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What Is a Case Study?
When you’re performing research as part of your job or for a school assignment, you’ll probably come across case studies that help you to learn more about the topic at hand. But what is a case study and why are they helpful? Read on to learn all about case studies.
Deep Dive into a Topic
At face value, a case study is a deep dive into a topic. Case studies can be found in many fields, particularly across the social sciences and medicine. When you conduct a case study, you create a body of research based on an inquiry and related data from analysis of a group, individual or controlled research environment.
As a researcher, you can benefit from the analysis of case studies similar to inquiries you’re currently studying. Researchers often rely on case studies to answer questions that basic information and standard diagnostics cannot address.
Study a Pattern
One of the main objectives of a case study is to find a pattern that answers whatever the initial inquiry seeks to find. This might be a question about why college students are prone to certain eating habits or what mental health problems afflict house fire survivors. The researcher then collects data, either through observation or data research, and starts connecting the dots to find underlying behaviors or impacts of the sample group’s behavior.
During the study period, the researcher gathers evidence to back the observed patterns and future claims that’ll be derived from the data. Since case studies are usually presented in the professional environment, it’s not enough to simply have a theory and observational notes to back up a claim. Instead, the researcher must provide evidence to support the body of study and the resulting conclusions.
As the study progresses, the researcher develops a solid case to present to peers or a governing body. Case study presentation is important because it legitimizes the body of research and opens the findings to a broader analysis that may end up drawing a conclusion that’s more true to the data than what one or two researchers might establish. The presentation might be formal or casual, depending on the case study itself.
Once the body of research is established, it’s time to draw conclusions from the case study. As with all social sciences studies, conclusions from one researcher shouldn’t necessarily be taken as gospel, but they’re helpful for advancing the body of knowledge in a given field. For that purpose, they’re an invaluable way of gathering new material and presenting ideas that others in the field can learn from and expand upon.
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IMPLEMENTING THE CYCLE OF SUCCESS: A CASE STUDY
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Within Australia, Australian Hotels Inc (AHI) operates nine hotels and employs over 2000 permanent full-time staff, 300 permanent part-time employees and 100 casual staff. One of its latest ventures, the Sydney Airport hotel (SAH), opened in March 1995. The hotel is the closest to Sydney Airport and is designed to provide the best available accommodation, food and beverage and meeting facilities in Sydney's southern suburbs. Similar to many international hotel chains, however, AHI has experienced difficulties in Australia in providing long-term profits for hotel owners, as a result of the country's high labour-cost structure . In order to develop an economically viable hotel organisation model, AHI decided to implement some new policies and practices at SAH.
The first of the initiatives was an organisational structure with only three levels of management - compared to the traditional seven. Partly as a result of this change, there are 25 per cent fewer management positions , enabling a significant saving. This change also has other implications. Communication, both up and down the organisation, has greatly improved. Decision-making has been forced down in many cases to front-line employees. As a result, guest requests are usually met without reference to a supervisor, improving both customer and employee satisfaction.
The hotel also recognised that it would need a different approach to selecting employees who would fit in with its new policies. In its advertisements, the hotel stated a preference for people with some 'service' experience in order to minimise traditional work practices being introduced into the hotel. Over 7000 applicants filled in application forms for the 120 jobs initially offered at SAH. The balance of the positions at the hotel (30 management and 40 shift leader positions) were predominantly filled by transfers from other AHI properties.
A series of tests and interviews were conducted with potential employees, which eventually left 280 applicants competing for the 120 advertised positions. After the final interview, potential recruits were divided into three categories. Category A was for applicants exhibiting strong leadership qualities, Category C was for applicants perceived to be followers, and Category B was for applicants with both leader and follower qualities. Department heads and shift leaders then composed prospective teams using a combination of people from all three categories . Once suitable teams were formed, offers of employment were made to team members.
Another major initiative by SAH was to adopt a totally multi-skilled workforce. Although there may be some limitations with highly technical jobs such as cooking or maintenance, wherever possible, employees at SAH are able to work in a wide variety of positions. A multi-skilled workforce provides far greater management flexibility during peak and quiet times to transfer employees to needed positions. For example, when office staff are away on holidays during quiet periods of the year, employees in either food or beverage or housekeeping departments can temporarily.
The most crucial way, however, of improving the labour cost structure at SAH was to find better, more productive ways of providing customer service. SAH management concluded this would first require a process of ' benchmarking '. The prime objective of the benchmarking process was to compare a range of service delivery processes across a range of criteria using teams made up of employees from different departments within the hotel which interacted with each other. This process resulted in performance measures that greatly enhanced SAH's ability to improve productivity and quality.
The front office team discovered through this project that a high proportion of AHI Club member reservations were incomplete. As a result, the service provided to these guests was below the standard promised to them as part of their membership agreement. Reducing the number of incomplete reservations greatly improved guest perceptions of service.
In addition, a program modelled on an earlier project called ' Take Charge ' was implemented. Essentially, Take Charge provides an effective feedback loop horn both customers and employees. Customer comments, both positive and negative, are recorded by staff. These are collated regularly to identify opportunities for improvement. Just as importantly, employees are requested to note down their own suggestions for improvement. (AHI has set an expectation that employees will submit at least three suggestions for every one they receive from a customer.)
Employee feedback is reviewed daily and suggestions are implemented within 48 hours, if possible, or a valid reason is given for non-implementation. If suggestions require analysis or data collection, the Take Charge team has 30 days in which to address the issue and come up with recommendations.
Although quantitative evidence of AHI's initiatives at SAH are limited at present, anecdotal evidence clearly suggests that these practices are working. Indeed AHI is progressively rolling out these initiatives in other hotels in Australia, whilst numerous overseas visitors have come to see how the program works.
This article has been adapted and condensed fem the article by R Carter (19%), 'Implementing the cycle of success: A case study of the Sheraten Pacific Division', Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 34(3): 111-23. Names and other details have been changed and report findings may have been given a different emphasis from the original. W eare grateful to Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources for allowing us to use, file material in this way.
Choose the appropriate letters A-D and write them in boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet.
1 The high costs of running AHI's hotels are related to their ...
D policies. Answer: C Locate
2 SAH's new organisational structure requires ...
A 75% of the old management positions.
B 25% of the old management positions.
C 25% more management positions.
D 5% fewer management positions. Answer: A Locate
3 The SAH's approach to organisational structure required changing practices in ..
A industrial relations.
B firing staff.
C hiring staff.
D marketing. Answer: C Locate
4 The total number of jobs advertised at the SAH was ...
D 280. Answer: B Locate
5 Categories A, B and C were used to select...
A front office staff.
B new teams.
C department heads.
D new managers. Answer: B Locate
Complete the following summary of the last four paragraphs of Reading Passage 1 using ONE OR TWO words from the Reading Passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 6-13 on your answer sheet.
WHAT THEY DID AT SAH
Teams of employees were selected from different hotel departments to participate in a 6 exercise.
The information collected was used to compare 7 processes which, in turn, led to the development of 8 that would be used to increase the hotel's capacity to improve 9 as well as quality.
Also, an older program known as ' 10 ' was introduced at SAH. In this program, 11 is sought from customers and staff. Wherever possible 12 suggestions are implemented within 48 hours. Other suggestions are investigated for their feasibility for a period of up to 13
6. Answer: benchmarking Locate 7. Answer: service delivery Locate 8. Answer: (performance) measures Locate 9. Answer: productivity Locate 10. Answer: (') Take Charge (') Locate 11. Answer: feedback Locate 12. Answer: employee(s') // staff Locate 13. Answer: 30 days Locate
- 3 - YES-NO-NOT GIVEN
- 6 - Sentence Completion
- 4 - Summary, form completion
Striking Back at Lightning With Lasers
- Nature & Environment
- 0 unanswered
- 12 - Matching Headings
- 2 - Sentence Completion
Wheel of Fortune
- 5 - Matching Headings
- 8 - Matching Information
Striking the right note
- 10 - Matching Headings
- 3 - Summary, form completion
Neanderthals and modern humans
- 7 - Matching Information
- 4 - TRUE-FALSE-NOT GIVEN
The polar bear
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IELTS Reading: Cambridge 13 Test 1 Reading Passage 1, Case Study: Tourism New Zealand website; with best solutions, explanations and bonus tips
This IELTS Reading post deals with a total solution package for IELTS Cambridge 13 Reading test 1 passage 1 . This is a targeted post for candidates who have major difficulties in finding and understanding Reading Answers. This post can guide you the best to understand every Reading answer easily and without much difficulty. Finding IELTS Reading answers is a step-by-step process and I hope this post can help you in this respect.
Reading Passage 1 :
The headline of the passage: Case Study: Tourism New Zealand website
Questions 1-7 ( Completing table with ONE WORD ONLY):
In this type of question, candidates are asked to write only one word to complete a table on the given topic. For this type of question, first, skim the passage to find the keywords in the paragraph concerned with the answer, and then scan to find the exact word.
