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MLA Works Cited: Electronic Sources (Web Publications)

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MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (9 th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.

The MLA Handbook highlights principles over prescriptive practices. Essentially, a writer will need to take note of primary elements in every source, such as author, title, etc. and then assort them in a general format. Thus, by using this methodology, a writer will be able to cite any source regardless of whether it’s included in this list.

However, this guide will highlight a few concerns when citing digital sources in MLA style.

Best Practices for Managing Online Sources

Because online information can change or disappear, it is always a good idea to keep personal copies of important electronic information whenever possible. Downloading or even printing key documents ensures you have a stable backup. You can also use the Bookmark function in your web browser in order to build an easy-to-access reference for all of your project's sources (though this will not help you if the information is changed or deleted).

It is also wise to keep a record of when you first consult with each online source. MLA uses the phrase, “Accessed” to denote which date you accessed the web page when available or necessary. It is not required to do so, but it is encouraged (especially when there is no copyright date listed on a website).

Important Note on the Use of URLs in MLA

Include a URL or web address to help readers locate your sources. Because web addresses are not static (i.e., they change often) and because documents sometimes appear in multiple places on the web (e.g., on multiple databases), MLA encourages the use of citing containers such as Youtube, JSTOR, Spotify, or Netflix in order to easily access and verify sources. However, MLA only requires the www. address, so eliminate all https:// when citing URLs.

Many scholarly journal articles found in databases include a DOI (digital object identifier). If a DOI is available, cite the DOI number instead of the URL.

Online newspapers and magazines sometimes include a “permalink,” which is a shortened, stable version of a URL. Look for a “share” or “cite this” button to see if a source includes a permalink. If you can find a permalink, use that instead of a URL.

Abbreviations Commonly Used with Electronic Sources

If page numbers are not available, use par. or pars. to denote paragraph numbers. Use these in place of the p. or pp. abbreviation. Par. would be used for a single paragraph, while pars. would be used for a span of two or more paragraphs.

Basic Style for Citations of Electronic Sources (Including Online Databases)

Here are some common features you should try to find before citing electronic sources in MLA style. Not every web page will provide all of the following information. However, collect as much of the following information as possible:

Use the following format:

Author. "Title." Title of container (self contained if book) , Other contributors (translators or editors), Version (edition), Number (vol. and/or no.), Publisher, Publication Date, Location (pages, paragraphs and/or URL, DOI or permalink). 2 nd container’s title , Other contributors, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication date, Location, Date of Access (if applicable).

Citing an Entire Web Site

When citing an entire website, follow the same format as listed above, but include a compiler name if no single author is available.

Author, or compiler name (if available). Name of Site. Version number (if available), Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher), date of resource creation (if available), DOI (preferred), otherwise include a URL or permalink. Date of access (if applicable).

Editor, author, or compiler name (if available). Name of Site . Version number, Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher), date of resource creation (if available), URL, DOI or permalink. Date of access (if applicable).

The Purdue OWL Family of Sites . The Writing Lab and OWL at Purdue and Purdue U, 2008, owl.english.purdue.edu/owl. Accessed 23 Apr. 2008.

Felluga, Dino. Guide to Literary and Critical Theory . Purdue U, 28 Nov. 2003, www.cla.purdue.edu/english/theory/. Accessed 10 May 2006.

Course or Department Websites

Give the instructor name. Then list the title of the course (or the school catalog designation for the course) in italics. Give appropriate department and school names as well, following the course title.

Felluga, Dino. Survey of the Literature of England . Purdue U, Aug. 2006, web.ics.purdue.edu/~felluga/241/241/Home.html. Accessed 31 May 2007.

English Department . Purdue U, 20 Apr. 2009, www.cla.purdue.edu/english/. Accessed 31 May 2015.

A Page on a Web Site

For an individual page on a Web site, list the author or alias if known, followed by an indication of the specific page or article being referenced. Usually, the title of the page or article appears in a header at the top of the page. Follow this with the information covered above for entire Web sites. If the publisher is the same as the website name, only list it once.

Lundman, Susan. “How to Make Vegetarian Chili.”  eHow , www.ehow.com/how_10727_make-vegetarian-chili.html. Accessed 6 July 2015.

“ Athlete's Foot - Topic Overview. ”   WebMD , 25 Sept. 2014, www.webmd.com/skin-problems-and-treatments/tc/athletes-foot-topic-overview.

Citations for e-books closely resemble those for physical books. Simply indicate that the book in question is an e-book by putting the term "e-book" in the "version" slot of the MLA template (i.e., after the author, the title of the source, the title of the container, and the names of any other contributors).

Silva, Paul J.  How to Write a Lot: A Practical Guide to Productive Academic Writing. E-book, American Psychological Association, 2007.

If the e-book is formatted for a specific reader device or service, you can indicate this by treating this information the same way you would treat a physical book's edition number. Often, this will mean replacing "e-book" with "[App/Service] ed."

Machiavelli, Niccolo.  The Prince , translated by W. K. Marriott, Kindle ed., Library of Alexandria, 2018.

Note:  The MLA considers the term "e-book" to refer to publications formatted specifically for reading with an e-book reader device (e.g., a Kindle) or a corresponding web application. These e-books will not have URLs or DOIs. If you are citing book content from an ordinary webpage with a URL, use the "A Page on a Web Site" format above.

