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What Is a Case Study?
When you’re performing research as part of your job or for a school assignment, you’ll probably come across case studies that help you to learn more about the topic at hand. But what is a case study and why are they helpful? Read on to learn all about case studies.
Deep Dive into a Topic
At face value, a case study is a deep dive into a topic. Case studies can be found in many fields, particularly across the social sciences and medicine. When you conduct a case study, you create a body of research based on an inquiry and related data from analysis of a group, individual or controlled research environment.
As a researcher, you can benefit from the analysis of case studies similar to inquiries you’re currently studying. Researchers often rely on case studies to answer questions that basic information and standard diagnostics cannot address.
Study a Pattern
One of the main objectives of a case study is to find a pattern that answers whatever the initial inquiry seeks to find. This might be a question about why college students are prone to certain eating habits or what mental health problems afflict house fire survivors. The researcher then collects data, either through observation or data research, and starts connecting the dots to find underlying behaviors or impacts of the sample group’s behavior.
During the study period, the researcher gathers evidence to back the observed patterns and future claims that’ll be derived from the data. Since case studies are usually presented in the professional environment, it’s not enough to simply have a theory and observational notes to back up a claim. Instead, the researcher must provide evidence to support the body of study and the resulting conclusions.
As the study progresses, the researcher develops a solid case to present to peers or a governing body. Case study presentation is important because it legitimizes the body of research and opens the findings to a broader analysis that may end up drawing a conclusion that’s more true to the data than what one or two researchers might establish. The presentation might be formal or casual, depending on the case study itself.
Once the body of research is established, it’s time to draw conclusions from the case study. As with all social sciences studies, conclusions from one researcher shouldn’t necessarily be taken as gospel, but they’re helpful for advancing the body of knowledge in a given field. For that purpose, they’re an invaluable way of gathering new material and presenting ideas that others in the field can learn from and expand upon.
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Smart home automation – 7 use-case scenarios in an IoT (Internet of Things) world.
What is a smart home.
It’s a fully connected household environment that provides its residents with an unprecedented level of control and comfort. The main purpose of smart home IOT devices is to simplify your home life, make it safer and more convenient.
In 2021, the concept of smart home automation implies much more than just remote control and automation. IoT, along with emerging technologies like AI, has opened up possibilities in home automation. Today, a smart home lives to exceed consumers’ expectations. It learns about your habits, your favourite music, room temperature, wake up timings and determine consumption patterns. These insights help provide a personalized experience at your homes. They can be easily controlled via a smartphone app, so we don’t have to worry about our home security even when we are not there. Let’s look at the most popular ways to use Smart home IoT technologies in your home and understand what the benefits look like.
Home Automation Application and Use cases
Today, the most widely used smart home application is home lighting. Most people know of tunable lighting that can change between warm and bright with different colour hues that suit your mood & requirement. But let’s check a few other use case scenarios for smart lights.
- As you enter your home, lights can turn on automatically without the necessity to press a button. (This can also work as a safety feature to detect intrusions )
- The opposite is also possible as you leave your home; the system can turn the lights off automatically, thereby saving energy.
- Home theatre enthusiasts can have the lights programmed to automatically dim while watching a movie to provide the best viewing experience.
- Your light can turn on when your alarm rings in the morning, waking the whole household up if need be.
- All smart lighting in your home can be connected to your smartphone and other connected devices and can be voice-controlled.
Smart home automation devices can make the cooking process safer and convenient too.
- It can turn on the lights or play soothing music when you enter the kitchen in the morning to prepare that hot, steaming cup of morning chai.
- Smart sensors can check for gas leaks, smokes, water leakages and turn off the power in the house if the indicators are outside the optimum range.
- Appliances (refrigerators, chimneys) can be controlled through voice-activated devices. You can ask Alexa to preheat the oven to 180 degrees while you prep your cake.
Safety and Security Systems
Safety sensors identify anything wrong at your home. They can notify home users of any overlooked like an appliance left on or any potential threats immediately and even trigger necessary action to prevent them.
- Proximity, motion & video sensors can identify if a burglar makes an attempt to break into your home and automatically turn on the panic alarm, lights and call the police.
- No more doubts or double checks on whether the doors and windows were closed or if that motor or heater are off? Smart home users can check their home state remotely through the app on their phones and control pretty much everything at home.
- While locking the door, you can set controllers to automatically close the curtains, turn off devices and ensure your home is protected against any trespassers.
- You can monitor your elderly relatives and automate things remotely for them if needed.
Smart home IoT technologies in the bathroom can help in power and energy savings with convenience.
- With smart home automation, you can set your geysers to automatically turn on and off at a pre-set pattern basis your shower routine.
- This also helps make your home energy efficient by eliminating the unnecessary functioning of high power-consuming home appliances like geysers, heaters, ACs.
A smart home can be exceptionally beneficial for those plant lovers interested in growing vegetables, fruit, herbs, and indoor plants at home.
- The technology allows users to check if the plant is adequately hydrated and receiving the necessary amount of sunlight.
- You can monitor your plant and turn on your smart irrigation system when needed. You can control and stop the watering system, thus optimizing water usage
- Smart home IoT technology has led to a real breakthrough in gardening, which will completely remodel the traditional approach to growing plants.
With temperature control automation, you can optimize your ACs to provide the best experience while being energy efficient.
- For instance, users can turn on their bedroom ACs as they drive from the office to enjoy a cool room once home after a tiring day.
