand, will strive for an in-depth analysis of a particular case with no references to certain academic views of the subject. As you learn what is a case study, it's essential to understand that case study writing is not asking for synthesis of previously available information, which often requires an individual approach to a problem (one patient in nursing, one problem of the environmental kind, etc). It's also necessary to offer your view and analysis compared to a research paper where you must also explore similar publications related to your topic. Writing a case study is not the easiest task so hiring a qualified article review writer online is a common option for students.
Types of Case Studies
Writing a case study as a college student, you will encounter various types of case study tasks. As you learn more about them, it becomes easier to stay focused and determine what kind of tone must be used.
- Exploratory Approach . It's usually used as the outline for a more in-depth writing task. It should explore the subject and tell why you might require a large scale research. One of the most complex types of case study writing.
- Explanatory Case Study Writing . The trick here is to explain the case. For example, when you are majoring in nursing, your case study explanatory task may be to explain the causes of disease and the effect some treatment has had. The final part of such writing is not open to interpreting and must be finite.
- Descriptive Case Studies . The purpose here is to create a pattern between your chosen subject and a certain theory that you have to research. It mainly strives for improvement of the existing theory based on a particular case.
- Intrinsic Case Studies . Don't let the word frighten you as it only aims for a deeper research of the case in question. Provide case study analysis by addressing only what you have. The purpose here is to focus on the subject and limit yourself by exploring the specific case.
- Instrumental Case Studies . Here you have to address the elements of the study by using your materials as the tool or an instrument that leads you to the scientific evidence. It's still necessary to explain your findings.
- Collective (Series) Case Reporting . These represent an interesting approach since one takes more than one case study and compares, contrasts, or evaluates different cases to mark the start for a new study.
As you learn how to do a case study, remember that you can combine two of these types together to achieve a deeper outcome of your analytical research. Always check with your grading rubric to determine what kind of academic approach you have to take and then adjust your case study materials accordingly. It will save you a great deal of time as you work on your assignment. In case you need assistance, our nursing paper writing service is here to help you get the best grades. Our team of experienced writers guarantees the highest quality of work and timely delivery.
Case Study Format Rules
Learning how to format your writing is essential because it will be one of those elements that help the grader to determine whether you understand the task correctly.
Here are the main rules to remember:
- Each case study paper should start with a headline that should provide your readers with sufficient information regarding the problem. It should speak of the background information in a brief way.
- As you describe the case study, you should include basic details that talk about a person or an event that you explore to offer your audience all the initial information necessary to determine the objectives and complexity.
- As you create your outline, remember that you should describe at least one key argument that makes your work interesting and valuable.
- State what problems and obstacles have been mentioned in initial instructions or in the case study document that you have. See various psychology case study topics to get the basic idea of what may be explored as an example. Talk about what you would like to explore. The use of quotes and citations is recommended.
- Offer at least one solution. Talk about how the problem in the case study can be addressed and what methods you choose to address the problem.
- Describe the results. Talk about the benefits and the outcomes that you have achieved as a result of your writing. It's also possible to include quotes and combine them with your analysis, depending on the case study.
- Conclusion. Talk about various recommendations and sum up the facts that you have discovered . This part is suitable for most types of case study writing.
What we have in result usually ends up in four major sections that are: an introduction, body paragraphs where you talk about the problem, an explanation and presentation of your findings section, and the final conclusion where you state the results. The writing mechanics will depend on the formatting style like MLA or APA.
MLA Rules Template:
Author's Last Name, First Name. Title of Your Case Study (in italics). Location of the Publisher.
APA Format for Case Study:
The important difference with APA formatting style is that it should include the cover page and the table of contents where your readers can see each part of the report and the executive summary part. The citation template for the references page is as follows:
Author(s). (Year). Title of your case study. Number of case study.
Harvard Style Case Study Reference:
Author or Editor's Last Name, Initials. (Year) "Title of your case study" [Case Study], Journal Title, Volume (Issue), pp. page numbers.
How to Write a Case Study: Step-by-step Guide
As you learn how to write a case study correctly, it’s necessary to take the following steps to ensure that no important point has been missed:
Step 1: Choose Your Topic . Even when you already have a document to work with, the first step is choosing your topic statement, which should reflect your study approach to the problem. Brainstorm various case study topic ideas first! Make sure that you choose something that reflects not only your case study but also your course and relevant ideas.
Step 2: Determine Your Case Study Type. It may be an illustrative case study or series of cases that you have to work with. Check with your grading rubric twice to stay on the right track.
Step 3: Create Case Study Outline. This part is the most important as you have to work on your case study introduction. It's essential to provide background information and describe the problem posed in the case study document. As you create an outline, start with the key facts that address your objectives and take notes as you study what you have. These notes may be mentioned in the outline for your case study. Basically, an outline should contain information about the person or an event, problem and the goals you would like to achieve, your solution, the results of your work, and the call-to-action sentence (if applicable).
Step 4: Research Your Case. Research the problem first before you come up with a thesis. Look into similar case studies and see what similiarities are worth checking.
Step 5: Develop Your Thesis Statement. It should be specific and must set the direction for your readers. You can also use external sources to support your main idea. Provide at least one piece of evidence.
Step 6: Address Important Arguments in Body Paragraphs. Each body paragraph must start with a topic sentence where you place several references to an important element mentioned in the original case study.
Step 7: Work On Your Conclusion. Your final paragraph is where you should sum up the information and suggest recommendations for further research.
Remember that the majority of challenges that you encounter with a case study paper can be addressed by checking with your grading rubric. Starting with the titles to choose from to the summary that you may have to include in the sample of your work, original instructions may help you to determine what kind of work must be done before you start writing.
How to Compose a Case Study Draft
Let us assume that we need to create an assignment where business case study examples can come in handy. While you can take a look online and see templates for this and that, specialists at EduBirdie recommend checking the writing template below for an easier way to get things done:
a) identify the purpose of your study ( it can be the company’s failure or a successful innovation by a particular person ).
b) define the type of the case study research ( an illustrative type would fit best here ).
- Background .
a) describe basic background information ( talk about the company or a person, a group of people or an event ).
b) explain the pros and cons of the problem ( describe the importance and why it is relevant for you and the community ).
c) discuss your methods and objectives ( set your research method ).
- Case Evaluation.
a) segregate major and minor points ( start with the most important elements and continue with what’s less significant ).
b) address strengths and weaknesses of your approach ( discuss why your approach might not cover all range of the business problem ).
c) talk about limitations ( explain what barriers you have faced and what the case study failed to provide ).
- Proposed Solutions.
a) explain your school of thought ( offer information based on a particular method or a scientific concept ).
b) pros of your approach ( discuss the positive sides of your solution ).
c) set your hypothesis ( feel free to make assumptions and create analytical strategy ).
- Analytical Findings.
a) provide summary of your findings ( you can use bullet points to discuss your findings ).
b) connect your thesis with an outcome ( remind your readers about your thesis and the most important argument ).
a) Provide possible helpful recommendations ( you can recommend alternative solutions or suggest how the limitations can be addressed ).
b) Recommend further literature ( you can mention further reading ).
How to Create a Title Page and Cite a Case Study
Speaking of case study structure in APA format, as an example, you may have to create a title.
Here are the rules to follow:
- Running head should include running title with a page number flushed to the right top corner. The running head itself should have a one inch margin and be typed in CAPS.
- The title of the case study must be in title case, centered, and in the bold font.
- Your name must be centered.
- Provide your department and the university name.
- Course code and name follow next and remain centered.
- Your professor's name must be provided in "Dr. John Gerahty" format.
- Date should be: Month, Day, Year (June 3, 2021).
All these entries must use Times New Roman font, size 12.