An Image (Including a Painting, Sculpture, or Photograph)

Provide the artist's name, the work of art italicized, the date of creation, the institution and city where the work is housed. Follow this initial entry with the name of the Website in italics, and the date of access.

Goya, Francisco. The Family of Charles IV . 1800. Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid. Museo Nacional del Prado , www.museodelprado.es/en/the-collection/art-work/the-family-of-carlos-iv/f47898fc-aa1c-48f6-a779-71759e417e74. Accessed 22 May 2006.

Klee, Paul. Twittering Machine . 1922. Museum of Modern Art, New York. The Artchive , www.artchive.com/artchive/K/klee/twittering_machine.jpg.html. Accessed May 2006.

If the work cited is available on the web only, then provide the name of the artist, the title of the work, and then follow the citation format for a website. If the work is posted via a username, use that username for the author.

Adams, Clifton R. “People Relax Beside a Swimming Pool at a Country Estate Near Phoenix, Arizona, 1928.” Found, National Geographic Creative, 2 June 2016, natgeofound.tumblr.com/.

An Article in a Web Magazine

Provide the author name, article name in quotation marks, title of the web magazine in italics, publisher name, publication date, URL, and the date of access.

Bernstein, Mark. “ 10 Tips on Writing the Living Web. ”   A List Apart: For People Who Make Websites , 16 Aug. 2002, alistapart.com/article/writeliving. Accessed 4 May 2009.

An Article in an Online Scholarly Journal

For all online scholarly journals, provide the author(s) name(s), the name of the article in quotation marks, the title of the publication in italics, all volume and issue numbers, and the year of publication. Include a DOI if available, otherwise provide a URL or permalink to help readers locate the source.

Article in an Online-only Scholarly Journal

MLA requires a page range for articles that appear in Scholarly Journals. If the journal you are citing appears exclusively in an online format (i.e. there is no corresponding print publication) that does not make use of page numbers, indicate the URL or other location information.

Dolby, Nadine. “Research in Youth Culture and Policy: Current Conditions and Future Directions.” Social Work and Society: The International Online-Only Journal, vol. 6, no. 2, 2008, www.socwork.net/sws/article/view/60/362. Accessed 20 May 2009.

Article in an Online Scholarly Journal That Also Appears in Print

Cite articles in online scholarly journals that also appear in print as you would a scholarly journal in print, including the page range of the article . Provide the URL and the date of access.

Wheelis, Mark. “ Investigating Disease Outbreaks Under a Protocol to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention. ”   Emerging Infectious Diseases , vol. 6, no. 6, 2000, pp. 595-600, wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/6/6/00-0607_article. Accessed 8 Feb. 2009.

An Article from an Online Database (or Other Electronic Subscription Service)

Cite online databases (e.g. LexisNexis, ProQuest, JSTOR, ScienceDirect) and other subscription services as containers. Thus, provide the title of the database italicized before the DOI or URL. If a DOI is not provided, use the URL instead. Provide the date of access if you wish.

Alonso, Alvaro, and Julio A. Camargo. “ Toxicity of Nitrite to Three Species of Freshwater Invertebrates. ”   Environmental Toxicology, vol. 21, no. 1, 3 Feb. 2006, pp. 90-94. Wiley Online Library , https://doi.org/10.1002/tox.20155. Accessed 26 May 2009.

Langhamer, Claire. “Love and Courtship in Mid-Twentieth-Century England.” Historical Journal, vol. 50, no. 1, 2007, pp. 173-96. ProQuest , https://doi.org/10.1017/S0018246X06005966. Accessed 27 May 2009.

E-mail (including E-mail Interviews)

Give the author of the message, followed by the subject line in quotation marks. State to whom the message was sent with the phrase, “Received by” and the recipient’s name. Include the date the message was sent. Use standard capitalization.

Kunka, Andrew. “ Re: Modernist Literature. ”  Received by John Watts, 15 Nov. 2000.

Neyhart, David. “ Re: Online Tutoring. ” Received by Joe Barbato, 1 Dec. 2016.

A Listserv, Discussion Group, or Blog Posting

Cite web postings as you would a standard web entry. Provide the author of the work, the title of the posting in quotation marks, the web site name in italics, the publisher, and the posting date. Follow with the date of access. Include screen names as author names when author name is not known. If both names are known, place the author’s name in brackets.

Author or compiler name (if available). “Posting Title.” Name of Site , Version number (if available), Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher), URL. Date of access.

Salmar1515 [Sal Hernandez]. “Re: Best Strategy: Fenced Pastures vs. Max Number of Rooms?” BoardGameGeek , 29 Sept. 2008, boardgamegeek.com/thread/343929/best-strategy-fenced-pastures-vs-max-number-rooms. Accessed 5 Apr. 2009.

Begin with the user's Twitter handle in place of the author’s name. Next, place the tweet in its entirety in quotations, inserting a period after the tweet within the quotations. Include the date and time of posting, using the reader's time zone; separate the date and time with a comma and end with a period. Include the date accessed if you deem necessary.

@tombrokaw. “ SC demonstrated why all the debates are the engines of this campaign. ”   Twitter, 22 Jan. 2012, 3:06 a.m., twitter.com/tombrokaw/status/160996868971704320.