[ TIPS: Here scanning technique will come in handy. Target the keywords of the questions to find the answers. Remember to focus on Proper nouns, random Capital letters, numbers, special characters of text etc.]
Question 1: allowed businesses to ______ information regularly.
Keywords for these answers: database, allowed businesses, information, regularly,
In paragraph no. 2, we find the mention of the word ‘database’ in the third line. Here, lines 8 & 9, the writer mentions, “In addition, because participating businesses were able to update the details they gave on a regular basis….”.
Here, details = information
So, the answer is: update
Question 2: provided a country-wide evaluation of businesses, including their impact on the _________.
Keywords for this answer: database, country-wide evaluation, impact on
The last line of paragraph no. 2 has the answer. Here, the writer suggests, “As part of this, the effect of each business on the environment was considered.”
Here, effect = impact
So, the answer is: environment
Question 3: e.g. an interview with a former sports __________.
Keywords for this answer: special features, interview, a former sports
The answer can be found in paragraph 3, lines 1-3. The words ‘interview’ and ‘former’ are formed in line number 2. The writer says, “.. .. . One of the most popular was an interview with former New Zealand All Blacks rugby captain Tana Umaga.”
Here, rugby = sports
So, the answer is: captain
Question 4: and an interactive tour of various locations used in ________.
Keywords for this answer: interactive tour, various locations
The answer is in paragraph 3, lines 4-5. The lines say, “…… was an interactive journey through a number of locations chosen for blockbuster films …… ..”.
Here, journey = tour
A number of locations = various locations
Chosen for = used in
So, the answer is: films
Question 5: varied depending on the __________.
Keywords for these answers: driving routes, varied, depending on
Paragraph 3, lines 8-9 has the answer to this question. The lines say, “…. . .the site catalogued the most popular driving routes in the country, highlighting different routes according to the season….. . .”.
Here, different = varied
according to = depending on
So, the answers are: season
Question 6: including a map showing selected places, details of public transport and local _______.
Keywords for this answer: travel planner, a map, public transport, local
The answer is found in paragraph no. 4, line 4. The paragraph begins with ‘travel planner’. In the subsequent lines, we can find the mention of ‘public transport’. In line no. 4 it says, “… . There were also links to accommodation in the area.”
Here, the phrase ‘in the area’ can be replaced with the word ‘local’.
So, the answer is: accommodation
Question 7: travelers could send a link to their ________.
Keywords for this answer: ‘Your Words’, travelers, send, link to,
The answer is found in paragraph no. 4. ‘Your Words’ is the name of a section of the website www.newzealand.com. We can see that ‘Your Words’ is mentioned in line 6 of paragraph 4. So, we need to read lines 6 & 7 to find the answer.
The author says, “ ….. . . The website also had a ‘Your Words’ section where anyone could submit a blog of their New Zealand travels for possible inclusion on the website.”
Here, anyone could submit = travelers could send a link to
So, the answer is: blog
Questions 8-13 (TRUE/FALSE/NOT GIVEN):
In this type of question, candidates are asked to find out whether:
The statement in the question matches with the account in the text- TRUE
The statement in the question contradicts the account in the text- FALSE
The statement in the question has no clear connection with the account in the text- NOT GIVEN
Question 8: The website www.newzealand.com aimed to provide ready-made itineraries and packages for travel companies and individual tourists.
Keywords for this answer: the website, aimed, itineraries, travel packages
To find the answer to this question, look for the words itineraries and travel packages. The answer can be found in Paragraph 6. Here, lines 1 and 2 say, “ The website was set up to allow both individuals and travel organizations to create itineraries and travel packages to suit their own needs and interests.”
This means that the aim of the website was to allow individuals and travel organizations do their work of their own, the website did not provide any ready-made itineraries and travel packages.
The statement clearly contradicts the text.
So, the answer is: FALSE
Question 9: It was found that most visitors started searching on the website by geographical location.
Keywords for this answer: started searching, geographical location
The answer is not found anywhere in the passage. The question is about starting the search in the website.
In paragraph 6 line 3, the author says, “…… visitors can search for activities not solely by geographical locations, but also by the particular nature of the activity.” However, nowhere it says anything about starting the search.
So, the answer is: NOT GIVEN
Question 10: According to research, 26% of visitor satisfaction is related to their accommodation.
Keywords for this answer: 26%, visitor satisfaction, accommodation
** Special answer finding technique:
There is a number in the question (26%). If the answer is TRUE, 26% has to be in the text. If it is FALSE, the number will be different; or, the number will be 26% (but it will be related to other matters). If the number is still 26%, yet it doesn’t match with other key-words, the answer will be NOT GIVEN.
The answer can be found in lines 4, 5 & 6 of paragraph no. 6. Here, the writer says, “This is important as research shows that activities are the key driver of visitor satisfaction, contributing 74% to visitor satisfaction , while transport and accommodation account for the remaining 26% .”
Here, the lines clearly contradict the question. Transportation and accommodation account for 26%. Visitor satisfaction accounts for 74%. If only accommodation accounted for 26%, we could write TRUE.
Question 11: Visitors to New Zealand like to become involved in the local culture.
Keywords for this answer: like to, involved, local nature
The answer can be found in lines 7-9 of paragraph 6. The author says, “…. It has also been found that visitors enjoy cultural activities most when they are interactive, such as visiting a marae (meeting ground) to learn more about traditional life.”
It means that visitors like to engage in local culture.
So, the answer is: TRUE
Question 12: Visitors like staying in small hotels in New Zealand rather than in larger ones.
Keywords for this answer: like staying, small hotels
In paragraphs 6 & 7, there is no mention of staying in hotels. There is no comparison between small and large hotels also.
So the answer is: NOT GIVEN
Question 13: Many visitors feel it is unlikely that they will return to New Zealand after their visit.
Keywords for this answer: feel, unlikely, will return, after their visit
The answer is found in paragraph 7. Here, lines 4 and 5 states, “Because of the long-haul flight, most visitors stay for longer (average 20 days) and want to see as much of the country as possible on what is often seen as a once-in-a-lifetime visit .”
Here, the phrase ‘often seen as a once-in-a-lifetime visit’ means that there is a very low possibility that the visit will happen again.
So the answer is: TRUE
You must pay attention to WORD LIMIT. For instance, if you are asked to complete a sentence using NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS; and if the correct answer in the text is ‘dress made of cotton’, you cannot write the answer as ‘dress made of cotton’. You need to change it to ‘cotton dress’.
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If you like this post, and need any assistance about IELTS Reading, please make comments below.
Click here for solutions to Cambridge 13 Reading Test 1 Passage 2
Click here for solutions to Cambridge 13 Reading Test 1 Passage 3
Click here for important vocabulary with explanations for Cambridge 13 Test 1 Reading Passage 1, 2, 3
[…] Click here for solutions to Cambridge 13 Reading Test 1 Passage 1 […]
thanku really it’s very helpfull
Thank you for help
it was very helpful, thanks!.
Thank u 🙂🤗🤗
i although questions were all completely explained, i did n’t understand question number 10.
The question asks you to decide whether 26% visitor satisfaction is related to accommodation. We find in the passage, 26% visitor satisfaction is related to accommodation and transport. So, here in the question, transport is missing. This is why the answer is “FALSE’.
u meant that 26% is divided in transportating and accommodation acc. to passage.
The answer can be found in lines 4, 5 & 6 of paragraph no. 6. Here, the writer says, “This is important as research shows that activities are the key driver of visitor satisfaction, contributing 74% to visitor satisfaction, while transport and accommodation account for the remaining 26%.”
In there,it was written like transport AND accommodation account for remaining 26%. Not ooonly accommodation account for 26% of visitor satisfaction. It is with transport
Thank you so much, it is very helpful
Plzz Sir mainu tusi mcq diya teps diyo reading diya v te listening diya v plzz mainu bht jada problem aa rhi aa ohna nu solve krn ch te ik headings diya v
Hello Kamaljeet, I don’t understand Punjabi much and I didn’t get clearly from what you wrote. But as far as I can understand you, I think you have problems in MCQs. Plz follow my other lessons and surely you’ll get help in this question type. For Headings, I have some good works available in this website.
Hlo sir mainu mcq ch bht problem aa rhi aa te heading ch v plzz mainu ehna dona diya tips dedo menumeration listening ch v mcq di hi problem aundi a jada plzz help me
Super helpful! Thank you so much!
If i add some explanations,
The reason NG isn’t the correct answer: As far as the ‘transport’ was mentioned along with accommodation as one of the factors contributing to the 26% of visitors satisfaction on the paraghagh, we cannot ignore transport’s contribution to the 26%. So, it means there is definitely certain percent related to ‘transport’. And, this means accommodation cannot account for the whole 26%, which is contradicting the sentence of No.10 question. Thereby the evidence to decide whether the No.10 sentence is right or wrong is clearly given on the paragragh, and the answer is F.