- You can configure the bedroom AC with your geyser times, so once you step out from your bath, the room is ready for you.
- You can set the ACs to function based on the room temperature while you sleep at night. So you are neither cold nor hot and get a good night’s sleep.
We can safely assume the doors of our future will not need keys. Digital locks are safe and can be set to initiate a sequence of other devices in your home.
- For instance, a door open can follow a customized sequence of actions like the light switching on; inside doors unlocked, and music and ACs are turned on.
- The entry door digital lock can identify who opened the door when. With a custom entry assigned for each individual, you can know when your kids, your hubby, or your maid reached home through notifications on your smartphones.
The most significant advantage of eGlu smart home solutions is that the patented products are retro-fit, which means:
- It is easily fittable to existing homes & electrical systems without any rewiring required.
- Scalable to new and existing homes – so you can do only a part of the home initially and extend to the rest of the house at a later stage.
- Applicable for residential & commercial buildings.
Without a doubt, home automation can significantly improve our quality of life and make our homes safer places.
The cost could still be a barrier to entry for most Indian middle-class families. The wider adoption of the tech leading to economies of scale would reduce this barrier further. eGlu has devised affordable packages for the home user to onboard the smart home experience.
The other dependability is a strong home wi-fi network. You need to have a good broadband connection in your home to fully utilize the smart home IoT life.
But for those for whom the above are not a concern, you should transform your home into a smart home today. Click here to contact eGlu and know more custom possibilities for your smart home.
Bridging the Gap Between Smart Home Technology and You
Smart Home Automation is the future, and why it’s time to join the revolution.
How home automation can help you with daily tasks
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CASE STUDY: ADVANCED HOME AUTOMATION
Home automation is a topic which is gaining popularity day by day, because of large advantages. One can achieve home automation by simply connecting home appliance electrical devices to the internet. The implementation of home automation in this project employs two systems, IoT and speech that are voice controlled based home automation. Internet of Things (IoT) conceptualizes the idea of remotely connecting and monitoring real things through the Internet. When it comes to our house, this concept can be aptly incorporated to make it smarter, safer and automated. The first scheme uses GSM/GPRS technology for controlling the electrical appliances via Internet through a website. The second scheme uses Bluetooth technology for controlling of electrical appliances by voice control when we are at home via an Android app. The proposed system is implemented on Pic 16f877a microcontroller. In this project, the goal is to develop a home automation system that gives the user complete control over all remotely controllable aspects of his or her home. The automation system will have ability to be controlled from a central host PC, the internet, and also remotely accessed with smart phone. Home automation system gives accessibility, comfort, energy efficiency, security by providing control and monitoring of appliances, security surveillance.
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This paper describes a condition reporting system of Power plant components using GSM technology. Most of the reporting systems commonly used in Myanmar are manual. The objective of this paper is to transform manual system to automated reporting system with the help of GSM technology. There are three portions in automated reporting system. They are GSM modem system, microcontroller system and sensing system. A dedicated microcontroller based hardware unit (DHU) has been developed to continuously measure the parameters of the viz. voltage, current and temperature of generation of the alternator to monitor the running condition of it also
Gbadamosi S Lekan
Remotely controlled vehicle anti-theft system via GSM network is a system that explores the GSM network in order to produce a reliable and efficient vehicle security system. However, the design project can be viewed from two perspectives viz the hardware consideration and the software consideration. Minicom which is a terminal emulation program on Linux was utilized for the configuration of the Modem used in this project work due to its inherent advantages. Communication between the user and the vehicle sub-system is via sms (Short Messaging Service) messaging. SMS commands are sent to the GSM/GPRS Modem Module. The GSM/GPRS interpretes the message and performs necessary control actions. Also, sms messages are sent from the GSM/GPRS Modem Module to the user’s mobile phone whenever an alarm situation occurs. However, a toy car was used as a prototype display of this project work and prototype car was immobilized and demobilized from a mobile phone via SMS
Now a day's every system is automated to face new challenges in present day situations. The automatic systems erase the need for manual operations and thus are reliable, flexible and more accurate. Hence they are used in every field, especially in electronics automated systems. Probably the most useful things to know are about GSM, It is the only type of cellular service available throughout the world. We make use of this GSM capability to develop a system that control and access various units of home appliances, which executes with respect to the signals sent by mobile. A User has an android based cell phone and by making use of a graphical user interface application he is fully able to know the status of his household equipments. The system is intelligent to monitor and control the water level in the tank and also informs the user about any gas leakage in his house.
Journal of Computer Science IJCSIS
Internet of Things (IoT) is an emerging technology which is covering everyday things from industrial machinery to consumer goods in order to exchange information and complete tasks while involved in other work. IoT based smart home automation system is a system that uses PCs, mobile phones or remote devices to control basic operations for home automatically from anyplace around the world using internet. The proposed intelligent home automation system differs from existing systems as it allows the user to operate the system from anywhere around the world by using internet connection along with intelligent nodes that can take decisions according to the environmental conditions. We implemented a home automation system using sensor nodes that are directly connected to Arduino microcontrollers. Microcontroller is programmed so that it can perform some basic operations on the basis of sensors data. e.g. fan is controlled on basis of temperature value and light is controlled on the basis of occurrence of motion in the room etc. Furthermore Arduino board is connected to the internet using Wi-Fi module. An extra feature this system provides is to monitor power consumption of different home appliances. The designed system provides the user remote control of numerous appliances locally as well as outside the home. This designed system is expandable, allowing multiple devices to be controlled. The objective of the proposed system is to provide a low cost and efficient solution for home automation system by using IoT. Results show that the proposed system is able to handle all controlling and monitoring of home.