@PurdueWLab. “ Spring break is around the corner, and all our locations will be open next week. ”   Twitter , 5 Mar. 2012, 12:58 p.m., twitter.com/PurdueWLab/status/176728308736737282.

A YouTube Video

Video and audio sources need to be documented using the same basic guidelines for citing print sources in MLA style. Include as much descriptive information as necessary to help readers understand the type and nature of the source you are citing. If the author’s name is the same as the uploader, only cite the author once. If the author is different from the uploader, cite the author’s name before the title.

McGonigal, Jane. “Gaming and Productivity.” YouTube , uploaded by Big Think, 3 July 2012, www.youtube.com/watch?v=mkdzy9bWW3E.

“8 Hot Dog Gadgets put to the Test.” YouTube, uploaded by Crazy Russian Hacker, 6 June 2016, www.youtube.com/watch?v=WBlpjSEtELs.

A Comment on a Website or Article

List the username as the author. Use the phrase, Comment on, before the title. Use quotation marks around the article title. Name the publisher, date, time (listed on near the comment), and the URL.

Not Omniscient Enough. Comment on “ Flight Attendant Tells Passenger to ‘Shut Up’ After Argument Over Pasta. ”  ABC News, 9 Jun 2016, 4:00 p.m., abcnews.go.com/US/flight-attendant-tells-passenger-shut-argument-pasta/story?id=39704050.

How to put References or cite Sources in PowerPoint

Put references or cite sources in powerpoint, 1] in-text citation, 2] image citation, 3] create reference list, 4] use online citation generator.

I hope this article helped you if you were looking for how to cite sources in PowerPoint. Cheers!

[email protected]

How do I cite photographs or other images that I use in a PowerPoint presentation or web project?

Note: This post relates to content in the eighth edition of the MLA Handbook . For up-to-date guidance, see the ninth edition of the MLA Handbook .

Cite an image used in a  PowerPoint presentation or web project the same way you would cite it in a printed paper. See the example in our post on  citing a screenshot or frame capture in a caption . As the post explains, if the image is merely illustrative, provide full publication details in a caption. But if you refer to the source of the image elsewhere, the caption should provide only enough detail needed to key to a works-cited-list entry. The list of works cited may be included as the final slide or as the last page of the web project. 

Free MLA Citation Generator

Generate accurate citations in MLA format automatically, with MyBib!

MLA 9 guidebook cover

😕 What is an MLA Citation Generator?

An MLA citation generator is a software tool designed to automatically create academic citations in the Modern Language Association (MLA) citation format. The generator will take information such as document titles, author, and URLs as in input, and output fully formatted citations that can be inserted into the Works Cited page of an MLA-compliant academic paper.

The citations on a Works Cited page show the external sources that were used to write the main body of the academic paper, either directly as references and quotes, or indirectly as ideas.

👩‍🎓 Who uses an MLA Citation Generator?

MLA style is most often used by middle school and high school students in preparation for transition to college and further education. Ironically, MLA style is not actually used all that often beyond middle and high school, with APA (American Psychological Association) style being the favored style at colleges across the country.

It is also important at this level to learn why it's critical to cite sources, not just how to cite them.

🙌 Why should I use a Citation Generator?

Writing citations manually is time consuming and error prone. Automating this process with a citation generator is easy, straightforward, and gives accurate results. It's also easier to keep citations organized and in the correct order.

The Works Cited page contributes to the overall grade of a paper, so it is important to produce accurately formatted citations that follow the guidelines in the official MLA Handbook .

⚙️ How do I use MyBib's MLA Citation Generator?

It's super easy to create MLA style citations with our MLA Citation Generator. Scroll back up to the generator at the top of the page and select the type of source you're citing. Books, journal articles, and webpages are all examples of the types of sources our generator can cite automatically. Then either search for the source, or enter the details manually in the citation form.

The generator will produce a formatted MLA citation that can be copied and pasted directly into your document, or saved to MyBib as part of your overall Works Cited page (which can be downloaded fully later!).

Image of daniel-elias

Daniel is a qualified librarian, former teacher, and citation expert. He has been contributing to MyBib since 2018.


MLA Citation Guide (9th Edition): Powerpoint Presentations

On this Page

Powerpoint presentations - what do i need to cite, powerpoint presentations - where do my citations go, other digital assignments - where do my citations go.

What am I legally required to cite in my digital assignment?

According to the Copyright Act, you must cite the sources (images, videos, books, websites, etc.) that you used in your digital assignment ( 29.21(1)(b) ). You must cite the source (where you got the information from) and the creator of the content (if available). You must also make sure that any copyrighted materials you used in your assignment meet the conditions set out in section  29.21  of the Copyright Act. For a list of conditions and more information, please visit:  http://studentcopyright.wordpress.com/mashups/

What citation style do I use for the sources in my digital assignment?

There is no one required citation style, so please defer to your instructor's directions and citation style preference.

List your sources in a slide at the end of the Powerpoint presentation, with in-text citations throughout your presentation as applicable.

You could also provide a print copy of the sources you used to those attending your presentation.

Seneca Libraries has the following recommendations for how to organize your list of sources for digital assignments. Please check with your instructor first:

Videos you create: 

List your sources in a credits screen at the end of the video.

