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Definition of Literature for Fundamentals of Literature
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Fundamentals of Literature Compiled by: Belachew Weldegebriel ([email protected]) Jimma University CSSH Department of English Language and Literature 1.1 Definition of Literature
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- 1. Compiled by: Belachew W. Jimma University College of Social Sciences and Humanities Department of English Language and Literature
- 2. Literature What?
- 3. Literature can be defined as ‘pieces of writing that are valued as works of art, especially novels, plays and poems’. (Oxford Advanced learner’s English Dictionary)
- 4. Can you comment on the following definitions of Literature? written works, especially those considered of superior or lasting artistic merit. "a great work of literature" books and writings published on a particular subject. "the literature on environmental epidemiology“ written works (such as poems, plays, and novels) that are considered to be very good and to have lasting importance. Literature is defined as books and other written works, especially those considered to have creative or artistic merit or lasting value.
- 5. Definitions of Literature Literature is the total of preserved writings belonging to a given language or people. Literature is a term used to describe written or spoken material. Literature is used to describe anything from creative writing to more technical or scientific work but the term is most commonly used to refer to works of the creative imagination, poetry, drama, fiction and non fiction. “the body of written works produced in a particular language, country, or age, or the body of writings on a particular subject (scientific, art, etc.)”
- 6. Literature: Literature is usually defined as “Imaginative” writing in the sense of fiction-writing which is not literally true. Actually, the distinction between “fact” and “fiction” seems unlikely to get us very far Novels and news reports were neither clearly factual nor clearly fictional.
- 7. Literature Literature is not definable according to whether it is fictional or “imaginative” but because it uses language in particular ways. Literature is a kind of writing which represents an ‘organized violence committed on ordinary speech’ Raman Jocobson Literature transforms and intensifies ordinary language, deviates systematically from everyday speech.
- 8. Some useful remarks and questions If literature includes much ‘factual’ writing, it also excludes quite a lot of fiction. If literature is ‘creative’ or ‘imaginative’ writing, does this imply that history, philosophy and natural science are uncreative and unimaginative?
- 9. What is Literature? The literary work was neither a vehicle for ideas, a reflection of social reality nor the incarnation of some transcendental truth: It is a material fact, whose functioning could be analyzed rather as one could examine a machine. It was made of words not of objects or feelings, and it was a mistake to see it as the expression of the author’s mind.
- 10. Formalists view of literature The formalists started out by seeing the literary work as a more or less arbitrary assemblage of ‘devices’, and only later come to see these devices as interrelated elements of functions within a total textual system. Devices included sound, imagery, rhythm, syntax, meter, rhyme, narrative techniques , in fact the whole stock of formal literary elements; and what all of these elements had in common was their estranging or defamiliarizing effect.
- 11. Non-fiction This can also be called “informational" material. These types of books provide information that is factual. Nothing is make-believe in these types of materials. More specific examples of this type of genre would be . . . Biographies Autobiographies
- 12. Non-fiction Biographies: A true account of a person's life written, composed, or produced by another. Autobiographies: The biography of a person written by that person him/herself.
- 13. Fiction In this type of work, the author can make up the whole/entire story. Authors can also choose to include factual information in a made-up story. The author can have wizards creating magic spells or it can be about a 12 year old girl who has a secret crush.
- 14. Questions
- 15. Questions “Art is not a mirror to reflect reality; but a hammer to shape it. Bertolt Brecht
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INTRODUCTION TO LITERATURE IN ENGLISH. CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION 2. DEFINITION OF LITERATURE 3. IMPORTANCE OF LITERATURE IN ENGLISH 4. KINDS OF LITERATURE.
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Presentation on theme: "INTRODUCTION TO LITERATURE IN ENGLISH. CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION 2. DEFINITION OF LITERATURE 3. IMPORTANCE OF LITERATURE IN ENGLISH 4. KINDS OF LITERATURE."— Presentation transcript:
Short Stories- English I Honors
Short Story Unit Notes.