Effects of Transwave Synthesis: An Engineering Audio Therapy Case Study
Department of Audio Engineering, Berkeley School of Music
ENGN 223: Synthesis and Audio Therapty
Dr. Andrew Johnson
May 4, 2019
Case Study Citation Templates & Examples
Let us assume that we need to cite a case study by David Lee that has been published at the Hardvard Business Publishing website in 2022. We need to obtain the date of publication, name of the case study, and the special reference number that can help us obtain the case study. Here is our citation in APA style :
Lee, D. (2022). What Does Diversity Mean in a Global Organization? (HBR Case Study). HBR No. R2203X-PDF-ENG. https://hbsp.harvard.edu/product/R2203X-PDF-ENG?Ntt=&itemFindingMethod=search
Now a textbook-based case study will look this way:
Author(s) or Editor(s) of the case study. (Year of publishing). Title of chapter or case study. In First initial. Last Name, and First initial. Last name (Eds.), Title of book (pp.) Publisher's Name.
Patterson, J. (2009) The Apple's Take On Luxury. In J. Walden, Cases of Marketing Success (pp. 34-39). Bailey Publishing House.
- MLA format will follow this simple template for case study citations :
Author's Last Name, First Name. Case Study Title (in italics). Location of the Publisher, Journal, or Organization.
Chandler, Nigel. "Disney and Disability Cases on Screen." American Journal of Cinemetograph y, vol 14, no. 2, 2004, pp. 281-99.
Case Study Examples
Without a doubt, there are numerous case study examples that you can find online, yet not all of them follow a necessary structure and your final task (and type!) may differ in the end. The most important is to introduce the case study correctly even if you have to write it in a reflective tone. Here is an example of a correct case study introduction and objectives sample:
A PERSONAL CASE STUDY
A debate on the case studies of Autism among the college learners by Arizona's State University, Department of Psychology.
I feel obliged to compose this personal case study on autism in the academic environment because I have been able to succeed, being in the middle of the autistic spectrum. For some people, however, autism is often seen as a disability and a barrier for learning. Dealing with issues like hypersensitivity and a non-typical reaction to light and sound, I can state that every case is different. In my personal experience, if there are no medical conditions that come along with autism, there is no solid reason to claim that it affects the learning process in the negative way. While there are certain neurological issues, it's only a pace of the learning process that plays an important role.
The main problem with autism and the learning process is that people who are living with this condition are left in the position of being disabled and even harmful for other society members. While autism is considered a learning barrier and a mental disability by some scientists, there is no universal formula that would make it possible to set the final diagnosis. If the talk goes of a functional impairment, the college professors and universities must provide a certain framework to help each student achieve success based on their academic merits and skills.
My hope in the writing of this case study is to address misconceptions and allow fellow students and members of the academic community to explore autism in the learning environment without a biased attitude. I hope that my own personal experience with autism, being a university learner, can help recognize relevant symptoms and help manage the condition in a different way by allowing students with a condition to learn and prosper.
When You Need Urgent Writing Help!
We know that case study writing may sound overly complex, yet we are sincerely hoping that this guide has helped you clarify the majority of your questions and concerns about this type of writing. If you are still feeling lost or need to get things done urgently, consider professional case study help . The most important is to seek help when you need it by approaching online experts. We are ready to offer timely assistance that will help you achieve success and get over the writer’s block.
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Blog Graphic Design
15+ Professional Case Study Examples [Design Tips + Templates]
By Alice Corner , Jan 12, 2023
Let me ask you a question: Have you ever bought something — within the last 10 years or so — without reading its reviews or without a recommendation or prior experience of using it?
If the answer is no — or at least, rarely — you get my point.
For businesses selling consumer goods, having raving reviews is a good way to get more customers. The same thing applies to B2B and/or SaaS businesses — but for this type of business, besides regular, short reviews, having a detailed case study can help tremendously.
Case studies are an incredibly effective form of marketing that you can use to help promote your product and plan your marketing strategy effectively. You can also use it as a form of customer analysis or as a sales tool to inspire potential customers.
So what does a case study look like and how can you create one? In this article, I’m going to list over 15 marketing case study examples, case study tips, and case study templates to help you create a case study that converts.
Click to jump ahead:
- What is a Case Study?
- Marketing Case Study Examples
Sales Case Study Examples
Simple case study examples, business case study examples.
- Case Study FAQs
What is a case study?
A case study is a research method to gain a better understanding of a subject or process. Case studies involve in-depth research into a given subject, in order to understand its functionality and successes.
In the context of a business, however, case studies take customer success stories and explore how they use your product to help them achieve their business goals.
As well as being valuable marketing tools, case studies are a good way to evaluate your product as it allows you to objectively examine how others are using it.
It’s also a good way to interview your customers about why they work with you.
Related: What is a Case Study? [+6 Types of Case Studies]
What is a marketing case study?
A marketing case study is a type of marketing where you use your existing customers as an example of what your product or services can achieve. You can also create case studies of internal, successful marketing projects.
Here’s an example of a marketing case study template:
Return to Table of Contents
Marketing case study examples
Marketing case studies are incredibly useful for showing your marketing successes. Every successful marketing campaign relies on influencing a consumer’s behavior, and a great case study can be a great way to spotlight your biggest wins.
In the marketing case study examples below, a variety of designs and techniques to create impactful and effective case studies.
Show off impressive results with a bold marketing case study
Case studies are meant to show off your successes, so make sure you feature your positive results prominently. Using bold and bright colors as well as contrasting shapes, large bold fonts, and simple icons is a great way to highlight your wins.
In well-written case study examples like the one below, the big wins are highlighted on the second page with a bright orange color and are highlighted in circles.
Making the important data stand out is especially important when attracting a prospective customer with marketing case studies.
Use a simple but clear layout in your case study
Using a simple layout in your case study can be incredibly effective, like in the example of a case study below.
Keeping a clean white background, and using slim lines to help separate the sections is an easy way to format your case study.
Making the information clear helps draw attention to the important results, and it helps improve the accessibility of the design .
Business case study examples like this would sit nicely within a larger report, with a consistent layout throughout.
Use visuals and icons to create an engaging and branded business case study
Nobody wants to read pages and pages of text — and that’s why Venngage wants to help you communicate your ideas visually.
Using icons, graphics, photos, or patterns helps create a much more engaging design.
With this Blue Cap case study icons, colors, and impactful pattern designs have been used to create an engaging design that catches your eye.
Use a monochromatic color palette to create a professional and clean case study
Let your research shine by using a monochromatic and minimalistic color palette.
By sticking to one color, and leaving lots of blank space you can ensure your design doesn’t distract a potential customer from your case study content.
In this case study on Polygon Media, the design is simple and professional, and the layout allows the prospective customer to follow the flow of information.
The gradient effect on the left-hand column helps break up the white background and adds an interesting visual effect.
Did you know you can generate an accessible color palette with Venngage? Try our free accessible color palette generator today and create a case study that delivers and looks pleasant to the eye:
Add long term goals in your case study
When creating a case study it’s a great idea to look at both the short term and the long term goals of the company to gain the best understanding possible of the insights they provide.
Short-term goals will be what the company or person hopes to achieve in the next few months, and long-term goals are what the company hopes to achieve in the next few years.
Check out this modern pattern design example of a case study below:
In this case study example, the short and long-term goals are clearly distinguished by light blue boxes and placed side by side so that they are easy to compare.
Use a strong introductory paragraph to outline the overall strategy and goals before outlining the specific short-term and long-term goals to help with clarity.
This strategy can also be handy when creating a consulting case study.
Use data to make concrete points about your sales and successes
When conducting any sort of research stats, facts, and figures are like gold dust (aka, really valuable).
Being able to quantify your findings is important to help understand the information fully. Saying sales increased 10% is much more effective than saying sales increased.