Websites you create:

Images you create: 

If possible list your sources at the bottom or side of the image ( example ). Otherwise, include a list of citations alongside the image wherever it’s uploaded (e.g. Flickr, Blackboard).

**Please note that the above are recommendations only and your instructor may have a preference and directions for how and where you list your sources for your assignment.**

If you don't receive specific instructions from your instructor, try to include your citations in a way that doesn't impact the design of your digital assignment.

For more information please contact Seneca Libraries copyright team at  [email protected]

How to Cite Images in PowerPoint

Last Updated: February 10, 2023 References

This article was co-authored by wikiHow staff writer, Jennifer Mueller, JD . Jennifer Mueller is a wikiHow Content Creator. She specializes in reviewing, fact-checking, and evaluating wikiHow's content to ensure thoroughness and accuracy. Jennifer holds a JD from Indiana University Maurer School of Law in 2006. This article has been viewed 256,297 times. Learn more...

When you're preparing a presentation using PowerPoint, you need to cite all images used that you didn't create yourself. This includes graphs or tables that you may have copied from a book, website, or other source. Unlike a text citation, an image caption in a slide presentation also includes a copyright or license statement. While this may sound complex, it's usually pretty simple if you know where to look . Beyond that, the format for your caption varies depending on whether you're using Modern Language Association (MLA), American Psychological Association (APA), or Chicago citation style. [1] X Research source

Template and Examples

citation for powerpoint mla

Image titled Cite Images in PowerPoint Step 2

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MLA Caption Format

Fig. x. Description of image from: Last Name, First Name. "Title of Original Image." Publication , Day Month Year, p. x. Copyright or CC License.

Image titled Cite Images in PowerPoint Step 5

Image titled Cite Images in PowerPoint Step 6

Image titled Cite Images in PowerPoint Step 7

Image titled Cite Images in PowerPoint Step 8

APA Caption Format

Figure 1 . Description of image in sentence case. Adapted from "Title of Original Image," by Artist, Year, retrieved from URL.

Image titled Cite Images in PowerPoint Step 9

APA Reference List Citation Format

Artist Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Year). Title of image in sentence case [Description of format]. Retrieved from URL.

Image titled Cite Images in PowerPoint Step 10

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Chicago Footnote Format

Artist First Name, Last Name, Title of Image , Year, materials, dimensions, accessed Day Month Year, URL.

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ENG/WGS 237 (Kulbaga) by Brea McQueen: MLA Citations

Tutorials and Videos

Please watch this short video about  Why Citations Matter

Here is tutorial about  Academic Integrity .

Another tutorial about the Value of Information .

Here is a video about Plagiarism .

For more information about citations and how they impact academic integrity, visit the Miami University Libraries'  Academic Integrity  guide.

Academic Integrity and Citing in Your Paper

It is very important to cite information used in your papers that comes from another source. Not only does this keep you from plagiarizing (which is a very serious offense that could result in you failing the assignment or even the course), but it also tells readers where you found that information and it gives your writing and work more credibility. 

In order to properly cite information, you need to use both in-text citations and a reference list at the end of your paper. In-text citations tell the reader in which item on your reference list this quote or paraphrase was found, and are placed adjacent to the quote/paraphrase. The reader can then use the corresponding citation on your reference list to find that original work for themselves and read, watch, or listen to what else the author had to say about your topic.

The pair of citations would look something like this (in APA for this example):

In your paper:  Reseach by Baniya and Weech (2019) indicates that service-learning students...blah blah blah. The information I am sharing here came from the article by these authors in my reference list at the end of the paper.

In your references list: Baniya, S., & Weech, S. (2019). Data and experience design: Negotiating community-oriented digital research with service-learning.  Purdue Journal of Service-Learning and International Engagement ,   6 (1), 11–16.  https://doi.org/10.5703/1288284316979 I can use the information in this citation to get a copy of the article if I would like to read more of the author's analysis.

Q & A on MLA

Q.  How do I format my paper according to MLA style? What spacing and font should I use? What should my title page look like? A.   General MLA Formatting Info

Q.  How do I cite information in the body of my paper? What should a quote or paraphrase look like in my paper? A.   In-Text Citation Basics

Q.  What should my Works Cited list at the end of the paper look like? What should the header for this page look like? In what order should my sources be listed? A.   Works Cited Basics

Q.  How do I cite a book, article, website, etc. on my Works Cited page? A.   Books   |   Articles   |   Websites and Other Electronic Resources

MLA Resources

Cover Art

MLA Style Center

In-Text Citations - LibGuides

Excelsior OWL MLA Citation Guide

Annotated Bibliographies

This brief tutorial from Credo Instruct walks you through each section of an annotated bibliography, defining it and describing how to write it.

Howe Writing Center's guide to annotated bibliographies.

The OWL's section on annotated bibliographies.

Cornell University LibGuide about annotated bibliographies. This gives a clear explanation of why copying and pasting an abstract of an article does not constitute an annotation.

Microsoft 365

While you can do most of your word processing needs in Google Docs and other free word processing apps, the most efficient and powerful tool for while you are in school is often Microsoft Office.

