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Definition of Literature for Fundamentals of Literature

Belachew Weldegebriel

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Fundamentals of Literature Compiled by: Belachew Weldegebriel ([email protected]) Jimma University CSSH Department of English Language and Literature 1.1 Definition of Literature


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2. literature concept.ppt

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The word literature literally means "things made from letters" and the term "letters" is sometimes used to signify "literature," .

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definition of literature ppt

Introduction to Literature

Introduction to Literature. A discussion of literary awesomeness. What’s literature?. literature 1.  The body of written works of a language, period, or culture. 2.  Imaginative or creative writing, especially of recognized artistic value. 3.  The art or occupation of a literary writer.


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Introduction to Literature A discussion of literary awesomeness

What’s literature? • literature • 1. The body of written works of a language, period, or culture. • 2. Imaginative or creative writing, especially of recognized artistic value. • 3. The art or occupation of a literary writer. • 4. The body of written work produced by scholars or researchers in a given field: medical literature. • 5. Printed material: collected all the available literature on the subject. • 6. Music All the compositions of a certain kind or for a specific instrument or ensemble: the symphonic literature. • http://www.thefreedictionary.com/literature

LITERATURE LEARNING • What’s literature? • The writing or the study of books, etc valued as works of art (drama, fiction, essays, poetry, biography, contrasted with technical books and journalism)(Hornby dictionary). • What’s learning? • The acquisition and development of memories and behaviors, including skills, knowledge, understanding, values, and wisdom.

The aims of literature learning • To widen our knowledge and visions to understand more about some great literary works, famous authors, and their thought. It will also make us get acquainted with their ideas, their feelings, and their attitudes towards life, man, nature and God.

The aims of literature learning • It is a means of transformation, that is, indirectly it may lead the wrong back to the right path although not all literary works are preaching and moralizing. • Instances: Hemingway’s The old man and the sea, • Dickens’s Oliver twist , Shakespeare’s Hamlet, George Eliot’s Silas Marner , Jonathan Swift’s Gullivers’s Travel, Stevenson’s Treasure Island and Oscar wilde’sHappy prince. • .

Another Distinction of literary genres: • Popular Fiction vs. “Serious” Literary works • Pop fiction like Harry Potter movies and pop song lyrics are considered less valuable than “serious” literary works like Shakespearian drama, Dickens's novels or Wordsworth’s poems

Tom and Jerry is a series of theatrical animated cartoon films created by William Hanna and Joseph Barbera for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, centering on a never-ending rivalry between a cat (Tom) and a mouse (Jerry) whose chases and battles often involved comic violence (despite this they sometimes become allies to defeat a 'greater enemy' such as Spike the dog). Hanna and Barbera ultimately wrote, produced and directed 114 Tom and Jerryshorts at the MGM cartoon studio in Hollywoodbetween 1940 and 1957, when the animation unit was closed.

The original series is notable for having won the Academy Award for Animated Short Film seven times, tying it with Walt Disney's Silly Symphonies as the theatrical animated series with the most Oscars. A longtime television staple, Tom and Jerry has a worldwide audience that consists of children, teenagers and adults, and has also been recognized as one of the most famous and longest-lived rivalries in American cinema. In 2000, TIME named the series one of the greatest television shows of all time.

SpongeBob SquarePants SpongeBob SquarePants (often referred to simply as SpongeBob) is an American animated television series, created by animatorStephen Hillenburg. Much of the series centers on the exploits and adventures of the title character and his various friends in the underwater city of Bikini Bottom.

Harry Potter • Harry Potter is a series of seven fantasy novels written by the British author J. K. Rowling. The books chronicle the adventures of a wizard, Harry Potter, and his friendsRonaldWeasley and Hermione Granger, all of whom are students at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry. The main story arc concerns Harry's quest to overcome the Dark wizard Lord Voldemort, whose aims are to become immortal, conquer the wizardingworld, subjugate non-magical people, and destroy all those who stand in his way, especially Harry Potter.