In sales case study examples, like this one, the key data and findings can be presented with icons. This contributes to the potential customer’s better understanding of the report.
They can clearly comprehend the information and it shows that the case study has been well researched.
Use emotive, persuasive, or action based language in your marketing case study
Create a compelling case study by using emotive, persuasive and action-based language when customizing your case study template.
In this well-written case study example, we can see that phrases such as “Results that Speak Volumes” and “Drive Sales” have been used.
Using persuasive language like you would in a blog post. It helps inspire potential customers to take action now.
Keep your potential customers in mind when creating a customer case study for marketing
82% of marketers use case studies in their marketing because it’s such an effective tool to help quickly gain customers’ trust and to showcase the potential of your product.
Why are case studies such an important tool in content marketing?
By writing a case study you’re telling potential customers that they can trust you because you’re showing them that other people do.
Not only that, but if you have a SaaS product, business case studies are a great way to show how other people are effectively using your product in their company.
In this case study, Network is demonstrating how their product has been used by Vortex Co. with great success; instantly showing other potential customers that their tool works and is worth using.
Related: 10+ Case Study Infographic Templates That Convert
Case studies are particularly effective as a sales technique.
A sales case study is like an extended customer testimonial, not only sharing opinions of your product – but showcasing the results you helped your customer achieve.
Make impactful statistics pop in your sales case study
Writing a case study doesn’t mean using text as the only medium for sharing results.
You should use icons to highlight areas of your research that are particularly interesting or relevant, like in this example of a case study:
Icons are a great way to help summarize information quickly and can act as visual cues to help draw the customer’s attention to certain areas of the page.
In some of the business case study examples above, icons are used to represent the impressive areas of growth and are presented in a way that grabs your attention.
Use high contrast shapes and colors to draw attention to key information in your sales case study
Help the key information stand out within your case study by using high contrast shapes and colors.
Use a complementary or contrasting color, or use a shape such as a rectangle or a circle for maximum impact.
This design has used dark blue rectangles to help separate the information and make it easier to read.
Coupled with icons and strong statistics, this information stands out on the page and is easily digestible and retainable for a potential customer.
Less is often more, and this is especially true when it comes to creating designs. Whilst you want to create a professional-looking, well-written and design case study – there’s no need to overcomplicate things.
These simple case study examples show that smart clean designs and informative content can be an effective way to showcase your successes.
Use colors and fonts to create a professional-looking case study
Business case studies shouldn’t be boring. In fact, they should be beautifully and professionally designed.
This means the normal rules of design apply. Use fonts, colors, and icons to create an interesting and visually appealing case study.
In this case study example, we can see how multiple fonts have been used to help differentiate between the headers and content, as well as complementary colors and eye-catching icons.
Whether you’re a B2B or B2C company, business case studies can be a powerful resource to help with your sales, marketing, and even internal departmental awareness.
Business and business management case studies should encompass strategic insights alongside anecdotal and qualitative findings, like in the business case study examples below.
Conduct a B2B case study by researching the company holistically
When it comes to writing a case study, make sure you approach the company holistically and analyze everything from their social media to their sales.
Think about every avenue your product or service has been of use to your case study company, and ask them about the impact this has had on their wider company goals.
In business case study examples like the one above, we can see that the company has been thought about holistically simply by the use of icons.
By combining social media icons with icons that show in-person communication we know that this is a well-researched and thorough case study.
This case study report example could also be used within an annual or end-of-year report.
Highlight the key takeaway from your marketing case study
To create a compelling case study, identify the key takeaways from your research. Use catchy language to sum up this information in a sentence, and present this sentence at the top of your page.
This is “at a glance” information and it allows people to gain a top-level understanding of the content immediately.
You can use a large, bold, contrasting font to help this information stand out from the page and provide interest.
Learn how to choose fonts effectively with our Venngage guide and once you’ve done that.
Upload your fonts and brand colors to Venngage using the My Brand Kit tool and see them automatically applied to your designs.
The heading is the ideal place to put the most impactful information, as this is the first thing that people will read.
In this example, the stat of “Increase[d] lead quality by 90%” is used as the header. It makes customers want to read more to find out how exactly lead quality was increased by such a massive amount.
If you’re conducting an in-person interview, you could highlight a direct quote or insight provided by your interview subject.
Pick out a catchy sentence or phrase, or the key piece of information your interview subject provided and use that as a way to draw a potential customer in.
Use charts to visualize data in your business case studies
Charts are an excellent way to visualize data and to bring statistics and information to life. Charts make information easier to understand and to illustrate trends or patterns.
Making charts is even easier with Venngage.
In this consulting case study example, we can see that a chart has been used to demonstrate the difference in lead value within the Lead Elves case study.
Adding a chart here helps break up the information and add visual value to the case study.
Using charts in your case study can also be useful if you’re creating a project management case study.
You could use a Gantt chart or a project timeline to show how you have managed the project successfully.
Use direct quotes to build trust in your marketing case study
To add an extra layer of authenticity you can include a direct quote from your customer within your case study.
According to research from Nielsen , 92% of people will trust a recommendation from a peer and 70% trust recommendations even if they’re from somebody they don’t know.
So if you have a customer or client who can’t stop singing your praises, make sure you get a direct quote from them and include it in your case study.
You can either lift part of the conversation or interview, or you can specifically request a quote. Make sure to ask for permission before using the quote.
This design uses a bright contrasting speech bubble to show that it includes a direct quote, and helps the quote stand out from the rest of the text.
This will help draw the customer’s attention directly to the quote, in turn influencing them to use your product or service.
Case Study Examples Summary
Once you have created your case study, it’s best practice to update your examples on a regular basis to include up-to-date statistics, data, and information.
You should update your business case study examples often if you are sharing them on your website.
It’s also important that your case study sits within your brand guidelines – find out how Venngage’s My Brand Kit tool can help you create consistently branded case study templates.
Case studies are important marketing tools – but they shouldn’t be the only tool in your toolbox. Content marketing is also a valuable way to earn consumer trust.
Case Study FAQ
Why should you write a case study.
Case studies are an effective marketing technique to engage potential customers and help build trust.
By producing case studies featuring your current clients or customers, you are showcasing how your tool or product can be used. You’re also showing that other people endorse your product.
In addition to being a good way to gather positive testimonials from existing customers, business case studies are good educational resources and can be shared amongst your company or team, and used as a reference for future projects.
How should you write a case study?
To create a great case study, you should think strategically. The first step, before starting your case study research, is to think about what you aim to learn or what you aim to prove.
You might be aiming to learn how a company makes sales or develops a new product. If this is the case, base your questions around this.
You can learn more about writing a case study from our extensive guide.
Some good questions you could ask would be:
- Why do you use our tool or service?
- How often do you use our tool or service?
- What does the process of using our product look like to you?
- If our product didn’t exist, what would you be doing instead?
- What is the number one benefit you’ve found from using our tool?
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Home Blog Business Case Study: How to Write and Present It
Case Study: How to Write and Present It
Marketers, consultants, salespeople, and all other types of business managers often use case study analysis to highlight a success story, showing how an exciting problem can be or was addressed. But how do you create a compelling case study and then turn it into a memorable presentation? Get a lowdown from this post!
What is a Case Study?
Let’s start with this great case study definition by the University of South Caroline:
In the social sciences, the term case study refers to both a method of analysis and a specific research design for examining a problem, both of which can generalize findings across populations.
In simpler terms — a case study is an investigative research into a problem aimed at presenting or highlighting solution(s) to the analyzed issues.
A standard business case study provides insights into:
- General business/market conditions
- The main problem faced
- Methods applied
- The outcomes gained using a specific tool or approach
Case studies (also called case reports) are also used in clinical settings to analyze patient outcomes outside of the business realm.