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Home Automation Using the Internet of Things (IoT)
Read the tutorial blog on how to implement Home Automation using IoT. It covers the software, hardware, sensors, protocols, architecture, and platforms.
Table of Contents
Iot home automation: getting started, home automation sensors.
- Home Automation Architectures, Gateways, and Platforms
What really would compel someone to actually develop a product which is a complete IoT-based home automation system? Could it be the need to improve the safety of your home, could it be the desire to live a Jetson-like life that millennials always dreamt of.
It is difficult to say, often, it is even more difficult to visualize the technology that is required to build a home automation platform.
Due to the complexity introduced by software, hardware and networking ecosystems, it becomes extremely important to learn, understand and utilize the right home automation technology for your smart home product.
We hope to address some of the concerns with this article .
Home automation has three major parts:
- Communication protocols
Each of these parts is equally important in building a truly smart home experience for your customers. Having the right hardware enables the ability to develop your IoT prototype iteratively and respond to technology pivots with ease.
A protocol selected with the right testing and careful consideration helps your avoiding performance bottlenecks that otherwise would restrict the technology and device integration capabilities with sensors and IoT gateways.
Another important consideration is the firmware that resides in your hardware managing your data, managing data transfer, firmware OTA updates and performing other critical operations to make things talk.
Applications of home automation
Rebuilding consumer expectations, home automation has been projected to target wide array applications for the new digital consumer. Some of the areas where consumers can expect to see home automation led IoT-enabled connectivity are:
- Lighting control
- Lawn/Gardening management
- Smart Home Appliances
- Improved Home safety and security
- Home air quality and water quality monitoring
- Natural Language-based voice assistants
- Better Infotainment delivery
- AI-driven digital experiences
- Smart Switches
- Smart Locks
- Smart Energy Meters
The list is still not exhaustive and will evolve over the time to accommodate new IoT use cases.
Now that you are familiar with home automation applications, let’s have a detailed look at what components are involved in building a typical home automation prototype.
Home automation components
We have talked about them before, but, let’s clearly separate them into components that would finally help you build a realistic model of what major components are involved in building a smart home. The major components can be broken into:
- IoT Sensors
- IoT Gateways
- IoT Protocols
- IoT Firmware
- IoT Cloud and Databases
- IoT Middleware (if required)
IoT sensors involved in home automation are in thousands, and there are hundreds of home automation gateways as well. Most of the firmware is either written in C, Python, Node.Js, or any other programming language.
The biggest players in IoT cloud can be divided into a platform as a service(PaaS) and infrastructure as a service(LaaS).
Major IoT platform as a service provider:
- IBM Bluemix
Characteristics of IoT platforms
Again these platforms are extremely divided over the IoT application and security-related features that they provide. A few of these platforms are open source.
Let’s have a look at what you should expect from a typical IoT platform:
- Device security and authentication
- Message brokers and message queuing
- Device administration
- Support towards protocols like CoAP, MQTT, HTTP
- Data collection, visualization, and simple analysis capabilities
- Integrability with other web services
- Horizontal and vertical scalability
- WebSocket APIs for real time for real-time information flow
Apart from what we mentioned above, more and more platform builders are open sourcing their libraries to developers. Take for example the Dallas temperature library for DS18B20 for Arduino was quickly ported because of open source development to a new version that helped developers to integrate DS18B20 with Linkit One . Understanding these things become crucial as IoT tends to evolve continuously and having an equally responsive platform makes it business safe to proceed.
Let’s now deeply evaluate each of these components, starting with IoT sensors
There are probably thousands of such sensors out there that can be a part of this list. Since this is an introduction towards smart home technology, we will keep it brief. We will break down IoT sensors for home automation by their sensing capabilities:
- Lux sensors
- Water level sensors
Air composition sensors
- Video cameras for surveillance
- Voice/Sound sensors
- Pressure sensors
- Humidity sensors
- Infrared sensors
- Vibrations sensors
- Ultrasonic sensors
Depending upon what you need you may use one or many of these to build a truly smart home IoT product. Let’s have a look at some of the most commonly used home automation sensors.
The market is full of them, but the famous temperature sensors are DHT11/22, DS18B20, LM35 and MSP430 series from TI. MSP430 series is more accurate than the rest but at the same time is one of the most expensive for prototyping or initial product testing purposes. MSP430 tops all temperature sensors as the precision and battery consumption is minimum with them.
MSP430 tops all temperature sensors as the precision and battery consumption is minimum with them.
DHT11 has a very restricted temperature range and suffers from accuracy issues. DHT22, on the other hand, is a little bit more accurate but still, doesn’t make it as the preference.
DS18B20’s, on the other hand, are more accurate, as opposed to digital temperature sensors like DHT22 and 11, Dallas temperature sensors are analog and can be extremely accurate down to 0.5 degrees.
Take note that often the temperatures that you directly sense from these sensors may not be very accurate and you would occasionally see 1000 F or greater values no matter what you are doing.
There’s an entire logic that goes around building temperature sensors, that we will address in another blog post.