I figured it out this way. Hope this helpful to you.
Dear Kimmy, the way you explained can be considered correct. The way I explained it can also be taken as correct.
Hello sir My reading scores had stucked on 5.5 bands and I have exam on 29th June pls share me some tips to crack my ielts.
Dear Rikta, Try to follow these suggestions. 1. give importance in synonyms. 2. learn the tricks of paraphrasing. 3. do not take more than 1 minute in each question. 4. Try to guess some answers. 5. Be careful about proper nouns and use of capital letters. 6. try to practice some mock tests before your exam. 7. Remember you can’t solve all types of questions. so give importance on the types you are comfortable with.
Is it okay to write all your answers in capital letters?
YES, for Reading and Listening. Not for Writing.
Thank you so much! It’s really helpful 👍🏻
Its really a most helpful website
I need tips in paragraph type questions nad match the heading
Please share some techniques regarding solving list of heading or match the statement with paragraph…please!
Sir I don’t understand Question 13 What does the question mean ?
Dear Yoon, Thanks for the question. Question 13: Many visitors feel it is unlikely that they will return to New Zealand after their visit. This question means that many visitors fear that they may not return to New Zealand after their visit.
I’m very confused between not given and false. Please give me some tips.
Thank you Najib for useful support. It is rare that anyone who gives explanation of IELTS reading with tips. Everybody gives simple tips only, what makes difference between you and them. Request explanation on rest of the Cambridge books. Its really really helpful and useful. Your website is unique.
Welcome! And I request you to pray for me. And the rest is coming. Work is going on.
i didn’t understood the answer of quest 10.. can u plz hlp me.. i have doubt that why it is false because it clearly said that 26 % accounts for transport and accommodation
26% = accommdation + transportation, not accommodation alone. Our key word here is’ accommodation’ and it is very much necessary to understand the clear and exact meaning of each question for true/false questions in general.
Hlo sir muja heading ma bhut didn’t aa Rahe ba
Can you write that in English, please?
hi guys , i have a question is that if i use the word blockbusters instead of films , is it correct ?
blockbusters = films which have broken all sorts of records
It’s really very helpful.
I’m delighted to hear that. Thank you. Here’s my YouTube channel for your consideration: https://www.youtube.com/c/IELTSDeal
where are you from sir?
I’m from Bangladesh.
What is the main different between yesnong and truefalseng?
Thanks alot, this is really explanatory and I find it helpful
Welcome! You can follow my YouTube Channel as well: https://www.youtube.com/c/IELTSDeal/
In fact your website has been of a tremendous help to me. I understood true, false and not given from your website.. But I still need help in the other part too, writing listening n speaking My date is very close that is 2nd Dec n 5th
Thank you so much, it’s really helpful for me!!!
Academic IELTS Reading: Reading passage 1; Why we need to protect polar bears; with best solutions and detailed explanations
This Academic IELTS Reading post focuses on solutions to Reading Passage 1 titled ‘Why we need to protect polar bears’. This is a targeted post for IELTS candidates who have major problems finding out and understanding Reading Answers in the AC module. This post can guide you to the best to understand every Reading answer without […]
IELTS Academic Reading: Cambridge Official Guide to IELTS Test 7 Reading passage 2; Fatal Attraction; with best solutions and best explanations
This Academic IELTS Reading post focuses on solutions to IELTS Cambridge Official Guide to IELTS Test 7 Reading Passage 2 which is titled ‘Fatal Attraction’. This is a targeted post for IELTS candidates who have big problems finding and understanding Reading Answers in the AC module. This post can guide you to the best to understand […]
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IELTS Reading Test 34
IMPLEMENTING THE CYCLE OF SUCCESS: A CASE STUDY
Within Australia, Australian Hotels Inc (AHI) operates nine hotels and employs over 2000 permanent full-time staff, 300 permanent part-time employees and 100 casual staff. One of its latest ventures, the Sydney Airport hotel (SAH), opened in March 1995. The hotel is the closest to Sydney Airport and is designed to provide the best available accommodation, food and beverage and meeting facilities in Sydney’s southern suburbs. Similar to many international hotel chains, however, AHI has experienced difficulties in Australia in providing long-term profits for hotel owners, as a result of the country’s high labour-cost structure. In order to develop an economically viable hotel organisation model, AHI decided to implement some new policies and practices at SAH.
The first of the initiatives was an organisational structure with only three levels of management – compared to the traditional seven. Partly as a result of this change, there are 25 per cent fewer management positions, enabling a significant saving. This change also has other implications. Communication, both up and down the organisation, has greatly improved. Decision-making has been forced down in many cases to front-line employees. As a result, guest requests are usually met without reference to a supervisor, improving both customer and employee satisfaction.
The hotel also recognised that it would need a different approach to selecting employees who would fit in with its new policies. In its advertisements, the hotel stated a preference for people with some ‘service’ experience in order to minimise traditional work practices being introduced into the hotel. Over 7000 applicants filled in application forms for the 120 jobs initially offered at SAH. The balance of the positions at the hotel (30 management and 40 shift leader positions) were predominantly filled by transfers from other AHI properties.
A series of tests and interviews were conducted with potential employees, which eventually left 280 applicants competing for the 120 advertised positions. After the final interview, potential recruits were divided into three categories. Category A was for applicants exhibiting strong leadership qualities, Category C was for applicants perceived to be followers, and Category B was for applicants with both leader and follower qualities. Department heads and shift leaders then composed prospective teams using a combination of people from all three categories. Once suitable teams were formed, offers of employment were made to team members.
Another major initiative by SAH was to adopt a totally multi-skilled workforce. Although there may be some limitations with highly technical jobs such as cooking or maintenance, wherever possible, employees at SAH are able to work in a wide variety of positions. A multi-skilled workforce provides far greater management flexibility during peak and quiet times to transfer employees to needed positions. For example, when office staff are away on holidays during quiet period of the year, employees in either food or beverage or housekeeping departments can temporarily fill in.
The most crucial way, however, of improving the labour cost structure at SAH was to find better, more productive ways of providing customer service. SAH management concluded this would first require a process of ‘benchmarking’. The prime objective of the benchmarking process was to compare a range of service delivery processes across a range of criteria using teams made up of employees from different departments within the hotel which interacted with each other. This process resulted in performance measures that greatly enhanced SAH’s ability to improve productivity and quality.
The front office team discovered through this project that a high proportion of AHI Club member reservations were incomplete. As a result, the service provided to these guests was below the standard promised to them as part of their membership agreement. Reducing the number of incomplete reservations greatly improved guest perceptions of service.
In addition, a program modelled on an earlier project called ‘Take Charge’ was implemented. Essentially, Take Charge provides an effective feedback loop from both customers and employees. Customer comments, both positive and negative, are recorded by staff. These are collated regularly to identify opportunities for improvement. Just as importantly, employees are requested to note down their own suggestions for improvement. (AHI has set an expectation that employees will submit at least three suggestions for every one they receive from a customer.)
Employee feedback is reviewed daily and suggestions are implemented within 48 hours, if possible, or a valid reason is given for non-implementation. If suggestions require analysis or data collection, the Take Charge team has 30 days in which to address the issue and come up with recommendations.
Although quantitative evidence of AHI’s initiatives at SAH are limited at present, anecdotal evidence clearly suggests that these practices are working. Indeed AHI is progressively rolling out these initiatives in other hotels in Australia, whilst numerous overseas visitors have come to see how the program works.
Questions 1—5 Choose the appropriate letters A—D and write them in boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet.
1 The high costs of running AHIs hotels are related to their A management B size C staff D policies
2 SAH’s new organisational structure requires A 75% of the old management positions B 25% of the old management positions C 25% more management positions D 5% fewer management positions
3 The SAH’s approach to organisational structure required changing practices in A industrial relations B firing staff C hiring staff D marketing
4 The total number of jobs advertised at the SAH was … A 70 B 120 C 170 D 280
5 Categories A, B and C were used to select… A front office staff B new teams C department heads D new managers
Questions 6-13 Complete the following summary of the last four paragraphs of Reading Passage 1 using ONE OR TWO words from the passage.
What they did at SAH Teams of employees were selected from different hotel departments to participate in a (6)……………………….. exercise. The information collected was used to compare (7)……………………… processes which, in turn, led to the development of (8)………………………… that would be used to increase the hotel’s capacity to improve (9)……………………… as well as quality. Also, an older program known as (10)…………………… was introduced at SAH. In this program, (11)……………………….. is sought from customers and staff. Wherever possible (12)…………………….. suggestions are implemented within 48 hours. Other suggestions are investigated for their feasibility for a period of up to (13)…………………………
Cambridge IELTS Test 1 to 13
READING PASSAGE 2
The discovery that language can be a barrier to communication is quickly made by all who travel, study, govern or sell. Whether the activity is tourism, research, government, policing, business, or data dissemination, the lack of a common language can severely impede progress or can halt it altogether. ‘Common language’ here usually means a foreign language, but the same point applies in principle to any encounter with unfamiliar dialects or styles within a single language. ‘They don’t talk the same language’ has a major metaphorical meaning alongside its literal one.