ELEMENTS OF THE SHORT STORY The short story emerges from the writer’s careful manipulation of various formal elements, which will usually include: Plot.
The Elements of Narrative ENG1D1MacPherson. What is “Narration”? Narration is storytelling (literary, verbal) Narration is storytelling (literary, verbal)
IT’S STORY TIME IT’S STORY TIME Elements of Fiction Elements of Fiction.
What parts make up a story?
Literary Elements! Fiction Stories that come from a writer’s imagination are called fiction. Stories that come from a writer’s imagination are called.
Character A person or other creature in a literary work Dynamic Character – one who changes in the story Static Character – remains the same throughout.
ALLUSION A passing reference to historical or fictional characters, places, or events, or to other works that the writer assumes the reader will recognize.
Literary Terms Vocabulary. Author’s Purpose Reason for writing the story. (to inform, to entertain, to persuade, etc.)
Students will: identify various elements of a novel.
Please have out your Literature Terms from yesterday.
Short Story The short story is a work of fiction that is shorter and more limited than the novel. It usually focuses on one important event in the lives.
Novels/Short Stories. NOVEL A long fictional story, whose length is normally somewhere between one hundred and five hundred pages Uses the elements of.
“L to J” Literary Terms Part 1. Roll the dice… ABCDE FGHIJ KLMNO PQRST UVWXY.
Warm-Up What do you think of when you think of the elements of fiction? In your notes section of your 3-subject notebook, make a list of as many terms.
Literary Terms English I. Genre A form or type of literary work. A form or type of literary work. –Short story –Novel –Lyric –Narrative –Non-fiction –Autobiography.
Short Story Unit “A room without books is like a body without a soul” -Cicero.
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2. literature concept.ppt
The word literature literally means "things made from letters" and the term "letters" is sometimes used to signify "literature," .
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From the Editors 3 Call for Manuscripts 4 Diane …
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This volume offers essays on a variety of aspects of the inter-related topics of “hiddenness” and “discovery”: literary, biographical, philosophical, and source study. The Inklings that are examined in this anthology are C. S. Lewis, J. R. R. Tolkien, and Owen Barfield, with two of their literary predecessors and influences that are included under the term “Inklings” in this anthology: G. K. Chesterton and George MacDonald. Readers will find new territory for further exploration of C. S. Lewis and the Inklings in the areas of 1) creative collaboration among the Inklings; 2) genres (for example, the penny dreadful, Christian liturgical poetry); 3) literary influences (H. G. Wells, Dante); 4) linguistics (Tolkien’s “web of words”); and 5) the convergence of literature and theology. Other areas, which readers would find interesting, are medieval cosmology, classical mythology and Nordic mythology in Lewis’s and Tolkien’s works (the pagan mythology of the Greeks and Romans, and the Nordic myth of Ragnarök). Consequently, Lewis’s A Discarded Image was studied by several contributors to substantiate his knowledge on the medieval cosmos.
REGISTER JOURNAL IAIN Salatiga
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Introduction to Literature
Introduction to Literature. A discussion of literary awesomeness. What’s literature?. literature 1. The body of written works of a language, period, or culture. 2. Imaginative or creative writing, especially of recognized artistic value. 3. The art or occupation of a literary writer.
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Introduction to Literature A discussion of literary awesomeness
What’s literature? • literature • 1. The body of written works of a language, period, or culture. • 2. Imaginative or creative writing, especially of recognized artistic value. • 3. The art or occupation of a literary writer. • 4. The body of written work produced by scholars or researchers in a given field: medical literature. • 5. Printed material: collected all the available literature on the subject. • 6. Music All the compositions of a certain kind or for a specific instrument or ensemble: the symphonic literature. • http://www.thefreedictionary.com/literature
LITERATURE LEARNING • What’s literature? • The writing or the study of books, etc valued as works of art (drama, fiction, essays, poetry, biography, contrasted with technical books and journalism)(Hornby dictionary). • What’s learning? • The acquisition and development of memories and behaviors, including skills, knowledge, understanding, values, and wisdom.