Lux sensors measure the luminosity and can be used to trigger various functions range from cross-validating movements to turn the lights on if it becomes too dark. Some of the most popular light sensors are TSL2591 and BH1750.
Recent tests to include TSL2591 and BH1750 into low-powered IoT devices have found them to be working fairly good for most of the use cases.
Here’s a study was done by Robert and Tomas that shows how these two compare against a spectrometer and a photodiode.
To get a good idea of whether these two sensors would suffice your needs we would suggest illuminance tests followed by normalization of the data to observe deviations under various situations.
Water level sensors for Home Automation
While building your prototype you may consider a solid state eTape liquid level sensor, or like others who just use an HC-SR04 ultrasonic sensor to measure the water level sensor.
On the other hand, in other cases where those two don’t suffice, one has to utilize something that can deliver a much higher performance.
Float level sensors and other ICs like LM1830 offers a more precise measurement capability to IoT developers. Although, they are substantially much more expensive than others.
There are a couple of specific sensors that are used by developers to measure specific components in the air:
- CO monitoring by MiCS-5525
- MQ-8 to measure Hydrogen gas levels
- MiCS-2714 to measure nitrogen oxide
- MQ135 to sense hazardous gas levels (NH3, NOx, Alcohol, Benzene, smoke, CO2
Most of these are sensors have a heating time, which also means that they require a certain time before they actually start delivering accurate values.
These sensors mainly rely on their surface to detect gas components. When they initially start sensing, there’s always something that’s there on their surface, some sort of deposition that requires some heating to go away.
Hence, after the surface gets heated enough true values start to show up.
Video cameras for surveillance and analytics
A range of webcams and cameras specific to Hardware development kits are usually used in such scenarios. Hardware with USB ports offers to integrate and camera module to build functionalities.
But, utilizing USB ports in not very efficient, especially in the case of real-time video transfer or any kind of video processing.
Take RaspberryPi for example, it comes with a camera module (Pi cam) that connects using a flex connector directly to the board without using the USB port. This makes the Pi cam extremely efficient.
Sound detection for Home Automation
Sound detection plays a vital role from monitoring babies to turning on and off lights automatically to automatically detecting your dog’s sound at the door and opening it up for them.
Some commonly used sensors for sound detection includes SEN-12462 and EasyVR Shield for rapid prototyping.
These sensors aren’t as good as industrial grade sensors like those from 3DSignals which can detect even ultra-low levels of noise and fine tune between various noise levels to build even machine break up patterns.
Humidity sensors for Home Automation
These sensors bring the capability of sensing humidity/RH levels in air for smart homes. The accuracy and sensing precision depends a lot on multiple factors including the overall sensor design and placement.
But certain sensors like DHT22 and 11 built for rapid prototyping would always perform poorly when compared to high-quality sensors like HIH6100 and Dig RH.
While building a product to sense humidity levels, ensure that there’s no localized layer of humidity that is obscuring the actual results. Also, keep into consideration that in certain small spaces, the humidity might be too high at one end as compared to the others.
When you look at free and open spaces where the air components can move much freely, the distribution around the sensor can be expected to be uniform and subsequently would require very less amount of corrective actions for the right calibration.
Home Automation Protocols
One of the most important parts of building a home automation product is to think about protocols, protocols that your device would use to communicate to gateways, servers, and sensors. A few years ago, the only way to do so was by either using Bluetooth, wifi or GSM. But due to added expenses on cellular sim cards, and low performance of Wifi, most such solutions didn’t work.
A few years ago, the only way to do so was by either using Bluetooth, wifi or GSM. But due to added expenses on cellular sim cards, and low performance of Wifi, most such solutions didn’t work.
Bluetooth survived and later evolved as Bluetooth Smart or Bluetooth low energy. This helped bring a lot of connectivity in the “mobile server powered economy”, in this essentially your phone would act as a middleware to fetch data from BLE powered sensors and sent it over to the internet.
When looking at the major home automation protocols, the following tops the list:
- Bluetooth low energy or Bluetooth Smart: Wireless protocol with mesh capabilities, security, data encryption algorithms and much more. Ideal for IoT-based products for smart homes.
- Zigbee: Low cost, mesh networked and low power radio frequency based protocol for IoT. Different Zigbee versions don’t talk to each other.
- X10: A legacy protocol that utilizes powerline wiring for signaling and control
- Insteon: Communicates with devices both wirelessly and with wires
- Z-wave: Specializes in home automation with an emphasis on security
- Wifi: Needs no explanation
- UPB: Uses existing power lines installed in a home, reduces costs
- Thread: A royalty-free protocol for smart home automation, uses a 6lowpan
- ANT: An ultra low power protocol helping developers build low-powered sensors with a mesh distribution capabilities.
Home Automation: Which protocol is the best?
While there are some protocols that clearly offer much more than others, but it is always important to start from your smart home development needs and then move towards narrowing down the solutions.
The commonly preferred protocols are Bluetooth low energy, Z-wave, Zigbee, and Thread. The protocol selection can now be narrowed down by the following factors:
- Ability to perform identity verification
- Quality of sensor networks
- Data transfer rate
- Security level
- Network topology required
- Density of objects around
- Effective Distance to be covered
Recommended Read: Home Automation protocols for the Internet of Things
Home Automation Architecture
This architecture supports the following considerations for home automation solutions:
- End to end security mechanisms involving multilevel authentication
- End to end data encryption, including the link layer
- Flexible and configurable access and authorization control
- Powerful cloud infrastructure
- Network agnostic with built-in feedback loops
- Configurable cloud-based rules engine
- API endpoints
- Data scalability
- NoSQL databases
Home Automation Gateways
For developing a home automation product, often stand-alone product sending data to a server is not enough. Often due to battery and protocol limitations, the data from a sensor or sensors present in a home has been routed through an IoT gateway.