But this is a topic for another time. In this post, we’ll focus on teaching you how to write and present a business case, plus share several case study PowerPoint templates and design tips!
Why Case Studies are a Popular Marketing Technique
Besides presenting a solution to an internal issue, case studies are often used as a content marketing technique . According to a 2020 Content Marketing Institute report, 69% of B2B marketers use case studies as part of their marketing mix.
A case study informs the reader about a possible solution and soft-sells the results, which can be achieved with your help (e.g., by using your software or by partnering with your specialist).
For the above purpose, case studies work like a charm. Per the same report:
- For 9% of marketers, case studies are also the best method for nurturing leads.
- 23% admit that case studies are beneficial for improving conversions.
Moreover, case studies also help improve your brand’s credibility, especially in the current fake news landscape and dubious claims made without proper credits.
Ultimately, case studies naturally help build up more compelling, relatable stories and showcase your product benefits through the prism of extra social proof, courtesy of the case study subject.
Popular Case Study Format Types
Most case studies come either as a slide deck or as a downloadable PDF document.
Typically, you have several options to distribute your case study for maximum reach:
- Case study presentations — in-person, virtual, or pre-recorded, there are many times when a case study presentation comes in handy. For example, during client workshops, sales pitches, networking events, conferences, trade shows, etc.
- Dedicated website page — highlighting case study examples on your website is a great way to convert middle on the funnel prospects. Google’s Think With Google case study section is a great example of a web case study design done right.
- Blog case studies — data-driven storytelling is a staunch way to stand apart from your competition by providing unique insights, no other brand can tell.
- Video case studies — video is a great medium for showcasing more complex business cases and celebrating customer success stories.
How to Write a Case Study: a 4-Step Framework
Once you decide on your case study format, the next step is collecting data and then translating it into a storyline. There are different case study methods and research approaches you can use to procure data.
But let’s say you already have all your facts straight and need to organize them in a clean copy for your presentation deck. Here’s how you should do it.
1. Identify the Problem
Every compelling case study research starts with a problem statement definition. While in business settings, there’s no need to explain your methodology in-depth; you should still open your presentation with a quick problem recap slide.
Be sure to mention:
- What’s the purpose of the case study? What will the audience learn?
- Set the scene. Explain the before, aka the problems someone was facing.
- Advertise the main issues and findings without highlighting specific details.
The above information should nicely fit in several paragraphs or 2-3 case study template slides
2. Explain the Solution
The bulk of your case study copy and presentation slides should focus on the provided solution(s). This is the time to speak at lengths about how the subject went from before to the glorious after.
Here are some writing prompts to help you articulate this better:
- State the subject’s main objective and goals. What outcomes were they after?
- Explain the main solution(s) provided. What was done? Why this, but not that?
- Mention if they tried any alternatives. Why did those work? Why were you better?
This part may take the longest to write. Don’t rush it and reiterate several times. Sprinkle in some powerful words and catchphrases to make your copy more compelling.
3. Collect Testimonials
Persuasive case studies feature the voice of customer (VoC) data — first-party testimonials and assessments of how well the solution work. These provide extra social proof and credibility to all the claims you are making.
So plan and schedule interviews with your subjects to collect their input and testimonials. Also, design your case study interview questions in a way that lets you obtain the quantifiable result.
4. Package The Information in a Slide Deck
Once you have a rough first draft, try different business case templates and designs to see how these help structure all the available information.
As a rule of thumb, try to keep one big idea per slide. If you are talking about a solution, first present the general bullet points. Then give each solution a separate slide where you’ll provide more context and perhaps share some quantifiable results.
For example, if you look at case study presentation examples from AWS like this one about Stripe , you’ll notice that the slide deck has few texts and really focuses on the big picture, while the speaker provides extra context.
Need some extra case study presentation design help? Download our Business Case Study PowerPoint template with 100% editable slides.
How to Do a Case Study Presentation: 3 Proven Tips
Your spoken presentation (and public speaking skills ) are equally if not more important than the case study copy and slide deck. To make a strong business case, follow these quick techniques.
Focus on Telling a Great Story
A case study is a story of overcoming a challenge, achieving something grand. Your delivery should reflect that. Step away from the standard “features => benefits” sales formula. Instead, make your customer the hero of the study. Describe the road they went through and how you’ve helped them succeed.
The premises of your story can be as simple as:
- Help with overcoming a hurdle
- Gaining major impact
- Reaching a new milestone
- Solving a persisting issue no one else code
Based on the above, create a clear story arc. Show where your hero started. Then explain what type of a journey they went through. Inject some emotions in the mix to make your narrative more relatable and memorable.
Experiment with Copywriting Formulas
Copywriting is the art and science of organizing words into compelling and persuasive combinations which help readers retain the right ideas.
To ensure that the audience retains the right takeaways from your case study presentation, you can try using some of the classic copywriting formulas to structure your delivery. These include:
- AIDCA — short for A ttention, I nterest, D esire, C onviction, and A ction. First, grab the audience’s attention by addressing the major problem. Next, pique their interest with some teaser facts. Spark their desire by showing that you know the right way out. Then, show a conviction that you know how to solve the issue—finally, prompt follow-up action such as contacting you to learn more.
- PADS — short for P roblem, A gitation, D iscredit, S olution. This is more of a salesy approach to case study narration. Again, you start with a problem, agitate about its importance, discredit why other solutions won’t cut it, and then present your option.
- 4Ps — short for P roblem, P romise, P roof, P roposal. This is a middle-ground option that prioritizes storytelling over hard pitches. Set the scene first with a problem. Then make a promise of how you can solve it. Show proof in the form of numbers, testimonials, and different scenarios. Round it up with a proposal for getting the same outcomes.
Take an Emotion-Inducing Perspectives
The key to building a strong rapport with an audience is showing that you are one of them and fully understand what they are going through.
One of the ways to build this connection is speaking from an emotion-inducing perspective. This is best illustrated with an example:
- A business owner went to the bank
- A business owner came into a bank branch
In the second case, the wording prompts listeners to paint a mental picture from the perspective of the bank employees — a role you’d like them to relate to. By placing your audience in the right visual perspective, you can make them more receptive to your pitches.
Final Tip: Use Compelling Presentation Visuals
Our brain is wired to process images much faster than text. So when you are presenting a case study, always look for an opportunity to tie in some illustrations such as:
- A product demo/preview
- Processes chart
- Call-out quotes or numbers
- Custom illustrations or graphics
- Customer or team headshots
Use icons to minimize the volume of texts. Also, opt for readable fonts which can look good in a smaller size too.
Finally, practice your case study presentation several times — solo and together with your team — to collect feedback and make last-moment refinements!
1. Business Case Study PowerPoint Template
To efficiently create a Business Case Study it’s important to ask all the right questions and document everything necessary, therefore this PowerPoint Template will provide all the sections you need.
Use This Template
2. Medical Case Study PowerPoint Template
3. Medical Infographics PowerPoint Templates
4. Success Story PowerPoint Template
5. Detective Research PowerPoint Template
6. Animated Clinical Study PowerPoint Templates
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Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Assignments
- Annotated Bibliography
- Analyzing a Scholarly Journal Article
- Group Presentations
- Dealing with Nervousness
- Using Visual Aids
- Grading Someone Else's Paper
- Types of Structured Group Activities
- Group Project Survival Skills
- Leading a Class Discussion
- Multiple Book Review Essay
- Reviewing Collected Works
- Writing a Case Analysis Paper
- Writing a Case Study
- About Informed Consent
- Writing Field Notes
- Writing a Policy Memo
- Writing a Reflective Paper
- Writing a Research Proposal
A case study research paper examines a person, place, event, condition, phenomenon, or other type of subject of analysis in order to extrapolate key themes and results that help predict future trends, illuminate previously hidden issues that can be applied to practice, and/or provide a means for understanding an important research problem with greater clarity. A case study research paper usually examines a single subject of analysis, but case study papers can also be designed as a comparative investigation that shows relationships between two or more subjects. The methods used to study a case can rest within a quantitative, qualitative, or mixed-method investigative paradigm.