As a Miami University student, you have access to a Microsoft 365 account for free while enrolled in classes. The following link will take you to Miami University's IT page which will walk you through how to download Microsoft 365 onto your device.

Capabilities, Benefits, and Key Features

How to Cite a Lecture in MLA?

If you’re an academic writer, you must know how to cite lectures. Lectures are a great source of knowledge, but mentioning them in the body of your paper can get tricky. Although you generally don’t cite lectures that you attend, it is important to note them in your works cited and bibliography, especially if you use them as a source when writing a paper. Non-scholarly lectures and speeches may also be included in the works cited list in APA or MLA citation format.

What is an MLA Lecture Citation?

We will discuss the main citations, such as MLA or APA, and what they mean for you as a writer.

In the study of MLA citations, it is important to understand the history of their use. Modern Language Association (MLA) was founded in 1883 by a group of scholars who wanted to improve the standardization of language and literature. They believed that if people could speak and write consistently, it would be easier for everyone to communicate clearly.

The founders of MLA published their first edition of Style Manuals for Authors, Editors, and Printers in 1906. This manual included rules for citations, which had been previously handled differently by various writers. The second edition of the MLA citation Style Manual appeared in 1949, and the third edition in 1974; both included rules for citing information from books, periodicals, websites, and other sources.

The first person to make it into the history books for creating a system of documentation is Robert Plumer Ward (a pseudonym), who wrote an article called “An Essay on Bibliographical Citation.” He argued that every book should have its page number, but he didn’t like how long citations looked when both author and title were included. So, instead of using one line per citation as we do now, he used two lines: one for the author’s name and the date and one for the title and the date. This format is still used today!

Citing a Lecture in MLA Format

When citing lectures both in MLA or APA citation format, use the speaker’s name in the following form:

The first element of the in-text citation in MLA or APA format is the lecture’s title. For example, if you are citing a live lesson, include the lecturer’s name and an indication that this was a live event. For example:

[Lecture Title] by [Lecturer’s Name]. On Day, Month, Year at Time: Hour: Minute AM/PM (if applicable).

In this case, if two presenters gave separate portions at different times during your visit, you would list both names separated by commas with no ending punctuation after either one. For example:

[Title], presented by [First Presenter’s Name] and [Second Presenter’s Name] on Day Month Year at Time Hour Minute AM/PM.

MLA Lecture in Text Citation: Our Generator

Lectures are a great source of knowledge, but citing them in your paper can get tricky. First, you must do it properly if you’re using a lecture as a source of information. The MLA or APA citation style guidelines for citing lectures include information on other resources, such as websites and podcasts, and how to mention any notes taken during the lecture.

How you cite the lecture will depend on what type of source it is. If you use a book or an article, you must use the author’s name, year of publication, and page number(s). If it is a website or blog post, you can use the URL and title (if available).

If you are stuck with citing properly, our MLA citation machine generator can help you! This generator is designed to help you format your essay properly so it will be easier for you to write it. First, you need to insert the text of your paper and choose the style of formatting that you need. Then, our tool will generate the results just with a few mouse clicks.

MLA Presentation Citation

Presentations are often a part of the research process and can be as simple or complex as you would like. For example, the simplest MLA cite a PowerPoint lecture includes a slideshow of images and text; more complicated presentations may require data analysis or even statistical modeling. Regardless of the MLA or APA format, mentioning any information presented during a presentation is important to give credit where credit is due.

Presentations that are scheduled and planned, such as visiting a classroom or delivering a lecture at a conference, require both in-text citation and information on the Works Cited page, either in MLA or APA format. Some examples of presentations are lectures, school assemblies, speeches at political rallies or fundraising events, and performances by artists and musicians, both live on stage and recorded for broadcast or distribution online.

MLA format PowerPoint presentation includes details such as title; date(s) presented; the location where it was held (if relevant); name (s) of the presenter(s) if available.

An in-text citation in both MLA and APA should include the speaker’s name, the title of the presentation or paper, and the phrase “Presented at.”

When you use a quote in your paper, include the speaker’s name, the title of their presentation or article, and the phrase “Presented at.”

MLA format for lectures should include the name of the presenter and presenters (if there was more than one), their last names, and their initials, followed by the date presented or published. For example, Smith, John (presenter); Smith J., 2000 (presenter). Our generator is always there for you if you can’t cite a presentation.

MLA Conference Presentation Citation

If you’ve ever had to present at a conference, you know how nerve-wracking it can be. The good news is that all that hard work is worth it if you give yourself credit! Below are some examples of how to cite in MLA/APA style:

Author’s name, “Title of Presentation,” Conference name, location, and date presented.

For example:

Jane Doe, “The Impact of Dostoyevsky’s The Brothers Karamazov on the Modern Novel,” MLA 2009 Conference and Annual Meeting (New York City: New York University Press), the 12th of April, 2009.

MLA Citation Lecture Video

If you are citing a lecture video, you may use the same MLA or APA format as if it were a written work. However, there is one caveat: if the date for the video is not known or has not been specified, it is acceptable to leave that out of your citation. We recommend including it anyway so your reader knows when it was recorded.

Last name, First name. (Year of publication). Title of the video. Retrieved from URL

If the video does not have a date, you do not need to include it.