Although communication problems of this kind must happen thousands of times each day, very few become public knowledge. Publicity comes only when a failure to communicate has major consequences, such as strikes, lost orders, legal problems, or fatal accidents — even, at times, war. One reported instance of communication failure took place in 1970, when several Americans ate a species of poisonous mushroom. No remedy was known, and two of the people died within days. A radio report of the case was heard by a chemist who knew of a treatment that had been successfully used in 1959 and published in 1963. Why had the American doctors not heard of it seven years later? Presumably because the report of the treatment had been published only in journals written in European languages other than English.
Several comparable cases have been reported. But isolated examples do not give an impression of the size of the problem — something that can come only from studies of the use or avoidance of foreign-language materials and contacts in different communicative situations. In the English-speaking scientific world, for example, surveys of books and documents consulted in libraries and other information agencies have shown that very little foreign-language material is ever consulted. Library requests in the field of science and technology showed that only 13 per cent were for foreign language periodicals. Studies of the sources cited in publications lead to a similar conclusion: the use of foreign- language sources is often found to be as low as 10 per cent.
The language barrier presents itself in stark form to firms who wish to market their products in other countries. British industry, in particular, has in recent decades often been criticized for its linguistic insularity — for its assumption that foreign buyers will be happy to communicate in English, and that awareness of other languages is not therefore a priority. In the 1960s, over two-thirds of British firms dealing with non-English-speaking customers were using English for outgoing correspondence; many had their sales literature only in English; and as many as 40 per cent employed no-one able to communicate in the customers’ languages. A similar problem was identified in other English-speaking countries, notably the USA, Australia and New Zealand. And non-English-speaking countries were by no means exempt-although the widespread use of English as an alternative language made them less open to the charge of insularity.
The criticism and publicity given to this problem since the 1960s seems to have greatly improved the situation. Industrial training schemes have promoted an increase in linguistic and cultural awareness. Many firms now have their own translation services; to take just one example in Britain, Rowntree Mackintosh now publish their documents in six languages (English, French, German, Dutch, Italian and Xhosa). Some firms run part-time language courses in the languages of the countries with which they are most involved; some produce their own technical glossaries, to ensure consistency when material is being translated. It is now much more readily appreciated that marketing efforts can be delayed, damaged, or disrupted by a failure to take account of the linguistic needs of the customer.
The changes in awareness have been most marked in English-speaking countries, where the realisation has gradually dawned that by no means everyone in the world knows English well enough to negotiate in it. This is especially a problem when English is not an official language of public administration, as in most parts of the Far East, Russia, Eastern Europe, the Arab world, Latin America and French speaking Africa. Even in cases where foreign customers can speak English quite well, it is often forgotten that they may not be able to understand it to the required level — bearing in mind the regional and social variation which permeates speech and which can cause major problems of listening comprehension. In securing understanding, how ‘we’ speak to ‘them’ is just as important, it appears, as how ‘they’ speak to ‘us’.
Questions 14-17 Complete each of the following statements (Questions 14-17) with words taken from Reading Passage 2. Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer.
14 Language problems may come to the attention of the public when they have………………………..such as fatal accidents or social problems. 15 Evidence of the extent of the language barrier has been gained from……………………….of materials used by scientists such as books and periodicals. 16 An example of British linguistic insularity is the use of English for materials such as…………………. 17 An example of a part of the world where people may have difficulty in negotiating English is………….
Questions 18-20 Choose the appropriate letters A—D and write them in boxes 18-20 on your answer sheet.
18 According to the passage, ‘They don’t talk the same language’ (paragraph 1), can refer to problems in … A understanding metaphor B learning foreign languages C understanding dialect or style D dealing with technological change
19 The case of the poisonous mushrooms (paragraph 2) suggests that American doctors … A should pay more attention to radio reports B only read medical articles if they are in English C are sometimes unwilling to try foreign treatments D do not always communicate effectively with their patients
20 According to the writer, the linguistic insularity of British businesses … A later spread to other countries B had a negative effect on their business C is not as bad now as it used to be in the past D made non-English-speaking companies turn to other markets
Questions 21-24 List the FOUR main ways in which British companies have tried to solve the problems of the language barrier since the 1960s. Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer.
21………………………………. 22……………………………… 23………………………………… 24………………………………..
Questions 25 and 26 Choose the appropriate letters A-D and write them in boxes 25 and 26 on your answer sheet.
25 According to the writer, English-speaking people need to be aware that… A some foreigners have never met an English-speaking person B many foreigners have no desire to learn English C foreign languages may pose a greater problem in the future D English-speaking foreigners may have difficulty understanding English
26 A suitable title for this passage would be A Overcoming the language barrier B How to survive an English-speaking world C Global understanding – the key to personal progress D The need for a common language
What is a Port City?
A A port must be distinguished from a harbour. They are two very different things. Most ports have poor harbours, and many fine harbours see few ships. Harbour is a physical concept, a shelter for ships; port is an economic concept, a centre of land-sea exchange which requires good access to a hinterland even more than a sea-linked foreland. It is landward access, which is productive of goods for export and which demands imports, that is critical. Poor harbours can be improved with breakwaters and dredging if there is a demand for a port. Madras and Colombo are examples of harbours expensively improved by enlarging, dredging and building breakwaters.
B Port cities become industrial, financial and service centres and political capitals because of their water connections and the urban concentration which arises there and later draws to it railways, highways and air routes. Water transport means cheap access, the chief basis of all port cities. Many of the world’s biggest cities, for example, London, New York, Shanghai, Istanbul, Buenos Aires, Tokyo, Jakarta, Calcutta, Philadelphia and San Francisco began as ports – that is, with land-sea exchange as their major function – but they have since grown disproportionately in other respects so that their port functions are no longer dominant. They remain different kinds of places from non-port cities and their port functions account for that difference.
C Port functions, more than anything else, make a city cosmopolitan. A port city is open to the world. In it races, cultures, and ideas, as well as goods from a variety of places, jostle, mix and enrich each other and the life of the city. The smell of the sea and the harbour, the sound of boat whistles or the moving tides are symbols of their multiple links with a wide world, samples of which are present in microcosm within their own urban areas.
D Sea ports have been transformed by the advent of powered vessels, whose size and draught have increased. Many formerly important ports have become economically and physically less accessible as a result. By-passed by most of their former enriching flow of exchange, they have become cultural and economic backwaters or have acquired the character of museums of the past. Examples of these are Charleston, Salem, Bristol, Plymouth, Surat, Galle, Melaka, Soochow, and a long list of earlier prominent port cities in Southeast Asia, Africa and Latin America.
E Much domestic port trade has not been recorded. What evidence we have that domestic trade was greater at all periods than external trade. Shanghai, for example, did most of its trade with other Chinese ports and inland cities. Calcutta traded mainly with other parts of India and so on. Most of any city’s population is engaged in providing goods and services for the city itself. Trade outside the city is its basic function. But each basic worker requires food, housing, clothing and other such services. Estimates of the ratio of basic to service workers range from 1A to 1:8.
F No city can be simply a port but must be involved in a variety of other activities. The port function of the city draws to it raw materials and distributes them in many other forms. Ports take advantage of the need for breaking up the bulk material where water and land transport meet and where loading and unloading costs can be minimised by refining raw materials or turning them into finished goods. The major examples here are oil refining and ore refining, which are commonly located at ports. It is not easy to draw a line around what is and is not a port function. All ports handle, unload, sort, alter, process, repack, and reship most of what they receive. A city may still be regarded as a port city when it becomes involved in a great range of functions not immediately involved with ships or docks.
G Cities which began as ports retain the chief commercial and administrative centre of the city close to the waterfront. The centre of New York is in lower Manhattan between two river mouths, the City of London is on the Thames, Shanghai along the Bund. This proximity to water is also true of Boston, Philadelphia, Bombay, Calcutta, Madras, Singapore, Bangkok, Hong Kong and Yokohama, where the commercial, financial, and administrative centres are still grouped around their harbours even though each city has expanded into a metropolis. Even a casual visitor cannot mistake them as anything but port cities.
Questions 27-30 Reading passage 3 has seven paragraphs A-G. From the list of headings below choose the most suitable headings for paragraphs B-E. Write the appropriate numbers (i-viii) in boxes 27-30 on your answer sheet. NB There are more headings than paragraphs, so you will not use them all.
List of Headings i. A truly international environment ii. Once a port city, always a port city iii. Good ports make huge profits iv. How the port changes a city’s infrastructure v. Reasons’ for the decline of ports vi. Relative significance of trade and service industry vii. Ports and harbours viii. The demands of the oil industry
27 Paragraph B 28 Paragraph C 29 Paragraph D 30 Paragraph E
Questions 31-34 Look at the following descriptions of some port cities mentioned in the passage. Match the pairs of cities (A-H) listed below with the descriptions. Write the appropriate letters A-H in boxes 31-34. NB There are more pairs of port cities than descriptions so you will not use them all.