The aims of literature learning • To widen our knowledge and visions to understand more about some great literary works, famous authors, and their thought. It will also make us get acquainted with their ideas, their feelings, and their attitudes towards life, man, nature and God.
The aims of literature learning • It is a means of transformation, that is, indirectly it may lead the wrong back to the right path although not all literary works are preaching and moralizing. • Instances: Hemingway’s The old man and the sea, • Dickens’s Oliver twist , Shakespeare’s Hamlet, George Eliot’s Silas Marner , Jonathan Swift’s Gullivers’s Travel, Stevenson’s Treasure Island and Oscar wilde’sHappy prince. • .
Another Distinction of literary genres: • Popular Fiction vs. “Serious” Literary works • Pop fiction like Harry Potter movies and pop song lyrics are considered less valuable than “serious” literary works like Shakespearian drama, Dickens's novels or Wordsworth’s poems
Tom and Jerry is a series of theatrical animated cartoon films created by William Hanna and Joseph Barbera for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, centering on a never-ending rivalry between a cat (Tom) and a mouse (Jerry) whose chases and battles often involved comic violence (despite this they sometimes become allies to defeat a 'greater enemy' such as Spike the dog). Hanna and Barbera ultimately wrote, produced and directed 114 Tom and Jerryshorts at the MGM cartoon studio in Hollywoodbetween 1940 and 1957, when the animation unit was closed.
The original series is notable for having won the Academy Award for Animated Short Film seven times, tying it with Walt Disney's Silly Symphonies as the theatrical animated series with the most Oscars. A longtime television staple, Tom and Jerry has a worldwide audience that consists of children, teenagers and adults, and has also been recognized as one of the most famous and longest-lived rivalries in American cinema. In 2000, TIME named the series one of the greatest television shows of all time.
SpongeBob SquarePants SpongeBob SquarePants (often referred to simply as SpongeBob) is an American animated television series, created by animatorStephen Hillenburg. Much of the series centers on the exploits and adventures of the title character and his various friends in the underwater city of Bikini Bottom.
Harry Potter • Harry Potter is a series of seven fantasy novels written by the British author J. K. Rowling. The books chronicle the adventures of a wizard, Harry Potter, and his friendsRonaldWeasley and Hermione Granger, all of whom are students at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry. The main story arc concerns Harry's quest to overcome the Dark wizard Lord Voldemort, whose aims are to become immortal, conquer the wizardingworld, subjugate non-magical people, and destroy all those who stand in his way, especially Harry Potter.
Since the release of the first novel Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone on 30 June 1997, the books have gained immense popularity, critical acclaim and commercial success worldwide. The series has also had some share of criticism, including concern for the increasingly dark tone. As of June 2011, the book series has sold about 450 million copies, making it the best-selling books series in history and has been translated into 67 languages, and the last four books consecutively set records as the fastest-selling books in history.
The interestingness of Harry potter • A series of many genres, including fantasy and coming of age (with elements of mystery, thriller, adventure, and romance), it has many cultural meanings and references. According to Rowling, the main theme is death, although it is primarily considered to be a work of children's literature. There are also many other themes in the series, such as prejudice and corruption.
The Raid: Redemption • The Raid: Redemption (Indonesian: Serbuanmaut; also known as The Raid) is a 2011Indonesianaction film written and directed by Gareth Evans and starring IkoUwais. This is the second collaboration of Evans and Uwais after their first action film,Merantau released in 2009. Both films showcase the traditional Indonesian martial art pencaksilat. The fight choreographers of The Raid are IkoUwais and YayanRuhian who also worked on Merantau. The U.S. release of the film features music by Mike hinoda andJoseph Trapanese.
After its world premiere at the Toronto International Film Festival (TIFF), The Raid received positive reviews from critics. The name of the film was changed to The Raid: Redemption in the United States because the production company SPC could not secure the rights to the title; this also allowed Evans to plan out future titles in the series. It was released on DVD and Blu-ray Disc on August 14, 2012 in the US.