As you can see above, if there is no date for the video, you do not need to include it. However, if there is a date for the lecture video (such as “The 5th of February, 2019”), you must have it in the same MLA or APA format as the rest of your citations:

MLA: the 5th of February, 2019

APA: February, the 5th 2019

If you still struggle, the MLA Video Lecture Citation Machine Generator can help you to format your lecture video properly. It’s very simple and fast. Just enter the name of your video lecture and press “Generate.” In a few seconds, you will get all the information about your source: title, author, date, URL, and so on.

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How to Cite PowerPoint Presentations in APA & MLA Formats

Laura Spencer

Whether you're a student or teacher, you rely on sources to do your research. You probably already know that it's important to also cite your sources. But you might not know how to cite certain types of sources, for example, PowerPoint presentations.

There are more types of resources available to students than ever before and the proper way to cite those resources isn't always clear. For example, with SlideShare (link to our tutorial) you've got access to hundreds of PowerPoint presentations. 

how to cite a powerpoint presentation

If you're wondering "how do you cite a PowerPoint" when you use one of those presentations in a paper, this tutorial is for you. In this tutorial, you'll learn how to cite a PowerPoint in APA format. We'll also cover citing a PowerPoint in MLA format. Once you've discovered how to properly cite presentations, we'll share some additional presentation resources in case you've got to create your own presentation.

How to Cite a PowerPoint Presentation Properly 

When you're writing an academic paper, you typically need to cite your sources at the end in a bibliography. You may also need to cite a source in the body of your paper. Let's take a closer look at how two of the most common style guides handle citing PowerPoint presentations.

Note :  If you're using the PowerPoint presentation for an academic assignment, be sure to check your own school's style guidelines to determine which format they require. You may also find that your school has additional requirements for citations .

How to Cite a Presentation in APA Format

APA format provides guidelines for consistently writing in a clear format. It includes standards for citing references in PowerPoint presentations as well as standards for citing images in PowerPoint, citing tables or figures, and citing many other types of information.  Although it was originally created for written documents, the citation guidelines have been expanded to take into consideration websites and other digital publications.

If your lesson requires you to use APA format to cite your sources and you're using a PowerPoint presentation as a source, you'll be expected to treat the PowerPoint presentation very much like you would another source with a few differences. Start with the author's last name and first initial. Add the middle initial if given. This is followed by the year the presentation was published and the title of the presentation.

The two differences between citing a PowerPoint presentation in APA format and another work is that you'll put the phrase " PowerPoint slides " in brackets after the title of the presentations followed by the phrase " Retrieved from " and the URL where you found the presentation.

Here's an example of a properly formatted PowerPoint citation for a bibliography in APA format ( based on a fictitious source ):

Perez, J. (February 2018). How to Design Graphics That Sell With Examples  [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved August 1, 2018, from https://anytownconsulting.com/ppt/graphics-sell.html

For a citation in the body of the paper use the author's last name and the date the speech was published:

(Perez, 2018)

If you've got other types of sources you need to cite in APA Style or if you've got questions about APA style, you can find answers on the  APA Style site .

How to Cite a Presentation in MLA Format

Another popular format required by many educational institutions is the MLA format. This style guide is from the Modern Language Association, which is a scholarly association that supports the study of languages and literature. MLA format is commonly used for assignments in the Humanities or Liberal Arts academic areas.

If you're required to use MLA format to cite your sources and one of those sources is a PowerPoint presentation, the format is very similar to the APA format for citing a PowerPoint source with a few important differences. Start with the author's last name, first name and middle name (if given). That's followed by the title of the presentation and the year it was published. If you've got the tile of the website where the presentation is published, list that. Next comes the URL where you found the PowerPoint presentation. If you're referencing a specific slide in the presentation list that slide number.

Here's an example of a properly formatted PowerPoint citation in MLA format (based on a fictitious source):

Perez, Juan. "How to Design Graphics That Sell With Examples."  AnyTown Consulting Website, Jan. 2018,  http://anytownconsulting.com/ppt/graphics-sell.html. Slide 10.

If you're citing a slideshow you attended in person as a source, provide the date and location of the presentation. If the presentation is part of a course, include the name of the course as well:

Perez, Juan. "How to Design Graphics That Sell With Examples." Web Design 101: Introduction to Web Design, April 10, 2018, Anytown Community College. Slide 10.

If you've got other types of sources you need to cite in APA Style or if you've got questions about MLA style, you can find answers on the MLA Style site . You can learn more about the Modern Language Association their site.

Helpful Presentation Templates for Students and Educators

Whether you're a student, college professor, or primary school teacher (or other type of educational professional) — your job probably involves giving a lot of presentations. If you're looking for a presentation PowerPoint template you should consider getting a premium template. Premium templates can save you a lot of time because they come prebuilt with professional design elements already in place. All you need to do is paste your own images and information into the handy placeholders. And, they're really easy to use.

Of course, you could create your own PowerPoint slide designs from scratch. But that can be time-consuming—especially if you're not a professional graphic designer. You're much better off using a premade template to get a head start on the way your presentation looks. That way, you can spend the bulk of your project time on research and writing.

If you're a professor, teacher, or even a student who creates a lot of PowerPoint presentations, you'll want to consider investing in an ga-analytics#sendElementsClickEvent">Envato Elements  subscription. For one low monthly price you'll get unlimited access to our entire library of easy-to-use PowerPoint templates, WordPress themes, video tutorials, and more. It's an investment you'll use again and again.