31 required considerable harbor development 32 began as ports but other facilities later dominated 33 lost their prominence when large ships could not be accommodated 34 maintain their business centres near the port waterfront
A Bombay and Buenos Aires B Hong Kong and Salem C Istanbul and Jakarta D Madras and Colombo E New York and Bristol F Plymouth and Melaka G Singapore and Yokohama H Surat and London
Question 35-40 Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 3? In boxes 35-40 on your answer sheet write
YES if the statement agrees with the information NO if the statement contradicts the information NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this in the passage
35 Cities cease to be port cities when other functions dominate. 36 In the past, many port cities did more trade within their own country than with overseas ports. 37 Most people in a port city are engaged in international trade and finance. 38 Ports attract many subsidiary and independent industries. 39 Ports have to establish a common language of trade. 40 Ports often have river connections.
1. C 2. A 3. C 4. B 5. B 6. benchmarking 7. service delivery 8. (performance) measures 9. productivity 10. take charge 11. feedback 12. employee 13. 30 days 14. major consequences 15. surveys 16. sales literature 17. eastern europe 18. C 19. B 20. C 21. training 22. translation services 23. language course 24. glossaries 25. D 26. A 27. ii 28. i 29. v 30. vi 31. D 32. C 33. F 34. G 35. no 36. yes 37. no 38. yes 39. not given 40. yes
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Fulfilling Your Dreams
Cambridge IELTS 2 Academic Reading Test 2 Answer Key
Cambridge 2 reading test 2 answer, reading passage 1- implementing the cycle of success: a case study.
Implementing the Cycle of Success: A Case Study Reading Answers
- (a range of) service delivery
- (performance) measures
- (‘) take charge (‘)
- employee(s’) // staff
Reading Passage 2 – Language Barrier
Language Barrier Reading Answers
- major consequences
- sales literature
- Eastern Europe//Far East//Russia//Arab world//Latin America//French-speaking Africa
21 – 24 IN ANY ORDER (industrial) training (schemes) translation services (part-time) language courses (technical) glossaries
Reading Passage 3 – What is a Port City?
What is a Port City? Reading Answers
Note: The above content is copyrighted by Cambridge University Press and Cambridge English Language Assessment. We posted this content at the request of IELTS students.
(update 2023) cambridge ielts 13 reading test 1 answers – free lesson.
Cambridge IELTS 13 is the latest IELTS exam preparation. READINGIELTS.COM will help you to answer all questions in cambridge ielts 13 reading test 1 with detail explanations.
Passage 1: CASE STUDY: TOURISM ZEALAND WEBSITE
Questions 1-7: complete the table below. choose one word only from the passage for each answer..
1. allowed businesses to………information regularly
Key words: businesses, information, regularly Based on the question and particularly the key words, we need to find the information about an activity that businesses usually conduct in the database section of the website. In paragraph 2, when referring to the database of tourism services, the author mentions: “because participating businesseswere able to update the details they gave on aregularbasis, the information provided remained accurate.” From this, it can be safely concluded that the activity we are looking for is updating information.
– information = details – regularly = on a regular basis
The answer is update.
2. provided a country-wide evaluation of businesses, including their impact on the…………….
Key words: country-wide, evaluation, impact Looking for the key words in the passage, we find them at the end of paragraph 2: “Tourism New Zealand organised a scheme whereby organisations appearing on the website underwent an independent evaluationagainst a set of agreed national standards of quality. As part of this, the effect of each business on the environment was considered”. This paragraph is all about the website, as we can see from the first sentence. All the organisations/businesses on the site were evaluated, including their impact on the environment.
– impact = effect The answer is environment.
3. e.g. an interview with a former sports……………..
Key words: interview, former, sports
The answer is in paragraph 3, when the author speaks of features relating to famous people and places: “One of the most popular was an interview with the former NewZealand All Blacks rugby captain Tana Umaga”.
– sports = rugby So, the answer is captain.
4. an interactive tour of various locations used in ……………
Key words: interactive, tour, locations Remember that paragraph 3 refers tofamous people and places/locations. We find the answer in the middle of paragraph 3: “Another feature that attracted a lot of attention was an interactive journey through a number of the locations chosen for blockbuster films which had made use of New Zealand’s stunning scenery as a backdrop”.
– tour = journey – various = a number of
The answer is films .
5. Information on driving routes varied depending on the …………..
Key words: driving routes, varied, depending on The answer is given at the end of paragraph 3: “To make it easier to plan motoring holidays, the site catalogued the most popular driving routes in the country, highlighting different routes according to the season and indicating distances and times”.
– driving = motoring – depending on = according to
The answer is season.
6. Travel Planner: included a map showing selected places, details of public transport and local ………………..
Key words: Travel Planner, map, public transport, local. Travel Planner is discussed in paragraph 4: “Later, a Travel Planner feature was added, which allowed visitors to click and ‘bookmark’ places or attractions they were interested in, and then view the results on a map. The Travel Planner offered suggestedroutes and public transport options between the chosen locations. There were also links to accommodation in the area”.
– local = in the area The answer is accommodation.
7. ‘Your Words’: travellers could send a link to their……………….
Key words: Your Words, travellers, send ‘Your Words’ is also referred to in paragraph 4: “The website also had a ‘Your Words’ section where anyone could submit a blog of their New Zealand travels for possible inclusion on the website”. So, anyone travelling in New Zealand could go to the website ‘Your Words’ and use the link to send a blog of their travels, to be included on the website.
– send = submit
The answer is blog.
Questions 8-13. Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1 ?
8. The website www.newzealand.com aimed to provide ready-made itineraries and packages for travel companies and individual tourists.
Key words: ready-made, itineraries, packages, travel companies, individual tourists At the beginning of paragraph 6, the author refers to the aim of the website, which: “…was set up to allow both individuals and travel organisations to create itineraries and travel packages to suit their own needs and interests”.
The website therefore was designed NOT to provide ready-made packages for travellers or for travel companies. It was designed, on the contrary, for everyone to create their own holidays, according to their own interests. Also, in paragraph 3 it is stated that: “As the site developed, additional features were added to help independent travellers devise their own customised itineraries”.
– travel companies = travel organisations – individual tourists = individuals/independent travellers ready-made # to suit their own needs and interests
Therefore, the statement is FALSE.
9. It was found that most visitors started searching on the website by geographical location.
Key words: visitors, started searching, geographical location As many paragraphs discuss the website, finding the correct place in the passage is not easy. However, in paragraph 6, we find: “On the website, visitors can search for activities not solely by geographical location, but also by the particular nature of the activity”. Two pieces of information are not given – we don’t know if visitors started searching on the website by geographical location. We only know that visitors can use the website to search by geographical location if they wish. Secondly, we don’t know what most visitors did when they entered the website. So, the answer is NOT GIVEN.
10. According to research, 26% of visitor satisfaction is related to their accommodation
Key words: research, 26%, satisfaction, accommodation Percentages are only given in paragraphs 5 and 6, so it is not difficult to find the information in paragraph 6: “…research shows that activities are the key driver of visitor satisfaction, contributing 74% to visitor satisfaction, while transport and accommodation account for the remaining 26%”. The figure of 26% refers to those visitors who say they are satisfied with the transport or with their accommodation. This percentage does NOT refer to accommodation alone, so we cannot say that 26% of visitor satisfaction is related only to their accommodation – some of this proportion will relate to transport. For this reason, the statement is FALSE.
11. Visitors to New Zealand like to become involved in the local culture
Key words: visitors, involved, local culture We find the answer in paragraph 6 again: “It has also been found that visitors enjoy cultural activities most when they are interactive, such as visiting a marae (meeting ground) to learn about traditional Maori life”.
– like = enjoy – become involved in = interactive
The statement is TRUE.
12. Visitors like staying in small hotels in New Zealand rather than in larger ones
Key words: visitors like, small hotels, larger Looking for one of the key words – ‘hotels’ – this is not mentioned in any of the paragraphs. Accommodation is referred to in paragraph 6 and ‘the smallest bed and breakfast’ is mentioned in paragraph 2, but there is nothing to refer to the statement in the question. The answer is NOT GIVEN.
13. Many visitors feel it is unlikely that they will return to New Zealand after their visit
Key words: visitors, unlikely, return
In the final paragraph, we find: “Because of the long-haul flight, most visitors stay for longer (average 20 days) and want to see as much of the country as possible on what is often seen as a once-in-a-lifetime visit”. To reach New Zealand, a long flight is usually necessary, so people often visit only once. They stay for an average of 20 days, and they try to see as much as they can, because they may not visit again.
– unlikely that they will return = a once-in-a-lifetime visit.
So, the statement is TRUE.