Recently in Indonesian people talk about: • Secular literature vs Islamic/dakwah literature. • The secular one refers to Shaman’s AyuUtami and a writer like Dinar rahayu whereas the Islamic one refers to HTR, Asma Nadia, Tasaro’s “Nibiru”, Gola Gong etc.
The aims of literature learning • Literature helps us to be (become more) realistic, mature, wise and humane. It helps understand human values, sentiments, interests and problems. It brings us closer to other human beings of the same or different nationalities, cultures, human values etc. we become more tolerant, balanced and fuller.
Elements of fiction • 1. characters: protagonist, antagonist, minor characters. • 2. setting: time and place • 3. plot: beginning, complication, climax and resolution (dénouement) • 4.message/theme: what actually the author want to convey by his or her literary works of art.
The nature of good literature • Good literature must seem lifelike and meaningful. it is caused by its focus on the central themes of all literature: life, truth, justice and love. • .
The nature of good literature • The originality of the works of art. Instances: Hamlet and Machbeth were real historical characters but then Shakespeare by his craftsmanship and style made out of these old figures and stories in a new and fascinating light.
The nature of good literature • It should be life-enhancing. Matthew Arnold said about poetry as a criticism of life. Andre harjanasays,”literature deals with the theawakeing of mental conscience and inner self insight”(1985:22).
Some theories of Literature • 1. imitative theory • 2. expressive theory • 3. affective theory
Imitative or “mimetic” theory • This theory holds that art is an imitation of something. In his Poetics, Aristotle (382-322 B.C) says, that a tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious and complete. it is not 100% imitation but a “re-creation” or “re-presentation”.
The Expressive theory • This theory holds that the artist is not essentially an imitator but a man who expresses his feelings. According to williamwordsworth, “poetry is the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings and “the poet’s job is to treat things NOT AS THE ARE..but as they seem to exist to the sense, the passion.” more than that it is an effort to pluck the blindfold from our eyes and melt the ice around our heart. It will deepen our sensibilities.
Affective theory • Affective theory insists that the aim is not to induce a temporary emotional state. But to induce emotional state that will lead to action. Leo Tolstoy said that emotion is not an end but a means. Alexander Pope said that the aim or art is to reform those whom it touches.
The two types of literature are written and oral. Written literature includes novels and poetry. It also has subsections of prose, fiction, myths, novels and short stories. Oral literature includes folklore, ballads, myths and fables.
The two most general types of literature are fiction and nonfiction. Fiction is literature created through the author’s imagination, while nonfiction is literature based on fact. Within these two categories, literature can be broken down in...
The three major types of literature are drama, epic and lyric. Plato, Aristotle and Horace originally conceived of the three genres. In a drama, the characters are independent from the author.
3. What is Literature? Comes from the Latin word “Litera” which literally means an “acquaintance with letters” It is a body of work
Literature is a term used to describe written or spoken material. Literature is used to describe anything from creative writing to more technical or
persona; narrator; protagonist, antagonist. 6. Ezra Pound: “Literature is news that stays news.” Robert Frost: “a performance in words.” not just “meaning”.
PRESENTING.... LITERATURE NOTES Literature is writings in prose or verse, having excellence of expression and expressing ideas of permanent or universal.
4 It is very difficult to offer a precise definition of Literature, but we shall give a working definition of Literature in line with what we shall be
Mark unfamiliar words and expressions, and look them up in a dictionary or reference resource. Keep track of your feelings and responses to the text. Label key
Literature (from Latin litterae (plural); letter) is the art of written work in some circumstances, refer exclusively to published sources The word literature
Literature is the collected
Introduction to Literature. A discussion of literary awesomeness. What's literature?. literature 1. The body of written works of a language
How is it “Literary”? Usually, a literary analysis will involve a discussion of a text as writing, thus the term literary, which means “having to do with
Plenty of modern poetry is written in blank verse. Characterization: The means by which an author establishes character. An author may directly describe the