Case Studies. [email protected] Colorado State University; Mills, Albert J. , Gabrielle Durepos, and Eiden Wiebe, editors. Encyclopedia of Case Study Research . Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2010 ; “What is a Case Study?” In Swanborn, Peter G. Case Study Research: What, Why and How? London: SAGE, 2010.
How to Approach Writing a Case Study Research Paper
General information about how to choose a topic to investigate can be found under the " Choosing a Research Problem " tab in the Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper writing guide. Review this page because it may help you identify a subject of analysis that can be investigated using a case study design.
However, identifying a case to investigate involves more than choosing the research problem . A case study encompasses a problem contextualized around the application of in-depth analysis, interpretation, and discussion, often resulting in specific recommendations for action or for improving existing conditions. As Seawright and Gerring note, practical considerations such as time and access to information can influence case selection, but these issues should not be the sole factors used in describing the methodological justification for identifying a particular case to study. Given this, selecting a case includes considering the following:
- The case represents an unusual or atypical example of a research problem that requires more in-depth analysis? Cases often represent a topic that rests on the fringes of prior investigations because the case may provide new ways of understanding the research problem. For example, if the research problem is to identify strategies to improve policies that support girl's access to secondary education in predominantly Muslim nations, you could consider using Azerbaijan as a case study rather than selecting a more obvious nation in the Middle East. Doing so may reveal important new insights into recommending how governments in other predominantly Muslim nations can formulate policies that support improved access to education for girls.
- The case provides important insight or illuminate a previously hidden problem? In-depth analysis of a case can be based on the hypothesis that the case study will reveal trends or issues that have not been exposed in prior research or will reveal new and important implications for practice. For example, anecdotal evidence may suggest drug use among homeless veterans is related to their patterns of travel throughout the day. Assuming prior studies have not looked at individual travel choices as a way to study access to illicit drug use, a case study that observes a homeless veteran could reveal how issues of personal mobility choices facilitate regular access to illicit drugs. Note that it is important to conduct a thorough literature review to ensure that your assumption about the need to reveal new insights or previously hidden problems is valid and evidence-based.
- The case challenges and offers a counter-point to prevailing assumptions? Over time, research on any given topic can fall into a trap of developing assumptions based on outdated studies that are still applied to new or changing conditions or the idea that something should simply be accepted as "common sense," even though the issue has not been thoroughly tested in current practice. A case study analysis may offer an opportunity to gather evidence that challenges prevailing assumptions about a research problem and provide a new set of recommendations applied to practice that have not been tested previously. For example, perhaps there has been a long practice among scholars to apply a particular theory in explaining the relationship between two subjects of analysis. Your case could challenge this assumption by applying an innovative theoretical framework [perhaps borrowed from another discipline] to explore whether this approach offers new ways of understanding the research problem. Taking a contrarian stance is one of the most important ways that new knowledge and understanding develops from existing literature.
- The case provides an opportunity to pursue action leading to the resolution of a problem? Another way to think about choosing a case to study is to consider how the results from investigating a particular case may result in findings that reveal ways in which to resolve an existing or emerging problem. For example, studying the case of an unforeseen incident, such as a fatal accident at a railroad crossing, can reveal hidden issues that could be applied to preventative measures that contribute to reducing the chance of accidents in the future. In this example, a case study investigating the accident could lead to a better understanding of where to strategically locate additional signals at other railroad crossings so as to better warn drivers of an approaching train, particularly when visibility is hindered by heavy rain, fog, or at night.
- The case offers a new direction in future research? A case study can be used as a tool for an exploratory investigation that highlights the need for further research about the problem. A case can be used when there are few studies that help predict an outcome or that establish a clear understanding about how best to proceed in addressing a problem. For example, after conducting a thorough literature review [very important!], you discover that little research exists showing the ways in which women contribute to promoting water conservation in rural communities of east central Africa. A case study of how women contribute to saving water in a rural village of Uganda can lay the foundation for understanding the need for more thorough research that documents how women in their roles as cooks and family caregivers think about water as a valuable resource within their community. This example of a case study could also point to the need for scholars to build new theoretical frameworks around the topic [e.g., applying feminist theories of work and family to the issue of water conservation].
Eisenhardt, Kathleen M. “Building Theories from Case Study Research.” Academy of Management Review 14 (October 1989): 532-550; Emmel, Nick. Sampling and Choosing Cases in Qualitative Research: A Realist Approach . Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2013; Gerring, John. “What Is a Case Study and What Is It Good for?” American Political Science Review 98 (May 2004): 341-354; Mills, Albert J. , Gabrielle Durepos, and Eiden Wiebe, editors. Encyclopedia of Case Study Research . Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2010; Seawright, Jason and John Gerring. "Case Selection Techniques in Case Study Research." Political Research Quarterly 61 (June 2008): 294-308.
Structure and Writing Style
The purpose of a paper in the social sciences designed around a case study is to thoroughly investigate a subject of analysis in order to reveal a new understanding about the research problem and, in so doing, contributing new knowledge to what is already known from previous studies. In applied social sciences disciplines [e.g., education, social work, public administration, etc.], case studies may also be used to reveal best practices, highlight key programs, or investigate interesting aspects of professional work.
In general, the structure of a case study research paper is not all that different from a standard college-level research paper. However, there are subtle differences you should be aware of. Here are the key elements to organizing and writing a case study research paper.
As with any research paper, your introduction should serve as a roadmap for your readers to ascertain the scope and purpose of your study . The introduction to a case study research paper, however, should not only describe the research problem and its significance, but you should also succinctly describe why the case is being used and how it relates to addressing the problem. The two elements should be linked. With this in mind, a good introduction answers these four questions:
- What is being studied? Describe the research problem and describe the subject of analysis [the case] you have chosen to address the problem. Explain how they are linked and what elements of the case will help to expand knowledge and understanding about the problem.
- Why is this topic important to investigate? Describe the significance of the research problem and state why a case study design and the subject of analysis that the paper is designed around is appropriate in addressing the problem.
- What did we know about this topic before I did this study? Provide background that helps lead the reader into the more in-depth literature review to follow. If applicable, summarize prior case study research applied to the research problem and why it fails to adequately address the problem. Describe why your case will be useful. If no prior case studies have been used to address the research problem, explain why you have selected this subject of analysis.
- How will this study advance new knowledge or new ways of understanding? Explain why your case study will be suitable in helping to expand knowledge and understanding about the research problem.
Each of these questions should be addressed in no more than a few paragraphs. Exceptions to this can be when you are addressing a complex research problem or subject of analysis that requires more in-depth background information.
II. Literature Review
The literature review for a case study research paper is generally structured the same as it is for any college-level research paper. The difference, however, is that the literature review is focused on providing background information and enabling historical interpretation of the subject of analysis in relation to the research problem the case is intended to address . This includes synthesizing studies that help to:
- Place relevant works in the context of their contribution to understanding the case study being investigated . This would involve summarizing studies that have used a similar subject of analysis to investigate the research problem. If there is literature using the same or a very similar case to study, you need to explain why duplicating past research is important [e.g., conditions have changed; prior studies were conducted long ago, etc.].
- Describe the relationship each work has to the others under consideration that informs the reader why this case is applicable . Your literature review should include a description of any works that support using the case to investigate the research problem and the underlying research questions.
- Identify new ways to interpret prior research using the case study . If applicable, review any research that has examined the research problem using a different research design. Explain how your use of a case study design may reveal new knowledge or a new perspective or that can redirect research in an important new direction.