Passage 2: WHY BEING BORED IS STIMULATING AND USEFUL, TOO
Questions 14-19: reading passage 2 has six paragraphs, a-f..
14. Paragraph A.
In this paragraph the author introduces the subject of boredom, indicating that: “…defining boredom so that it can be studied in the lab has proved difficult”. Defining an object to be studied, and then studying it in the laboratory/lab are both elements of a scientific approach, but there are problems. It is difficult. So, the correct heading is: ‘problems with a scientific approach to boredom’.
– problems ~ difficult
15. Paragraph B.
In the first sentence of Paragraph B, the author states: “By asking people about their experiences of boredom, Thomas Goetz and his team at the University of Konstanz in Germany have recently identified five distinct types: indifferent, calibrating, searching, reactant and apathetic”. The system used by the researchers to measure these types is then described. A two-axes chart is used to arrange the types, with one axis recording level of arousal and the other axis recording positive or negative feelings. So, the main idea of Paragraph B is ‘creating a system of classification for feelings of boredom’.
16. Paragraph C.
This paragraph is about the positive aspects of boredom. The findings of the psychologist Sandi Mann are discussed: “Mann has found that being bored makes us more creative. ‘We’re all afraid of being bored but in actual fact it can lead to all kinds of amazing things’, she says. So, the correct heading is: ‘The productive outcomes that may result from boredom’.
17. Paragraph D.
In contrast, psychologist John Eastwood considers that boredom is negative: “In my view, by definition boredom is an undesirable state’. The paragraph continues: “For Eastwood, the central feature of boredom is a failure to put our ‘attention system’ into gear……Perhaps most
worryingly, says Eastwood, repeatedly failing to engage attention can lead to a state where we don’t know what to do any more, and no longer care”. So, when we are bored, the biggest worry is that we may no longer pay attention or care about the things we do. The most appropriate heading is: “A potential danger arising from boredom”.
– potential = can lead to
18. Paragraph E.
This paragraph is about certain characteristics of personality, and how these tend to be associated with boredom. Eastwood’s team think that: “Boredom proneness has been linked with a variety of traits. People who are motivated by pleasure seem to suffer particularly badly. Other personality traits, such as curiosity, are associated with a high boredom threshold. More evidence that boredom has detrimental effects comes from studies of people who are more or less prone to boredom”.
A link has been made, therefore, between boredom and people with certain characteristics. The correct heading is: “Identifying those most affected by boredom”.
– affected by = prone to
19. Paragraph F.
The author discusses psychologist Francoise Wemelsfelder’s view that: “…our over-connected lifestyles might even be a new source of boredom”. So, we need less mental stimulation, not more, and: “…perhaps we should leave our phones alone, and useboredom to motivate us to engage with the world in a more meaningful way”.
So, this is a new explanation of one reason why we become bored, and a new cure – less stimulation – is proposed. The correct heading is: “A new explanation and a new cure for boredom”. ANSWER: iii
Questions 20-23: Look at the following people (Questions 20-23) and the list of ideas below. Match each person with the correct idea, A-E.
20. Peter Toohey
We can quickly find this name in Paragraph A: Toohey compares boredom with disgust, which is: “…an emotion that motivates us to stay away from certain situations. ‘If disgust protects humans from infection, boredom may protect them from infectioussocial situations’, he suggests”.
Toohey’s idea is that boredom may actually protect us from bad situations or experiences.
– avoid = stay away from – an unpleasant experience = infectious social situations
The answer is E.
21. Thomas Goetz
Goetz is mentioned in both Paragraph B and Paragraph E. We already know (from Q15) that Paragraph B is about the classification of types of boredom by Goetz and his team. This matches B in the list of ideas: “Of the five types, the most damaging is ‘reactant’ boredom with its explosive combination of high arousal and negative emotion”. So, ‘reactant’ boredom is the worst of all five types of boredom, because it is ‘the most damaging’.
– sort = type
The answer is B.
22. John Eastwood
Eastwood is mentioned in Paragraph D and Paragraph E. Starting to look for the answer in Paragraph D, we find a discussion of boredom as a failure to put our attention system into action: “This causes an inability to focus on anything, which makes time seem to go painfully slowly. What’s more, your efforts to improve the situation can endup making you feel worse”.
– trying to cope with boredom = your efforts to improve the situation
– increase its negative effects = making you feel worse
The answer is D.
23. Francoise Wemelsfelder
Her name is mentioned in the last paragraph. She believes that: “In modern human society there is a lot of overstimulation but still a lot of problems finding meaning”. Our modern lifestyles, therefore, tend to stimulate us too much, without enabling us to find any meaning for what we do.
– today = modern
The answer is A.
Questions 24-26: Complete the summary. Write ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer.
24 For John Eastwood, the central feature of boredom is that people cannot …………. , due to a failure in what he calls ‘the attention system’, and as a result they become frustrated and irritable. Key words: Eastwood, central, failure, attention system
Using the key words, we find the answer in Paragraph D: “For Eastwood, the central feature of boredom is a failure to put our ‘attention system’ into gear. This causes an inability to focus on anything….” Thus, when people are bored, they are not able to focus on anything.
– as a result = causes
– cannot = inability to
The answer is focus.
25. His team suggests that those for whom ……………. is an important aim in life may have problems in coping with boredom. Key words: aim, problems, coping The answer is found in Paragraph E, again using the key words. Here, it is stated that: “Boredom proneness has been linked with a variety of traits. People who are motivatedby pleasure seem to suffer particularly badly”.
So, people who are motivated by pleasure try to achieve pleasure as an important aim in life. They soon seem to get bored and have problems, suffering badly. The answer is pleasure.
26. … whereas those who have the characteristic of ……………..can generally cope with it. Key words: characteristic, cope with In the next sentence, we learn about the people who cope well with boredom: “Other personality traits, such as curiosity, are associated with a high boredom threshold”. If people have a ‘high boredom threshold’, that means that they are not easily bored. These are people who have the characteristic of curiosity.
– characteristic = personality trait
The answer is curiosity.
Passage 3: ARTIFICIAL ARTISTS
Questions 27-31: choose the correct letter, a, b, c or d..
27. What is the writer suggesting about computer-produced works in the first paragraph?
Key words: suggest, computer-produced, works In paragraph 1, the writer tells us about how successful works of art have been which have been produced using the computer: “Classical music by an artificial composer has had audiences enraptured….Artworks painted by a robothave sold for thousands of dollars and been hung in prestigious galleries. And software has been built which creates art that could not have been imagined by the programmer”. All of this indicates answer B: A great deal of progress has already been attained in this field.
The answer is B.
28. According to Geraint Wiggins, why are many people worried by computer art?
Key words: Geraint Wiggins, worried Looking for the key words, we find the name ‘Geraint Wiggins’ in paragraph 2. If creative acts can be translated into computer code, this means that human creativity is no longer a special quality of being human. Computers can do the same thing. “It scares a lot of people. They are worried that it is taking something special away from what it means to be human”. In other words, when computer art performs the same creative acts as humans, then people are worried that: ‘It undermines a fundamental human quality” – by taking away (=undermining) the unique (=special) human ability to be creative.
– worried = scared
The answer is C.
29. What is a key difference between Aaron and the Painting Fool?
Key words: difference, Aaron, Painting Fool Aaron is mentioned in paragraphs 3 and 4. In paragraph 3, the writer explains what Aaron is and what it can do: “It is still little more than a tool to realise the programmer’s own creative ideas”. In paragraph 4, Aaron is compared with the Painting Fool: “Unlike earlier ‘artists’, such as Aaron, the Painting Fool only needs minimal directionand can come up with its own conceptsby going online for material”. As a result, we are told, the Painting Fool is beginning to develop its own imagination. So, the difference is that Aaron only follows the programmer’s ideas, while the Painting Fool can create its own ideas independently, going online for material (= subject matter). The difference is ‘the source of its subject matter’
– key difference = unlike
30. What point does Simon Colton make in the fourth paragraph?
In paragraph 4, Colton’s ideas on computer-produced art are presented. “The software runs its own web searches and trawls through social media sites. It is now beginning to display a kind of imagination too, creating pictures from scratch….While some people might say they have a mechanical look, Colton argues that such reactions arise frompeople’s double standards towards software-produced and human-produced art”.
If people have ‘double standards’ they have moral principles which are unfair, because they judge human art in one way and computer-produced art in a different way. The answer is that: ‘People tend to judge computer art and human art according to different criteria (= ‘double standards’).
The answer is D.
31. The writer refers to the paintings of a chair as an example of computer art which….
Key words: paintings, chair, computer art This is a tricky question, so be careful or you will end up with the wrong answer. The Painting Fools paintings of a chair are discussed at the end of paragraph 4. Here, the writer refers to ‘software bugs’ and ‘a technical glitch’. However, these problems do not necessarily have bad results. In the case of the chair paintings: “Some of the Painting Fool’s paintings of a chair came out in black and white, thanks to a technical glitch. This gives the work an eerie, ghostlike quality”. So, these technical problems resulted in paintings of a chair which had an unexpected and ‘eerie and ghostlike quality’ – in other words they had a ‘striking’ effect on people who saw them. The paintings produced by computer art thus: “achieved a particularly striking effect”. The answer is A.