To select the perfect gateway for your IoT home automation, consider some of the factors including:
- Communication protocols supported
- Real-time capabilities
- MQTT, CoAP, HTTPS support
- Security and configuration
When it comes to building IoT gateways, modularity and hybrid IoT protocol support top that list when a product is in the early stages of market introduction.
To incorporate a gateway in your home automation stack you can consider the following options:
Either create a Gateway from the ground up using existing hardware stacks for prototyping(using Raspberry Pi, Intel Edison, etc). Then when a PoC is validated you can create your own custom hardware.
Or, you can use existing gateway modules like Ingincs BLE gateway . These gateways are extremely easy to customize and connect with your cloud services and devices. However, they may or may not offer the same level of support that you need to build certain features.
For example, a gateway with a bad networking queue may result in traffic congestion, or it may not support the required protocols that you wish to use.
Further, pivoting with these gateways to some other technology stack may become very difficult. It should have been emphasized that they are extremely good for robust prototyping needs.
Home automation programming language for smart home developers
Home Automation frameworks
If you think you can build everything from home automation (protocols, hardware, software, etc) on your own, it is a bit unrealistic. Everyone starting from high growth startups to billion dollar consumer focused enterprises are now taking the help of home automation frameworks to build connected products to delight consumers.
Everyone starting from high growth startups to billion dollar consumer focused enterprises are now taking the help of home automation frameworks to build connected products to delight consumers.
There are more than 15 different smart home frameworks available for IoT developers to use and build their next generation of connected home products. Some of these frameworks are open source and some are closed-source. Let’s have a look at some of them in the sections that follows.
Some of these frameworks are open source and some are closed-source. Let’s have a look at some of them in the sections that follows.
Open source IoT platforms and frameworks for Home Automation
Looking forward to doing a quick and dirty prototype? There’s no need to write down everything from scratch. Thanks to a bunch of awesome contributions by people like we have open source platforms that can get your home automation products up and running in no time.
Our favorites are:
- Home Assistant
- OpenHAB: Supports Raspberry Pi, written in Java and has design tools to build your own mobile apps by tweaking UI.
- OpenMotics[Asked their developer, waiting for them to respond(dev confirmed)]
Let’s take a look at the major home automation IoT platforms.
Home Assistant for smart home development:
Supports RaspberryPi, uses Python with OS as Hassbian. It has simplified automation rules that developers can use to build their home automation product saving them thousands of lines of code.
Home Assistant supports the following:
How home assistant works involve the following:
- Home control responsible for collecting information and storing devices
- Home automation triggers commands based on user configurations
- Smart home triggers based on past user behavior
As developers, it is very important for us to understand the architecture of Home Assistant for us to build high-performing products on top of it.
Let’s have a look at Home control’s architecture that makes control and information flow possible.
Home control consists of five components:
- State machine
- Service registry
The core architecture of Home Assistant
All of these components working together create a seamless asynchronous system for smart home IoT. In the earlier version of Home Assistant core, the core often had to stop while looking for new device information.
But, with the new versions of home assistant, a backward compatible API, and ansyn core have been introduced making things a lot faster for IoT applications.
The best part about home assistant’s core architecture is how carefully it has been designed and developed to support IoT at home.
OpenHAB for Smart home automation
OpenHAB is a home automation and IoT gateway framework for smart homes. Similar to Home Assistant, OpenHAB works nicely with Raspberry Pi and comes with their own design tools to create a UI for your home automation product.
An understanding architecture of OpenHAB:
- Modularity: It is realized with the bundle concept
- Runtime dynamics: so that software components can be managed at the runtime
- Service orientation: there are services for various components to speak with each other and exchange information
Further relying on the OGSi framework, it leverages the following layers stacked together:
- Modular layer: Manages dependencies between bundles
- Life cycle layer: controls the life cycle of the bundles
- Service layers: defines a dynamic model of communication between various modules
- Actual services: this is the application layer, using all other layers
- Security layer: optional, leverages Java 2 security architecture and manages permissions from different modules
- Plugin framework
- Rules engine
- Logging mechanism
- UI abstraction: A tree structure for UI Widgets, Item UI providers, and dynamic UI configuration
- UI implementations are available for the web, Android, and iOS
- Designer tools availability
OpenHAB has been primarily only been observed as a project for the hobbyist programmer, even many parts of openhab.org convey the same. But, we have observed a different effort in the recent times from OpenHAB into building the developer economy for building IoT smart homes.
Takes this slowly growing Github repo talking about OpenHAB cloud for example.
Impressive enough that some open platform out there is thinking about system services, Cron jobs, logging, etc.
Further, looking at the frameworks and technologies that openHAB will support: Node.Js, Express.Js, Nginx, MongoDB, Redis, Socket.IO
Unlike Home Assistant’s vast integrability, openHAB is currently limited to:
- Amazon Alexa
- AWS EC2 [AWS Multi-AZ isn’t compatible for multiple time zone availability]
- AWS IoT with openHAB
- MQTT support
OpenHAB is extremely powerful, but at the same time very limited in terms of integration. The team behind openHAB is extremely promising and have already conveyed their plans to open up openHAB to other integration capabilities very shortly.