Even if you just have an occasional need for a PowerPoint presentation template, you can still access a library of professionally designed templates through ga-analytics#sendMarketClickEvent">GraphicRiver for a one-time fee.

Let's take a look at some of the best PowerPoint presentation templates for educators and students from ga-analytics#sendElementsClickEvent">Envato Elements and ga-analytics#sendMarketClickEvent">GraphicRiver :

1. ga-analytics#sendElementsClickEvent">Creativa Education PowerPoint

Creativa Education PowerPoint

The Creativa Education PowerPoint template works well for any educational purpose. This attractive theme includes templates for 30 unique slides. Plus, there are three premade color themes. Both widescreen and standard format templates are included. If you're a university student, you may want to take a closer look at this one.

2. ga-analytics#sendMarketClickEvent">Fresh Creative Chalkboard Presentation  

Fresh Creative Chalkboard

This fun PowerPoint template is perfect for teachers and other educators. Simulate a chalkboard with either the classic green or a stylish gray background. Great for the classroom or even a learning-themed presentation. The template includes the Scratch kit font. There's also a PSD file with a smart object layer.

3. ga-analytics#sendElementsClickEvent">Education& Science Infographic PowerPoint

Education Science PowerPoint template

Here's the perfect theme with great editable infographics! This colorful science-themed template is full of education-friendly features:

If you're a science teacher, be sure to explore this kid-friendly PowerPoint template.

4. ga-analytics#sendMarketClickEvent">Campuz- University PowerPoint Template

Campuz University template

Whether you're a teacher, a professor, or a student—you'll love the Campuz - University PowerPoint Template. It's chock full of useful features. For example, it 25 map slides that would be just perfect for a geography or history lesson. It also includes 24/7 support.

5. ga-analytics#sendElementsClickEvent">Puzzle- Education PowerPoint Template

Puzzle Education PowerPoint template

Make learning fun with this puzzle-themed template. And who doesn't love a good puzzle? This great template includes 30 unique slides (including an infographic). Plus, there are three different premade color themes. And there are templates for both wide screen and standard formats. Just replace the image placeholders with your own pictures and add your own text.

6. ga-analytics#sendMarketClickEvent">Education PowerPoint Presentation Template

Education PowerPoint Presentation Template

This popular education template provides plenty of options. And it comes with free support. Here's just some of what it includes:

Don't overlook this one!

7. ga-analytics#sendElementsClickEvent">Solar System Education Presentation

Solar System Education Presentation

Whether you're a student with a science presentation or an someone who teaches science you'll love this unique presentation template on the solar system. And it comes with 34 custom slides. It's based on free fonts. This would be especially good for teachers of the primary grades.

8. ga-analytics#sendMarketClickEvent">Education Template

Education Template

The Education template works well for both educational and business presentations. With over 2700 vector icons and 5 pre-made color schemes, this is a very flexible template. It includes map infographics. All the graphics are editable.

9. ga-analytics#sendElementsClickEvent">Armeni: PowerPoint Presentation

Armeni PowerPoint Presentation

Here's a great business PowerPoint presentation template that can be used for professional presentations as well as educational presentations. This attractive minimalist design will help your slideshow to capture your audience's attention. Choose from 54 different unique slides. It's built with the PowerPoint slide master tool so your presentation stays consistent.

10. ga-analytics#sendMarketClickEvent">Kids Presentation Template

Kids Presentation Template

The Kids Presentation Template features bright, cheerful designs and primary colors. This would be great for a primary school teacher or even a principal! There are more than 30 unique slides. Choose between 17 color schemes. And it works with three different aspect rations (16:9, 4:3, and A4). Plus it's easy to customize by adding your own images and text.

Learn Even More About Using PowerPoint

In this tutorial, you learned how to cite PowerPoint presentations using two popular style guides: APA format and MLA format. Whether you're a teacher or a student, citing your references properly is important for academic projects.

If you want to learn all about how to use PowerPoint, study one   of our  PowerPoint learning guides .  Here are some of our most popular PowerPoint tutorials to get you started:

citation for powerpoint mla

If you'd like to explore more great premium PowerPoint templates to get a head start on your next presentation slideshow, this article features some great templates for inspiration:

For more details on how to use a PowerPoint presentation, study this tutorial:

citation for powerpoint mla

Get This New eBook on Making Great Presentations ( Free Download )

We have just the right complement to an educational PowerPoint template, that'll help you learn the complete process of how to write, design, and deliver great presentations.

Download  The Complete Guide to Making Great Presentations   now for FREE with a subscription to the Tuts+ Business Newsletter. Get your ideas formed into a powerful presentation that will move your audience.

The complete guide to making great presentations

Use the Proper Style to Cite Presentations for Your Next Academic Project

Citing sources in PowerPoint for academic projects can be tricky. You just learned the right way to cite a PowerPoint in APA format or MLA format. We've also explored the benefits of using templates as a head start when you create your own presentation. Plus, you've seen some of our best education-themed templates from  ga-analytics#sendElementsClickEvent">Envato Elements  and ga-analytics#sendMarketClickEvent">GraphicRiver.