Questions 32-37: Complete each sentence with the correct ending, A-G.
32. Simon Colton says it is important to consider the long-term view when…
Key words: Simon Colton, long-term view At the beginning of paragraph 5, we find the statement that: “Researchers like Colton don’t believe it is right to measure machine creativity directly to that of humans ‘whohave had millennia to develop our skills’ ”. This refers to the creativity (=artistic achievements) of computers and humans and how important it is to consider the element of time.
– long-term = millennia
33. David Cope’s EMI software surprised people by…
Key words: Cope, EMI, surprised In paragraph 5, David Cope and his EMI program are mentioned. His software created (= generated) music in the style of various classical composers. Then, people’s reactions are described: “Audiences were moved to tears, and EMI even fooled classical music experts into thinking they were hearing genuine Bach”. Thus, people were not able to distinguish between the work of a famous human classical composer and the work of the EMI program. The EMI program generated: “work that was virtually indistinguishable from that of humans”.
– surprised = moved to tears
The answer is A.
34. Geraint Wiggins criticised Cope for not…
Key words: Wiggins, criticised Cope We find why Wiggins criticised Cope in paragraph 5. “Some, such as Wiggins, have blasted Cope’s work as pseudoscience, and condemned him for his deliberately vague explanation of how the software worked”. So, Wiggins claimed that Cope did not explain clearly (= reveal) how the software (= program) worked (= the technical details).
– criticised = blasted, condemned
The answer is E.
35. Douglas Hofstadter claimed that EMI was…
Key words: Douglas Hofstadter, EMI The answer can be found in paragraph 5. “Douglas Hofstadter of Indiana University said EMI created replicas which still rely completely on the original artist’s creative impulses”. Thus, EMI just made copies, “producing work entirely dependent on (= rely on) the imagination (= creative impulses) of its creator (= original artist)”. The answer is C.
36. Audiences who had listened to EMI’s music became angry after…
Key words: audiences, EMI’s music, angry At the end of paragraph 5, the author states that: “When audiences found out the truth they were often outraged with Cope, and one music lover even tried to punch him”. When they first listened to EMI’s music, people did not know that it had been produced by a computer program. When they found out (= ‘discovered’) the truth, they became angry.
– angry = outraged
The answer is G.
37. The participants in David Moffat’s study had to assess music without…
Key words: participants, David Moffat, assess The name David Moffat is in paragraph 6. His study is described: “The participants weren’t told beforehand whether the tunes were composed by humans or computers, but were asked to guess, and then rate how much they liked each one”. So, listening to pieces of music, the participants in the study did not know if they were “the work of humans or software”.
– music = tunes
The answer is B.
Questions 38-40: Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading Passage 3?
38. Moffat’s research may help explain people’s reactions to EMI
Key words: Moffat, explain, reactions, EMI At the beginning of paragraph 6, the writer asks: “…why did so many people love the music, yet recoil when they discovered how it was composed? We then learn that Moffat’s study helps to provide an answer to this question: “A study by computer scientist David Moffat of Glasgow Caledonian University provides a clue”. Thus, people’s reactions to music composed by a computer required some explanation. Their reaction was either to love the music or to recoil. The study provided a clue. research = study
– help explain = provide a clue.
The answer is YES.
39. The non-experts in Moffat’s study all responded in a predictable way
Key words: non-experts, Moffat, predictable Moffat asked both experts and non-experts to take part in his study by listening to six pieces of music (paragraph 6). The writer tells us that: “People who thought the composer was a computer tended to dislike the piece more than those who believed it was human. This was true even among the experts, who might have been expected to be more objective in their analysis”. We learn that everyone in the study (experts and non-experts) generally disliked a piece of music more when they thought the composer was a computer. The writer was surprised that even the music experts reacted in the same way as the non-experts. Non-experts are not mentioned again, so we don’t know if they all responded in a predictable way. The answer is NOT GIVEN.
40. Justin Kruger’s findings cast doubt on Paul Bloom’s theory about people’s prejudice towards computer art Key words: Kruger, doubt, Bloom, prejudice Paul Bloom and Justin Kruger are mentioned in the final paragraph. “Where does this prejudice come from? Paul Bloom of Yale University has a suggestion: he reckons part of the pleasure we get from art stems from the creative process behind the work….Meanwhile, experiments by Justin Kruger of New York University have shown that people’s enjoyment of an artwork increases if they think more time and effort wasneeded to create it”.
They both have theories about why people might be prejudiced against computer art. Bloom believes that people get pleasure partly from appreciating the creative process of making art.
Kruger thinks that people enjoy an artwork more if they think that a lot of time and effort went into creating it. So, Kruger’s findings do not contradict Bloom’s theory – the creative process can be appreciated because humans have spent time and effort to create a work of art.
The answer is NO.
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Hi :). I am from Netherlands and i don’t know how can i disable my signature? Regards 🙂
Very useful for me. Thank you very much. “surprised = moved to tears”: I don’t understand this. We cry when we are upset, not when we are surprised. May you explain that?
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When you surprised, eyes filled with tears. that’s the way of saying @lam nguyen
Thank you, i very much appreciate the way you explain to me in detail and well focused. That’s useful to me.
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Case Study in Flexible Working Frank Russell Company Reading
Case study in flexible working frank russell company ielts reading passage.
Real IELTS Exam Question, Reported On:
Reading Passage 3
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40, which are based on Reading Passage 3 below.
Case Study in Flexible Working: Frank Russell Company
A. Two phrases that Frank Russell Company uses to identify itself also suggest why flexible work options are a perfect fit for this American financial services firm. ‘The sun never sets in Russell’ means this 24-hour, multi-country organizations’ flexible work hours are essential to conducting its business. ‘Employees first, clients second’ expresses the bottom line worth that management sees in employee satisfaction and creating an excellent work environment that includes opportunities to work from home. Telework, (i.e. working away from the traditional office) compressed workweeks and flexitime serve Russell both as strategic business tools and valued employee benefits. ‘ Of we have happy staff first, we will have happy client,’ says Mike Phillips, the company’s chief executive.
B. Flexible work options are offered in all departments, but the level and type of use vary widely among the 970 employees based at the company’s headquaters in Tacoma, Washington State. In the early 1990s, several work groups pioneered various forms of flexible working, including telework. As the programs spread, management discovered one size does not fit all. Rather than attempt to cover every possibility, Russell now provides general guidelines under which departments customize plans to accommodate individuals’ personal circumstances.
C. Implementing telework becomes less of a leap when a company’s staff and clients are already scattered around the world. Pam Johnson, Manager of International Assignments, works in Tacoma but reports to a supervisor based in London. She is responsible for transfers of staff from one country to another, including negotiating the terms, shipping belongings and obtaining work permits. She works from home several times a month. Johnson says, ‘I take homework that involves reading, writing, creating spreadsheets and answer emails.’ Johnson says she is a more loyal employee because of the combination of benefits, flexibility and trust her employer offers. ‘I’ve been here 11 years. Once in a while I wonder if I should look elsewhere, but the opportunity to flex my hours and work at home are part of the formula that always ends up on the Russell side.’
D. Email and technology such as remote network access not only transformed the office environment and the communication abilities between branch offices, they supported the growth of telework. Mike Phillips is as reliant on email and remote access as anyone, regardless of whether he is working in Singapore, Tacoma or from home. ‘Email is our primary means of communication,’ Phillips says. ‘I can get up two hours early Singapore and respond to 20 emails from associates around the world or send a company-wide memo from home.’
E. The ability to vary start times or work the longer days of a compressed workweek are a way of doing business at Russell. An earlier start or a longer day increases telephone communication with international staff. In addition, since the New York Exchange opens at 9 a.m, traders on the West Coast need to start by 6 a.m local time. Another group, which provides desktop computer support, finds four 10-hour days make it easier to accomplish some tasks before or after employees need to use their computers.
F. The larger consulting department offers compressed workweeks to administrative staff. Administrative Assistant Jean Boelk works different proportions of alternate weeks in order to receive one extra day off every other week. She is part of team of four administrative staff who jointly support a work group of four executives. People are more willing to help each other because we’re dependent on each other on our days off, Boelk says. Increasing the hours of coverage, plus the idea of cross-training and shared work, results in less overtime. So long as coverage is adequate, staff can change days off from one pay period to the next.
G. What motivates teleworkers is usually a combination of work and personal needs. Senior Technical Analyst Scott Boyd, who is in the Computer Operation section, works at home twice a month. Boyd’s job involves responding to telephone requests, and in the office it’s hard to work longer than 10 minutes without getting interrupted by the phone. It’s an incredible relief to be so productive for one day at home,’ he says.