Calaos for Home Automation
Calaos was developed initially by a company that was closed back in 2013, but the home automation since then has lived and is being maintained and upgraded by developers. While now being open source, it facilitates premade source code to:
- Create sweet home environment
- Control music
- Automation rules that focus on time, mood or ambiance
- Easy configuration
Calaos supports the following hardware:
- Intel-based machines
Their lack of support towards developing private IoT applications restricts their usage by developers to build high-quality solutions for consumers.
Domoticz for Home Automation
Domoticz allows you to monitor and configure your devices and sensors with the simplest possible design. Impressive enough that the entire project is extremely lightweight, it further is backed by high integrability with third parties and features like auto learning switches.
This platform has been designed to work with operating systems like Linux and Windows.
Protocol capabilities of Domoticz include: Z-wave, Bluetooth, Apple Homekit, X10 and MQTT
Hardware integration capabilities of Domoticz:
- RFXCOM Transceiver
- ESP2866 Wifi module
- P1 smart meter
- Youless meter
- Pulse counters
- Philips Hue
- Essent E thermostat
Domiticz can be used to create any sort of services that you can think of, ranging from a smart weather device to a Telegram bot.
Currently, very few people know about the architecture of Domoticz, making it extremely difficult to build applications on it without taking unnecessary risks in building the product itself.
For example, the entire design of general architecture feels a little weird when you look at the concept of a sensor to control to an actuator. It seems to be missing.
Building advanced application with Domoticz can be done using C++, lula, PHP, shell, etc.
Blockchain in IoT for connected home
Consumers, especially those who grew up in the digital era understand the importance of privacy and security more than millennials. With the evolution of IoT, security has taken center stage for realistic deployment scenarios.
Deployment of Blockchain into home networks can easily be done with a $35 raspberry pi. A blockchain secured layer between devices and gateways can be implemented without massive revamp of the existing code base.
Simply put, blockchain as a technology that would be an implementation that most users won’t even know about, but will play a huge role in future to reassure them with revolutionary and new business models like dynamic renting for Airbnb.
So far, interoperability issues and broken protocols seemed to have hampered the growth of IoT-based smart homes.
But, as technology is progressing and more and more computing power can be generated with very low powered devices, home automation will gradually become a technology that will easy for us to build and develop for on a daily basis.
Home automation is a big space to address in one blog post. If there’s something else that you would like, feel free to drop a comment or reach out to me on Twitter – I am @hsshah_ .
Get in touch
Working from last 10+ years into consumer and enterprise mobility, Hardik leads large scale mobility programs covering platforms, solutions, governance, standardization and best practices.
Real Nice Blog. Thank you
Hi Hardirk, I am a student studying electrical and electronic engineering. And I want to delve into the field of Blockchain in IOT for election voting. I would like to be guided in that regard. Thank you.
Hi Hardik, I am a starter in this space and your blog is really helpful. I’m not sure If this is the right forum, but If I want to create my own smart home. What in your opinion are the minimum tools I require? I already have the Raspberry Pi starter kit and I would love to integrate what you share with a raspberry pi touchscreen. Any advice would be great
Hey @anjanapindoria:disqus You definitely use Raspberry Pi with Home-Assitant.io and create a smart home experience. What other connected components are you planning to build a smart home? (Lights, Alexa, etc)
Really Awesome content of this post. Hope new post will discover more new information.
Informative for beginners and awesome content touching all the aspects of home automation.
Nice and Informative.
Krishna Surya S
Hi Hardik.....Happy to talk to you ......My question is what is the actual or basic cost needed for this product to develop?.....Expecting your reply .....thank you
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Home » Case Studies » IoT enabled Home Automation Solution
IoT enabled Home Automation Solution
Industry: Internet of Things (IoT)
The client is a leader producing IoT platforms for widespread industrial use. Currently, the client supports industries like STEM Research, Virtual Reality and planning to focus on Home Automation appliances.
Client was looking for development support to serve IoT enabled Home Automation Systems.
Client wanted to have an IoT based prototype version that could control some basic home appliances from mobile application through BLE technology and access statistics through dashboard.
Few devices targeted for prototype are:
- Controlling LED display
- Moisture Sensor & Temperature Alerts
- Controlling Camera and Coffee Maker
Proposed solution leverages multiple layers of security and communications to connect all Internet of Things (IoT) enabled devices. All IoT devices are controlled and managed from mobile app using BLE technology.
- Options to input HEX code to control different appliances through using Raspberry Pi, Arduino
- LED on/off along with brightness control facility
- Moisture & Temperature Alerts based on predefined cut-off range
- Scheduled on and off mechanism for cameras and coffee machine
Universal Internet of Things (IoT) platform turned out as one-stop solution to control devices using Raspberry Pi, Arduino over Linux, Mac and Windows based platforms. The solution provided few smart ways to control devices like, LEDs, Coffee maker and Cameras. It ensures that communication and data transfer is safe and secure among all connected IoT devices.
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IoT Home Automation
- Difficulty Level : Easy
- Last Updated : 05 Jul, 2021
In this article, we will discuss the overview of IoT home automation . And will focus on smart lighting, smart appliances, intrusion detection, smoke/gas detector, etc. Let’s discuss it one by one.