Good luck on your next academic project!

Laura Spencer

Finalize details

One moment while we gather the info for your citation...

Form Glossary

Additional notes or comments. For citations, annotations usually include a brief description of the content and what you think of it.

Date Accessed

Date (day, month, and/or year) the source was accessed or viewed online.

Electronically Published

When the source was electronically published. Sometimes, the date is not readily available.

Place of Publication

Name of the city, state or country where the publisher of a source is located. For written sources, this can usually be found on the title page. It is not always required, depending on the style.

Publisher or Sponsor

The organization, company, individual, or other entity that published, sponsored, or issued the content.

In the citation forms, this refers to any additions to the end of a name that tells us more information about the contributor. Examples: Jr., Sr., II, III, Esq., etc.

What a source is called or its name. In the absence of a title, some styles may ask for a summary of the source.

The address of a web page. URL is short for Uniform Resource Locator. Example: www.citationmachine.net

Way the content or information is communicated, shared, or published. Below are examples for two source types.


Person or organization that assisted in creating content, a performance, or a resource. Examples include a translator, book editor, screenwriter, singer, etc.

Someone who was the originator and creator of content. An author is usually tied to written content (e.g. book, article, play, etc.), but sometimes relates to a digital image, comic, or podcast.

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How to Cite PowerPoint Presentation in APA or MLA Style

PowerPoint slides from a class or a conference always present the precious and valuable information so that you are able to use the PowerPoint presentation in your research paper. A "Good source" for a research paper should have two basic standard, the content quality and the author's credibility. A good PowerPoint citation will benefit your research paper. The American Psychological Association(APA) will let you easily cite PowerPoint slides and you are able to give credit where credit is due. The Modern Language Association(MLA) system of style also provides formats to cite research from sources such as a PowerPoint presentation. In this article, you can learn more about how to cite a PowerPoint presentation in APA or MLA correctly.

PowerPoint Presentation Citation

Cite a PowerPoint presentation in APA

Published PowerPoint presentations can be found through the internet. When you are ready to cite online PowerPoint presentation, you need to make sure that the citation should adopt the term "PowerPoint slides" in brackets. Follow the correct citation example in APA style, which should include the author name, date, title, etc. and the online "Retrieved" PowerPoint URL notation:

Andrew, J. B. (2016). How to Cite PowerPoint presentation [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from http://andrew.uvm.edu/ppt/38hrenv/index.html.

To avoid plagiarism, presenters need to treat a PowerPoint presentation like any research paper or article. Universities, for example, insist that any academic PowerPoint presentation have appropriate citations for any outside sources. For better research quality, you need to consider treating one PowerPoint presentation as a research article or paper. Any PowerPoint citation in academic research paper should use the correct citation style. Those sources include Direct quotations, Paraphrased words and ideas, Tables and data ,Images, as well as Video and audio files.

Cite a PowerPoint presentation in MLA style

Cite a powerpoint from a lecture.

You should cite the lecture when you see the PowerPoint at lecture or conference. Include the presenter's name, PowerPoint title, conference name, location venue and city, date of the lecture, and kind of lecture (or just write "Lecture."). For example:

Green, Lisa. "Emily Dickinson." Poetry Convention. Hilton Hotel, Charlottesville, VA. 12 April 2013. Keynote address.

Cite a PowerPoint on computer

If you want to cite the PowerPoint stored on your computer, cite the PowerPoint presentation using the digital file format. Include as much information as you have, such as the author's name, the name of the presentation, the date the file was created and the medium. For example:

Smith, Jane. "Emily Dickinson." May 2011. PowerPoint presentation.

Best PowerPoint to Video software for presentation

Want to make your PowerPoint slides present more smoothly? For better class or conference presentation, we'd like to recommend you the best PowerPoint to Video Converter . With this program, you are able to covert one or more PPT files into video without any limitation. Also, the tool can also help you change PowerPoint to DVD easily.

Step 1 Download and install this PPT to Video Converter to your Windows computer. Launch it and choose "Convert into Videos" option.

PPT to Video Converter Interface

Step 2 Click the button "Add PPT File(s)" to insert one or more PowerPoint files.

Add PPT file

Step 3 There are also three converting modes for you to choose from. Make your setting for PowerPoint to video conversion based on your personal needs.

Make Setting for PPT Video

Step 4 After all preparation are done, you can now click the "Start" button and convert the PowerPoint files. Check the file folder and check your quiz video converted from PowerPoint.

Convert PPT to Video

In this article, we mainly show you the appropriate PowerPoint citation in APA or MLA style. Also, we introduce one useful PowerPoint tool for your presentation on class or conference. Any commence can be left below.

Convert a PowerPoint to Video or DVD

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May 28, 2018 10:23 / Updated by Jenny Ryan to PowerPoint

How to Create A Timeline in PowerPoint

Want to make a timeline in PowerPoint? You can learn how to create a timeline in PowerPoint 2016/2013/2010/2007.

How to Make A Quiz in PowerPoint

Want to create an interactive quiz using PowerPoint? This step-by-step guides shows you how to create a quiz in PowerPoint.

How to Add Music to PowerPoint

How to add audio like music to PowerPoint 2016/2013/2010/2007? You can read this detailed tutorial to find the way.

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