- Resolve conflicts amongst seemingly contradictory previous studies . This refers to synthesizing any literature that points to unresolved issues of concern about the research problem and describing how the subject of analysis that forms the case study can help resolve these existing contradictions.
- Point the way in fulfilling a need for additional research . Your review should examine any literature that lays a foundation for understanding why your case study design and the subject of analysis around which you have designed your study may reveal a new way of approaching the research problem or offer a perspective that points to the need for additional research.
- Expose any gaps that exist in the literature that the case study could help to fill . Summarize any literature that not only shows how your subject of analysis contributes to understanding the research problem, but how your case contributes to a new way of understanding the problem that prior research has failed to do.
- Locate your own research within the context of existing literature [very important!] . Collectively, your literature review should always place your case study within the larger domain of prior research about the problem. The overarching purpose of reviewing pertinent literature in a case study paper is to demonstrate that you have thoroughly identified and synthesized prior studies in relation to explaining the relevance of the case in addressing the research problem.
In this section, you explain why you selected a particular case [i.e., subject of analysis] and the strategy you used to identify and ultimately decide that your case was appropriate in addressing the research problem. The way you describe the methods used varies depending on the type of subject of analysis that constitutes your case study.
If your subject of analysis is an incident or event . In the social and behavioral sciences, the event or incident that represents the case to be studied is usually bounded by time and place, with a clear beginning and end and with an identifiable location or position relative to its surroundings. The subject of analysis can be a rare or critical event or it can focus on a typical or regular event. The purpose of studying a rare event is to illuminate new ways of thinking about the broader research problem or to test a hypothesis. Critical incident case studies must describe the method by which you identified the event and explain the process by which you determined the validity of this case to inform broader perspectives about the research problem or to reveal new findings. However, the event does not have to be a rare or uniquely significant to support new thinking about the research problem or to challenge an existing hypothesis. For example, Walo, Bull, and Breen conducted a case study to identify and evaluate the direct and indirect economic benefits and costs of a local sports event in the City of Lismore, New South Wales, Australia. The purpose of their study was to provide new insights from measuring the impact of a typical local sports event that prior studies could not measure well because they focused on large "mega-events." Whether the event is rare or not, the methods section should include an explanation of the following characteristics of the event: a) when did it take place; b) what were the underlying circumstances leading to the event; and, c) what were the consequences of the event in relation to the research problem.
If your subject of analysis is a person. Explain why you selected this particular individual to be studied and describe what experiences they have had that provide an opportunity to advance new understandings about the research problem. Mention any background about this person which might help the reader understand the significance of their experiences that make them worthy of study. This includes describing the relationships this person has had with other people, institutions, and/or events that support using them as the subject for a case study research paper. It is particularly important to differentiate the person as the subject of analysis from others and to succinctly explain how the person relates to examining the research problem [e.g., why is one politician in a particular local election used to show an increase in voter turnout from any other candidate running in the election]. Note that these issues apply to a specific group of people used as a case study unit of analysis [e.g., a classroom of students].
If your subject of analysis is a place. In general, a case study that investigates a place suggests a subject of analysis that is unique or special in some way and that this uniqueness can be used to build new understanding or knowledge about the research problem. A case study of a place must not only describe its various attributes relevant to the research problem [e.g., physical, social, historical, cultural, economic, political], but you must state the method by which you determined that this place will illuminate new understandings about the research problem. It is also important to articulate why a particular place as the case for study is being used if similar places also exist [i.e., if you are studying patterns of homeless encampments of veterans in open spaces, explain why you are studying Echo Park in Los Angeles rather than Griffith Park?]. If applicable, describe what type of human activity involving this place makes it a good choice to study [e.g., prior research suggests Echo Park has more homeless veterans].
If your subject of analysis is a phenomenon. A phenomenon refers to a fact, occurrence, or circumstance that can be studied or observed but with the cause or explanation to be in question. In this sense, a phenomenon that forms your subject of analysis can encompass anything that can be observed or presumed to exist but is not fully understood. In the social and behavioral sciences, the case usually focuses on human interaction within a complex physical, social, economic, cultural, or political system. For example, the phenomenon could be the observation that many vehicles used by ISIS fighters are small trucks with English language advertisements on them. The research problem could be that ISIS fighters are difficult to combat because they are highly mobile. The research questions could be how and by what means are these vehicles used by ISIS being supplied to the militants and how might supply lines to these vehicles be cut off? How might knowing the suppliers of these trucks reveal larger networks of collaborators and financial support? A case study of a phenomenon most often encompasses an in-depth analysis of a cause and effect that is grounded in an interactive relationship between people and their environment in some way.
NOTE: The choice of the case or set of cases to study cannot appear random. Evidence that supports the method by which you identified and chose your subject of analysis should clearly support investigation of the research problem and linked to key findings from your literature review. Be sure to cite any studies that helped you determine that the case you chose was appropriate for examining the problem.
The main elements of your discussion section are generally the same as any research paper, but centered around interpreting and drawing conclusions about the key findings from your analysis of the case study. Note that a general social sciences research paper may contain a separate section to report findings. However, in a paper designed around a case study, it is common to combine a description of the results with the discussion about their implications. The objectives of your discussion section should include the following:
Reiterate the Research Problem/State the Major Findings Briefly reiterate the research problem you are investigating and explain why the subject of analysis around which you designed the case study were used. You should then describe the findings revealed from your study of the case using direct, declarative, and succinct proclamation of the study results. Highlight any findings that were unexpected or especially profound.
Explain the Meaning of the Findings and Why They are Important Systematically explain the meaning of your case study findings and why you believe they are important. Begin this part of the section by repeating what you consider to be your most important or surprising finding first, then systematically review each finding. Be sure to thoroughly extrapolate what your analysis of the case can tell the reader about situations or conditions beyond the actual case that was studied while, at the same time, being careful not to misconstrue or conflate a finding that undermines the external validity of your conclusions.
Relate the Findings to Similar Studies No study in the social sciences is so novel or possesses such a restricted focus that it has absolutely no relation to previously published research. The discussion section should relate your case study results to those found in other studies, particularly if questions raised from prior studies served as the motivation for choosing your subject of analysis. This is important because comparing and contrasting the findings of other studies helps support the overall importance of your results and it highlights how and in what ways your case study design and the subject of analysis differs from prior research about the topic.
Consider Alternative Explanations of the Findings Remember that the purpose of social science research is to discover and not to prove. When writing the discussion section, you should carefully consider all possible explanations revealed by the case study results, rather than just those that fit your hypothesis or prior assumptions and biases. Be alert to what the in-depth analysis of the case may reveal about the research problem, including offering a contrarian perspective to what scholars have stated in prior research if that is how the findings can be interpreted from your case.
Acknowledge the Study's Limitations You can state the study's limitations in the conclusion section of your paper but describing the limitations of your subject of analysis in the discussion section provides an opportunity to identify the limitations and explain why they are not significant. This part of the discussion section should also note any unanswered questions or issues your case study could not address. More detailed information about how to document any limitations to your research can be found here .
Suggest Areas for Further Research Although your case study may offer important insights about the research problem, there are likely additional questions related to the problem that remain unanswered or findings that unexpectedly revealed themselves as a result of your in-depth analysis of the case. Be sure that the recommendations for further research are linked to the research problem and that you explain why your recommendations are valid in other contexts and based on the original assumptions of your study.
As with any research paper, you should summarize your conclusion in clear, simple language; emphasize how the findings from your case study differs from or supports prior research and why. Do not simply reiterate the discussion section. Provide a synthesis of key findings presented in the paper to show how these converge to address the research problem. If you haven't already done so in the discussion section, be sure to document the limitations of your case study and any need for further research.