- Home automation is constructing automation for a domestic, mentioned as a sensible home or smart house. In the IoT home automation ecosystem, you can control your devices like light, fan, TV, etc.
- A domestic automation system can monitor and/or manage home attributes adore lighting, climate, enjoyment systems, and appliances. It is very helpful to control your home devices.
- It’s going to in addition incorporates domestic security such as access management and alarm systems. Once it coupled with the internet, domestic gadgets are a very important constituent of the Internet of Things.
- A domestic automation system usually connects controlled devices to a central hub or gateway.
- The program for control of the system makes use of both wall-mounted terminals, tablet or desktop computers, a smartphone application, or an online interface that may even be approachable off-site through the Internet.
Smart Home Components : Here, you will see the smart home components like smart lighting, smart appliances, intrusion detection, smoke/gas detector, etc. So, let’s discuss it.
Component-1 : Smart Lighting –
- Smart lighting for home helps in saving energy by adapting the life to the ambient condition and switching on/off or dimming the light when needed.
- Smart lighting solutions for homes achieve energy saving by sensing the human movements and their environments and controlling the lights accordingly.
Component-2 : Smart Appliances –
- Smart appliances with the management are here and also provide status information to the users remotely.
- Smart washer/dryer can be controlled remotely and notify when the washing and drying are complete.
- Smart refrigerators can keep track of the item store and send updates to the users when an item is low on stock.
Component-3 : Intrusion Detection –
- Home intrusion detection systems use security cameras and sensors to detect intrusion and raise alerts.
- Alert can we inform of an SMS or an email sent to the user.
- Advanced systems can even send detailed alerts such as an image shoot or short video clips.
Component-4 : Smoke/gas detectors –
- Smoke detectors are installed in homes and buildings to detect smoke that is typically an early sign of Fire.
- It uses optical detection, ionization for Air sampling techniques to detect smoke.
- Gas detectors can detect the presence of harmful gases such as CO, LPG, etc.
- It can raise alerts in the human voice describing where the problem is.
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Mar 21, 2018
IoT for smart home—a case study
IoT is the next step in the evolution of the internet and is being used in about everything you can think of. This project aimed to scope out use cases if LG were to start its own IoT wave for smart homes.
• 🖥 A new wave of connected appliances will enable better user experience, proactive alerts, and even safety notifications.
• 🚰 Water and air treatment systems at home, their performance data, customized alerts on each device's performance, automated consumable ordering, and even automatic adjusts to your water usage patterns.
• 🔥 Adding connectivity to fire safety devices can allow homeowners to monitor appliances remotely and even send alerts to friends and neighbors in the case of an emergency.
For the research part, I googled a lot and tried to understand and grab as much as I could about IoT and its potential users. 🧐
“User-centered design means working with your users all throughout the project.”— Don Norman
For personas, I interviewed various potential people at my workplace and at home.
User Persona 1:
Kushal Gupta, Age 27
Occupation: Product Manager, working for a mid-sized company.
Traits: Fearless, risk-taker, reader, and traveler.
• Kushal is single, a workaholic, and lives alone.
• He looks forward to minimum futile commute and avoids traffic jams.
• He likes industry culture; his favorite phrase is working hard and party harder.
• He likes to spend time with friends after the office.
• To increase networking with people.
• Follow the latest trends and technology
• To live a balanced work and social life.
• When I am on my way back home after the office , I want to switch on the AC with my smartphone , so that the room temperature is already stable before I enter the room.
• When I am using the washing machine on weekends, I want my washing machine to send me a prior notification on my phone about any damage(if at all), So that I can connect to the LG store for any assistance or get any handy tips to fix it on my own.
• When I forget to change the batteries of the fire alarm, I want a reminder on my phone, so that it can work in case of an emergency.
User Persona 2:
Nalini Maan, Age 34
Occupation: Currently a housewife, used to work with an MNC for more than 7 yrs.
Traits: Smart, trendy, party lover, and a fashionable mom
• Nalini lives with her husband and a mother of 11-month-old baby.
• She takes care of a home and her family.
• She also likes to hang out with women of her age group.
• Managing things on her own at home while also trying to maintain her social life.
• While doing household activities she is persistently bothered about her baby’s movements.
• When I am in the kitchen, I want to track the activities of my baby on my smartphone, So that I can get back to him if needed.
- When I am in the bed at night, I want to check on all the running appliances, So that I can switch them off via. my smartphone.
“Confusion and clutter are the failure of design, not the attributes of information.”— Edward R Tufte
Low-fidelity wireframes :
“Beauty and brains, pleasure and usability — they should go hand in hand.” ~ Don Norman
Applied methods and design Laws:
Complex reduction method by Michael Horton for ‘clean and minimal’ designs:
• Bigger, bolder headlines
• Simpler, more universal icons
• Extraction of color
Fitt’s Law: Bold and easily accessible CTA’s
Hick’s Law: Aesthetically simplified steps for users.
Law of Prägnanz: Simple and basic shapes used for icons/illustrations to reduce the overall cognitive load.
Law of Similarity: Error messages and other useful information are consistently highlighted.
Miller’s Law: Well-organized information with grouping.
Pareto Principle: Information architecture is according to the priority of majorly performed tasks by the user.
Von Restorff Effect: Distinctive icons are used for clear indications of every room possible and for each appliance.
Icon courtesy Noun Project
In case you want to know all about ‘Laws of UX’ read them here.
Read all about IoT here.