Since the release of the first novel Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone on 30 June 1997, the books have gained immense popularity, critical acclaim and commercial success worldwide.[2] The series has also had some share of criticism, including concern for the increasingly dark tone. As of June 2011, the book series has sold about 450 million copies, making it the best-selling books series in history and has been translated into 67 languages,[3][4] and the last four books consecutively set records as the fastest-selling books in history.

The interestingness of Harry potter • A series of many genres, including fantasy and coming of age (with elements of mystery, thriller, adventure, and romance), it has many cultural meanings and references.[5][6][7][8] According to Rowling, the main theme is death,[9] although it is primarily considered to be a work of children's literature. There are also many other themes in the series, such as prejudice and corruption.[10]

The Raid: Redemption • The Raid: Redemption (Indonesian: Serbuanmaut; also known as The Raid) is a 2011[9]Indonesianaction film written and directed by Gareth Evans and starring IkoUwais. This is the second collaboration of Evans and Uwais after their first action film,Merantau released in 2009. Both films showcase the traditional Indonesian martial art pencaksilat. The fight choreographers of The Raid are IkoUwais and YayanRuhian who also worked on Merantau. The U.S. release of the film features music by Mike hinoda andJoseph Trapanese.

After its world premiere at the Toronto International Film Festival (TIFF), The Raid received positive reviews from critics.[10][11][12] The name of the film was changed to The Raid: Redemption in the United States because the production company SPC could not secure the rights to the title; this also allowed Evans to plan out future titles in the series.[13][14] It was released on DVD and Blu-ray Disc on August 14, 2012 in the US.[15]

Recently in Indonesian people talk about: • Secular literature vs Islamic/dakwah literature. • The secular one refers to Shaman’s AyuUtami and a writer like Dinar rahayu whereas the Islamic one refers to HTR, Asma Nadia, Tasaro’s “Nibiru”, Gola Gong etc.

The aims of literature learning • Literature helps us to be (become more) realistic, mature, wise and humane. It helps understand human values, sentiments, interests and problems. It brings us closer to other human beings of the same or different nationalities, cultures, human values etc. we become more tolerant, balanced and fuller.

Literary genres

Elements of fiction • 1. characters: protagonist, antagonist, minor characters. • 2. setting: time and place • 3. plot: beginning, complication, climax and resolution (dénouement) • 4.message/theme: what actually the author want to convey by his or her literary works of art.

The nature of good literature • Good literature must seem lifelike and meaningful. it is caused by its focus on the central themes of all literature: life, truth, justice and love. • .

The nature of good literature • The originality of the works of art. Instances: Hamlet and Machbeth were real historical characters but then Shakespeare by his craftsmanship and style made out of these old figures and stories in a new and fascinating light.

The nature of good literature • It should be life-enhancing. Matthew Arnold said about poetry as a criticism of life. Andre harjanasays,”literature deals with the theawakeing of mental conscience and inner self insight”(1985:22).

Some theories of Literature • 1. imitative theory • 2. expressive theory • 3. affective theory

Imitative or “mimetic” theory • This theory holds that art is an imitation of something. In his Poetics, Aristotle (382-322 B.C) says, that a tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious and complete. it is not 100% imitation but a “re-creation” or “re-presentation”.

The Expressive theory • This theory holds that the artist is not essentially an imitator but a man who expresses his feelings. According to williamwordsworth, “poetry is the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings and “the poet’s job is to treat things NOT AS THE ARE..but as they seem to exist to the sense, the passion.” more than that it is an effort to pluck the blindfold from our eyes and melt the ice around our heart. It will deepen our sensibilities.

Affective theory • Affective theory insists that the aim is not to induce a temporary emotional state. But to induce emotional state that will lead to action. Leo Tolstoy said that emotion is not an end but a means. Alexander Pope said that the aim or art is to reform those whom it touches.


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