The function of your paper's conclusion is to: 1) reiterate the main argument supported by the findings from your case study; 2) state clearly the context, background, and necessity of pursuing the research problem using a case study design in relation to an issue, controversy, or a gap found from reviewing the literature; and, 3) provide a place to persuasively and succinctly restate the significance of your research problem, given that the reader has now been presented with in-depth information about the topic.
Consider the following points to help ensure your conclusion is appropriate:
- If the argument or purpose of your paper is complex, you may need to summarize these points for your reader.
- If prior to your conclusion, you have not yet explained the significance of your findings or if you are proceeding inductively, use the conclusion of your paper to describe your main points and explain their significance.
- Move from a detailed to a general level of consideration of the case study's findings that returns the topic to the context provided by the introduction or within a new context that emerges from your case study findings.
Note that, depending on the discipline you are writing in or the preferences of your professor, the concluding paragraph may contain your final reflections on the evidence presented as it applies to practice or on the essay's central research problem. However, the nature of being introspective about the subject of analysis you have investigated will depend on whether you are explicitly asked to express your observations in this way.
Problems to Avoid
Overgeneralization One of the goals of a case study is to lay a foundation for understanding broader trends and issues applied to similar circumstances. However, be careful when drawing conclusions from your case study. They must be evidence-based and grounded in the results of the study; otherwise, it is merely speculation. Looking at a prior example, it would be incorrect to state that a factor in improving girls access to education in Azerbaijan and the policy implications this may have for improving access in other Muslim nations is due to girls access to social media if there is no documentary evidence from your case study to indicate this. There may be anecdotal evidence that retention rates were better for girls who were engaged with social media, but this observation would only point to the need for further research and would not be a definitive finding if this was not a part of your original research agenda.
Failure to Document Limitations No case is going to reveal all that needs to be understood about a research problem. Therefore, just as you have to clearly state the limitations of a general research study , you must describe the specific limitations inherent in the subject of analysis. For example, the case of studying how women conceptualize the need for water conservation in a village in Uganda could have limited application in other cultural contexts or in areas where fresh water from rivers or lakes is plentiful and, therefore, conservation is understood more in terms of managing access rather than preserving access to a scarce resource.
Failure to Extrapolate All Possible Implications Just as you don't want to over-generalize from your case study findings, you also have to be thorough in the consideration of all possible outcomes or recommendations derived from your findings. If you do not, your reader may question the validity of your analysis, particularly if you failed to document an obvious outcome from your case study research. For example, in the case of studying the accident at the railroad crossing to evaluate where and what types of warning signals should be located, you failed to take into consideration speed limit signage as well as warning signals. When designing your case study, be sure you have thoroughly addressed all aspects of the problem and do not leave gaps in your analysis that leave the reader questioning the results.
Case Studies. [email protected] Colorado State University; Gerring, John. Case Study Research: Principles and Practices . New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007; Merriam, Sharan B. Qualitative Research and Case Study Applications in Education . Rev. ed. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 1998; Miller, Lisa L. “The Use of Case Studies in Law and Social Science Research.” Annual Review of Law and Social Science 14 (2018): TBD; Mills, Albert J., Gabrielle Durepos, and Eiden Wiebe, editors. Encyclopedia of Case Study Research . Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2010; Putney, LeAnn Grogan. "Case Study." In Encyclopedia of Research Design , Neil J. Salkind, editor. (Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2010), pp. 116-120; Simons, Helen. Case Study Research in Practice . London: SAGE Publications, 2009; Kratochwill, Thomas R. and Joel R. Levin, editors. Single-Case Research Design and Analysis: New Development for Psychology and Education . Hilldsale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1992; Swanborn, Peter G. Case Study Research: What, Why and How? London : SAGE, 2010; Yin, Robert K. Case Study Research: Design and Methods . 6th edition. Los Angeles, CA, SAGE Publications, 2014; Walo, Maree, Adrian Bull, and Helen Breen. “Achieving Economic Benefits at Local Events: A Case Study of a Local Sports Event.” Festival Management and Event Tourism 4 (1996): 95-106.
At Least Five Misconceptions about Case Study Research
Social science case studies are often perceived as limited in their ability to create new knowledge because they are not randomly selected and findings cannot be generalized to larger populations. Flyvbjerg examines five misunderstandings about case study research and systematically "corrects" each one. To quote, these are:
Misunderstanding 1 : General, theoretical [context-independent] knowledge is more valuable than concrete, practical [context-dependent] knowledge. Misunderstanding 2 : One cannot generalize on the basis of an individual case; therefore, the case study cannot contribute to scientific development. Misunderstanding 3 : The case study is most useful for generating hypotheses; that is, in the first stage of a total research process, whereas other methods are more suitable for hypotheses testing and theory building. Misunderstanding 4 : The case study contains a bias toward verification, that is, a tendency to confirm the researcher’s preconceived notions. Misunderstanding 5 : It is often difficult to summarize and develop general propositions and theories on the basis of specific case studies [p. 221].
While writing your paper, think introspectively about how you addressed these misconceptions because to do so can help you strengthen the validity and reliability of your research by clarifying issues of case selection, the testing and challenging of existing assumptions, the interpretation of key findings, and the summation of case outcomes. Think of a case study research paper as a complete, in-depth narrative about the specific properties and key characteristics of your subject of analysis applied to the research problem.
Flyvbjerg, Bent. “Five Misunderstandings About Case-Study Research.” Qualitative Inquiry 12 (April 2006): 219-245.
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Difference Case Studies Samples For Students
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Over the course of studying in college, you will surely have to craft a bunch of Case Studies on Difference. Lucky you if putting words together and transforming them into meaningful text comes easy to you; if it's not the case, you can save the day by finding a previously written Difference Case Study example and using it as a model to follow.
This is when you will definitely find WowEssays' free samples collection extremely helpful as it includes numerous expertly written works on most various Difference Case Studies topics. Ideally, you should be able to find a piece that meets your requirements and use it as a template to develop your own Case Study. Alternatively, our competent essay writers can deliver you a unique Difference Case Study model written from scratch according to your individual instructions.
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Case Study vs. White Paper: What’s the Difference?
By: Erin Moore 12/5/19 2:00 PM
Creating high quality, helpful content at a regular cadence is key to generating inbound leads for your technical business. Case studies and white papers are two of the most powerful and sought-after types of content by engineers, and both can help you generate technical leads for your business. But how do you decide on a white paper versus a case study, and what’s the difference?
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While we recommend creating both white papers and case studies as part of a robust content plan, the two content types serve different purposes, funnel stages and audiences.
A white paper helps a reader understand an issue, solve a problem, or make a decision by offering technical information, images and diagrams. It’s a lengthy piece of content at approximately 2,000 words or 6 pages.
White papers can be an effective way to target people at all stages of the funnel. One white paper could create awareness of a persona’s problem, thus targeting someone at the top of the funnel, while a second could focus on advanced product uses, targeting someone at the bottom of the funnel or even an existing customer.
As valuable, in-depth technical content, white papers should also be gated by forms. When building out the form, consider how valuable the content is to the potential reader, and select fields that reflect that. Forms perform best when they include 3-5 fields, and stick to work email, name and company name. Learn more about best practices for gating content .
You should take care to keep white papers up-to-date to maintain technical accuracy and credibility. Typically, a white paper has a lifespan of a 1-2 years before it needs to be updated, but this can vary by industry.
A case study teaches by example, featuring extended testimonials on how a product or service helped a customer in the real world. It’s considerably shorter than a white paper, typically measuring around 800 words.
Case studies are best suited for audiences at the top or middle of the funnel. Use them to create awareness of a problem and show the reader a solution that worked for a real-life customer. Due to this focus, and the shorter form, case studies are not typically gated by a form.