There is always a lot to learn from every project, it’s challenging and fun.
• Do lots of research before getting started, understand who you are designing for, and plan and design according to that. Use existing data such as reading material on the web, books, and articles to support your design choices and the context of your design.
• Understand your user, which means putting yourself in another person’s shoes to create products that respond to human needs.
Keep pushing yourself to the limits. 🙂
Thank you for reading! If you enjoyed the article, please give it a few claps!” 👏🏻
Also looking forward to your valuable feedback.
Connect with me on LinkedIn & Dribbble.
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- 1. Case Studies in IoT -Smart-Home
- 2. The basic elements of home automation were already put into use in the 1970’s. Technical discoveries are made by some and taken up and further developed by others. A company in Scotland developed a smart home product X10. X10 made use of the home electrical wiring to switch on and off electrical appliances (receivers) with simple remote controls or keypads (transmitters) with a command alert to the system, using unique unit ID numbers of the receiving devices that should receive the command and the codes for the action, such as switching on/off. Such a system was prone to malfunction due to noise arising from powering of devices coupled to
- 3. Probably, as per today, the IT magnate Bill Gates has one of the smartest home in the world with the latest elements of IoT. According to reports, each person in Gates’ household has a unique chip communicating with home entertainment systems, refrigerator, heating/air-conditioning & lighting and even the electronic still image displays matched to the taste of the person!
- 4. .IOT IN SMART HOMES Internet of Things (IoT) has evolved out of the need to connect, communicate and interact with “things” at home, in the factory, in the car or even in space, just to name a few scenarios. IoT has different names, e.g. Web of Things (WoT), Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), Internet of Everything (IoE) and increasingly covered by the term Industry 4.0. Intel defines IoT as “devices that are connecting to the internet, integrating greater compute capabilities, and using data analytics to extract valuable information”, .
- 5. In March 2017, China announced a new strategic program called “Made in China 2025” addressing Industry 4.0 and promoting Industry 4.0 technologies. IoT is based on increased intelligence in things connected to each other and sharing data of mutual interest with each other and interacting to achieve predefined goals/actions and adapting to changing situations with a certain degree of autonomy. The fact that the essential component for the full-fledged IoT is the sharing of data entails mechanisms and measures to safeguard the IoT with high grade of security, which has been a growing concern,
- 6. IoT is already taking up the home scene with interconnected devices enabling connection to and between persons and increasing quality of services with improved security for people and property. Developmental issues related to IoT are schematically presented in Fig Main aspects of an evolving IoT with focus on holistic design and implementation, involving transmission, reception, energy availability, reliability, security etc. From pedagogical and Interaction Design open
- 7. IoT in the context of smart homes is essentially a collection of interconnected smart and possibly autonomous things interacting with each other and authorized people encompassing home appliances, home entertainment, safety and security, vehicles belonging to the authorized people etc. The vision of technology push industries like Microsoft, Google, Intel etc. is to have a fully integrated smart home evolving into a smart city, which again leads to a smart world. This concept of smartness at all level is only possible when the security issues are foolproof, Fig. Ubiquitous smart systems encompassing many stages of integration of IoT with other services and users including data from all IoTs in the Cloud of Things (CoT) available for the users
- 8. Data-logging, Management and Monitoring Smart Home Automation Components Sensor nodes acquire data from various sensors in the Smart Home (home entertainment, heating, ventilation and air conditioning, lighting control system, presence and number of people , robotics, security, home appliances such as refrigerators, washing machines, even kettles (iKettle). Arduino and Raspberry Pi Data Hub: Gathers data from different sensor nodes in a defined area of surveillance, in our case the Smart Home.
- 9. Once the diverse sensor data are gathered and logged in, DMM “hands over” the data to the dedicated software and services, which are typically Database: Repository for the sensor data Data Cloud Service for acquiring data from multiple areas in the cloud. The communication can be HTTP and REST APIs. Data Management Software for configuring data points, logging rates, events and actions, etc. Data Logging Software for acquiring and handling sensor data within a sensor node Data Monitoring Software for monitoring and alarm and events handling based on inputs from multiple Sensor Nodes
- 10. Sensors, Actuators showing the DMM platform (Data-logging, Management and Monitoring )
- 11. DMM with remote/cloud configuration of the DMM – a general perspective Soft Sensing of parameters from existing hard sensors
- 12. different use cases of IoT in Home Automation
- 13. A user has the following features through a mobile application in which he 1. can turn on or o LED lights and monitor the state of the LED. 2. can lock and unlock doors through servo motors and monitor if the doors are locked or unlocked. 3. can monitor if the doors are closed or opened through IR sensors. 4. is notified through email if the door is left open for too long. 5. is notified of who entered through the door as the camera captures the face image 6. and send it to him/her via email. 7. is notified through email if the re detector detects smoke. 8. is able to control the surveillance car from anywhere to monitor his/her home.
- 14. Integration of IoT and Home Automation, made it possible to monitor and control homes from different parts of the world. Some examples of applications to this are: controlling and setting the desired temperature of the house before arriving home, turning on/off the lights of a room and setting its intensity, running washing machine while the person is at work, leakage or smoke detection and notification, monitoring home through surveillance camera or car inside the house while the person is away, or remote central locking, and many other applications
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1. Case Studies in IoT -Smart-Home · 2. The basic elements of home automation were already put into use in the 1970's. · 3. Probably, as per today, the IT