Case studies can be time-consuming, often requiring internal approvals from the customer and deep research. Due to the increased number of involved parties, putting together a case study can be slow going and may require an extended timeline. Their shelf life does tend to be longer than a white papers though, remaining effective for 2+ years before requiring updates.
Ready to get started? Review your personas and content plan and identify any gaps that could be met by a case study or white paper. Start slow, and work up to producing one of each per quarter to steadily generate leads for your company.
For more information on building out your content plan, read our ebook, Getting Started with Content Marketing .
This post has been updated since its original publication.
About TREW Marketing
TREW Marketing is a strategy-first content marketing agency serving B2B companies that target highly technical buyers. With deep experience in the design, embedded, measurement and automation, and software industries, TREW Marketing provides branding, marketing strategy, content development, and digital marketing services to help customers efficiently and effectively achieve business goals.
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Cultural Differences Case, Case Study Example
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A1. When we meet people from different cultures and we have little knowledge about them or their culture, we often rely on assumptions and Anita was no different. The first assumption she made was that Germans would have poor English which may cause communication difficulties. After she met her new supervisor Hans Dortmann, she assumed that there are fewer or no women in management at German companies which might be why Mr. Dortmann was uncomfortable. She also assumed that Germans are rude and like confrontation. These assumptions were wrong as the case reveals that business culture at German organizations is relatively more formal than American companies. In addition, power distance is higher at German companies than American companies which may be why Anita didn’t get the response she was expecting and thought that Germans are rude.
A2. Anita’s situation may be quite typical now because globalization has diminished trade barriers among countries and more and more companies are doing business abroad either by setting own operations, through acquisitions, or simply going for joint venture. This is true for both American and foreign companies. There are often huge cultural differences among countries including those at workplaces and many people have little or no experience working with those from other countries. Thus, when they first deal with foreigners, they judge the behavior demonstrated by foreign individuals on the basis of their own cultural values which only leads to misunderstanding.
It used to be that mostly American companies would pursue international expansion but now more and more companies from emerging companies are pursuing international expansion including India, China, and even those from Eastern Europe. Thus, situations like Anita’s would only become more common over time.
A3. One of the major communication barriers in this situation is cultural barrier. Anita and Mr. Dortmann come from different cultures with different norms and values, thus, they may have different expectations of how one should behave at workplace. Another communication barrier is language because both individuals speak different languages. Even though English is a universal language and Mr. Dortmann may have intermediate language skills in English, there is still a potential of miscommunication if the words chosen by Mr. Dortmann to express himself have different meanings or implications in German and American cultures. The third communication barrier is stereotypes as the case reveals that both Anita and Mr. Dortmann felt the other person was rude. Stereotypes often lead to non-cooperative attitude and poor working relationship.
Anita took the right steps to overcome these barriers by taking information sessions on cultural orientations. These sessions helped improve her understanding of German culture and reduced the probability of her misinterpreting Mr. Dortmann’s behavior.
A4. Anita and her supervisor may be encouraged to learn more about each other’s cultures due to their differences. This may also motivate both of them to adopt positive characteristics of the other culture. Their differences will also introduce each other to different perspectives and expand their thinking horizon.
In order to learn and benefit from each other’s strengths, they should learn about each other’s culture, either directly through conversation or indirectly through information sessions and other information sources. They should also learn about each other’s personal characteristics and work history which may increase mutual appreciation for each other. Similarly, they can also talk to each other’s work colleagues to gain additional information.
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An example is a single instance of something. For instance, a single patient with alzheimer's disease. A case study is an example that has been thoroughly analyzed in a methodical and scientific way (typically using a lot of measurements, for example).
Step 1: Select a case Step 2: Build a theoretical framework Step 3: Collect your data Step 4: Describe and analyze the case When to do a case study A case study is an appropriate research design when you want to gain concrete, contextual, in-depth knowledge about a specific real-world subject.
As nouns the difference between case and example is that case is an actual event, situation, or fact or case can be a box that contains or can contain a number of identical items of manufacture while example is something that is representative of all such things in a group. As verbs the difference between case and example
Example noun. a representative form or pattern; 'I profited from his example'; Case noun. The outer covering or framework of a piece of apparatus such as a computer. Example noun. something to be imitated; 'an exemplar of success'; 'a model of clarity'; 'he is the very model of a modern major general'; Case noun.
A case study is an effective research method that specifically studies a single case over a period of time. Writing a case study is a very useful form of study in the educational process. If students have real-life examples, it can help them learn more and synthesize information in a more effective manner.
A case study is a research method used to study a particular individual, group, or situation in depth. It involves analyzing and interpreting data from a variety of sources to gain insight into the subject being studied.
Some great examples of case studies in psychology include: Anna O: Anna O. was a pseudonym of a woman named Bertha Pappenheim, a patient of a physician named Josef Breuer. While she was never a patient of Freud's, Freud and Breuer discussed her case extensively.
A case study is a subcategory of research design which investigates problems and offers solutions. Case studies can range from academic research studies to corporate promotional tools trying to sell an idea—their scope is quite vast. What Is the Difference Between a Research Paper and a Case Study?
The case study's goal is to prove that further investigation is necessary. For example, an exploratory case study could be done on veterans coming home from active combat. Researchers are aware that these vets have PTSD, and are aware that the actions of war are what cause PTSD.
A Case Study describes in detail the transformations and successes of your client that are all thanks to you. It identifies the situation the client was in before partnering with your company and adopting your solution. It showcases the results the client experienced, such as increasing revenue or saving time.
Step 2: Determine Your Case Study Type. It may be an illustrative case study or series of cases that you have to work with. Check with your grading rubric twice to stay on the right track. Step 3: Create Case Study Outline. This part is the most important as you have to work on your case study introduction.
A marketing case study is a type of marketing where you use your existing customers as an example of what your product or services can achieve. You can also create case studies of internal, successful marketing projects. Here's an example of a marketing case study template: CREATE THIS CASE STUDY TEMPLATE Return to Table of Contents
In simpler terms — a case study is an investigative research into a problem aimed at presenting or highlighting solution (s) to the analyzed issues. A standard business case study provides insights into: General business/market conditions The main problem faced Methods applied The outcomes gained using a specific tool or approach
A case study is an in-depth analysis of specific, real-world situations or the scenarios inspired by them. Both teachers and professionals use them as training tools. They're used to present a problem, allowing individuals to interpret it and provide a solution. In the business world, organizations of many sizes use case studies to train ...
The case represents an unusual or atypical example of a research problem that requires more in-depth analysis? Cases often represent a topic that rests on the fringes of prior investigations because the case may provide new ways of understanding the research problem.
The judge in the case was Fryberg J. The case was heard on the 2nd and 3rd December, 2010. The Plaintiff in the case is Ms Mee Wah To, a landlord who owns a parcel of land located at 33 Lisson Grove, Wooloowin. The Defendant on the other hand is Miss Eugene Choi, a tenant of part of the land owned by Miss Mee Wah To.
A case study teaches by example, featuring extended testimonials on how a product or service helped a customer in the real world. It's considerably shorter than a white paper, typically measuring around 800 words. Case studies are best suited for audiences at the top or middle of the funnel.
A1. When we meet people from different cultures and we have little knowledge about them or their culture, we often rely on assumptions and Anita was no different. The first assumption she made was that Germans would have poor English which may cause communication difficulties. After she met her new supervisor Hans Dortmann, she assumed that ...
The duration of the study tends to be relatively long. A survey refers to research where data is gathered from an entire population or a very large sample in order to comprehend the opinions on a particular matter. The key difference between the two methods is that while case studies produce rich descriptive data, surveys do not.
Examples of case studies in examples are those of Phineas Gage, Chris Sizemore, and Jill Price. Phineas Gage suffered from a brain injury during a railroad accident that changed his...