H. A number of managers also find that working at home improves their overall performance. Sales and Marketing Services Manager Tricia O’Connell works at home approximately two days a month. She gives staff her home telephone number and advance notice of her plans, then checks voice mail every half hour and email every hour from home. In addition, she schedules weekly meetings in her office with each of eight members of her team to discuss challenges and encourage top performance. ‘This means I am more able to focus on staff when it counts,’ she says.
I. In the end, management asks two questions when making decisions about work option requests: 1) Will it improve overall employee satisfaction or job performance? and 2) Will it hurt performance of duties in some way that it not acceptable or is not offset by other improvements? For Frank Russell Company, the answers these questions show that flexible working is highly satisfactory for business.
Questions 27 – 34 Reading Passage 3 has nine paragraphs, A-I.
Choose the correct heading for paragraphs A-D and F-I from the list of headings below. Write the correct number, i-xi, in boxes 27-34 on your answer sheet.
List of Headings
I Flexible working meets differing business needs ii The disadvantages of flexible working iii The process of organising flexible working has changed iv Involving clients in deciding how best to serve them v Technical developments have facilitated flexible working vi The cost/benefit analysis of flexible working vii Flexible working increases co-operation among staff ix Flexible working encourages commitment to the company x The workforce is the company’s top priority xi It’s easier to get on with the work at home
Example Answer Paragraph E i
27 . Paragraph A 28 . Paragraph B 29 . Paragraph C 30 . Paragraph D 31 . Paragraph F 32 . Paragraph G 33 . Paragraph H 34 . Paragraph I
Questions 35-37 Look at the following descriptions (Questions 35-37) and the list of staff below. Match each description with the correct person, A-E. Write the correct letter. A-E in boxes 35-37 on your answer sheet.
List of Staff
A Mike Phillips B Pam Johnson C Jean Boelk D Scott Boyd E Tricia O’Connell
35. provides contact details when working out of the office 36. is convinced that staff feelings have an impact on company 37. performance has responsibilities which are shared with certain colleagues
Questions 38-40 Complete the sentence below. Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer. Write your answer in boxes 38-40 on your answer sheet.
38. The Frank Russell Company aims to ensure that staff gain a sense of ___________ from their work. 39. Mike Phillip mostly uses ___________ to contact staff. 40. In the consulting department flexible working reduces the amount of ___________ done by staff.
Case Study in Flexible Working Frank Russell IELTS Reading Answers
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Reading Passage 3 Case Study in Flexible Working Frank Russell
27. x 28. iii 29. ix 30. v 31. vii 32. xi 33. viii 34. vi 35. E 36. D 37. C 38. SATISFACTION 39. EMAIL 40. OVERTIME
Also Check: Ahead of Its Time IELTS Reading Passage with Answers
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READING PASSAGE 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13 which are based on Reading Passage 1 below.
The White Horse of Uffington
The cutting of huge figures or ‘geoglyphs’ into the earth of English hillsides has taken place for more than 3,000 years. There are 56 hill figures scattered around England, with the vast majority on the chalk downlands of the country’s southern counties. The figures include giants, horses, crosses and regimental badges. Although the majority of these geoglyphs date within the last 300 years or so, there are one or two that are much older.
The most famous of these figures is perhaps also the most mysterious – the Uffington White Horse in Oxfordshire. The White Horse has recently been re-dated and shown to be even older than its previously assigned ancient pre-Roman Iron Age* date. More controversial is the date of the enigmatic Long Man of Wilmington in Sussex. While many historians are convinced the figure is prehistoric, others believe that it was the work of an artistic monk from a nearby priory and was created between the 11th and 15th centuries.
The method of cutting these huge figures was simply to remove the overlying grass to reveal the gleaming white chalk below. However, the grass would soon grow over the geoglyph again unless it was regularly cleaned or scoured by a fairly large team of people. One reason that the vast majority of hill figures have disappeared is that when the traditions associated with the figures faded, people no longer bothered or remembered to clear away the grass to expose the chalk outline. Furthermore, over hundreds of years the outlines would sometimes change due to people not always cutting in exactly the same place, thus creating a different shape to the original geoglyph. That fact that any ancient hill figures survive at all in England today is testament to the strength and continuity of local customs and beliefs which, in one case at least, must stretch back over millennia.
The Uffington White Horse is a unique, stylised representation of a horse consisting of a long, sleek back, thin disjointed legs, a streaming tail, and a bird-like beaked head. The elegant creature almost melts into the landscape. The horse is situated 2.5 km from Uffington village on a steep close to the Late Bronze Age* (c. 7th century BCE) hillfort of Uffington Castle and below the Ridgeway, a long-distance Neolithic** track.
The Uffington Horse is also surrounded by Bronze Age burial mounds. It is not far from the Bronze Age cemetery of Lambourn Seven Barrows, which consists of more than 30 well-preserved burial mounds. The carving has been placed in such a way as to make it extremely difficult to see from close quarters, and like many geoglyphs is best appreciated from the air. Nevertheless, there are certain areas of the Vale of the White Horse, the valley containing and named after the enigmatic creature, from which an adequate impression may be gained. Indeed on a clear day the carving can be seen from up to 30 km away.
The earliest evidence of a horse at Uffington is from the 1070s CE when ‘White Horse Hill’ is mentioned in documents from the nearby Abbey of Abingdon, and the first reference to the horse itself is soon after, in 1190 CE. However, the carving is believed to date back much further than that. Due to the similarity of the Uffington White Horse to the stylised depictions of horses on 1st century BCE coins, it had been thought that the creature must also date to that period.
However, in 1995 Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) testing was carried out by the Oxford Archaeological Unit on soil from two of the lower layers of the horse’s body, and from another cut near the base. The result was a date for the horse’s construction somewhere between 1400 and 600 BCE – in other words, it had a Late Bronze Age or Early Iron Age origin.
The latter end of this date range would tie the carving of the horse in with occupation of the nearby Uffington hillfort, indicating that it may represent a tribal emblem making the land of the inhabitants of the hillfort. Alternatively, the carving may have been carried out during a Bronze or Iron Age ritual. Some researchers see the horse as representing the Celtic*** horse goddess Epona, who was worshipped as a protector of horses, and for her associations with fertility. However, the cult of Epona was not imported from Gaul (France) until around the first century CE. This date is at least six centuries after the Uffington Horse was probably carved. Nevertheless, the horse had great ritual and economic significance during the Bronze and Iron Ages, as attested by its depictions on jewellery and other metal objects. It is possible that the carving represents a goddess in native mythology, such as Rhiannon, described in later Welsh mythology as a beautiful woman dressed in gold and riding a white horse.
The fact that geoglyphs can disappear easily, along with their associated rituals and meaning, indicates that they were never intended to be anything more than temporary gestures. But this does not lessen their importance. These giant carving are a fascinating glimpse into the minds of their creators and how they viewed the landscape in which they lived.
*Iron Age: a period (in Britain 800 BCE – 43 CE) that is characterised by the use of iron tools
*Bronze Age: a period (in Britain c. 2,500 BCE – 800 BCE) that is characterised by the development of bronze tools
**Neolithic: a period (in Britain c. 4,000 BCE – c. 2,500 BCE) that is significant for the spread of agricultural practices, and the use of stone tools
***Celtic: an ancient people who migrated from Europe to Britain before the Romans
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1?
In boxes 1-8 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this
1 Most geoglyphs in England are located in a particular area of the country.
2 There are more geoglyphs in the shape of a horse than any other creature.
3 A recent dating of the Uffington White Horse indicates that people were mistaken about its age.
4 Historians have come to an agreement about the origins of the Long Man of Wilmington.
5 Geoglyphs were created by people placing white chalk on the hillside.
6 Many geoglyphs in England are no longer visible.
7 The shape of some geoglyphs has been altered over time.
8 The fame of the Uffington White Horse is due to its size.
Complete the summary below.
Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 9-13 on your answer sheet.
The Uffington White Horse
The location of the Uffington White Horse:
● a distance of 2.5 km from Uffington village
● near an ancient road known as the 9 …………………
● close to an ancient cemetery that has a number of burial mounds
Dating the Uffington White Horse:
● first reference to White Horse Hill appears in 10 ………………… from the 1070s
● horses shown on coins from the period 100 BCE – 1 BCE are similar in appearance
● according to analysis of the surrounding 11 …………………, the Horse is Late Bronze Age / Early Iron Age
Possible reasons for creation of the Uffington White Horse:
● an emblem to indicate land ownership
● formed part of an ancient ritual
● was a representation of goddess Epona – associated with protection of horses and 12 …………………
● was a representation of a Welsh goddess called 13 …………………
READING PASSAGE 2
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-26 which are based on Reading Passage 2 below.
I contain multitudes
Wendy Moore reviews Ed Yong’s book about microbes
Microbes, most of them bacteria, have populated this planet since long before animal life developed and they will outlive us. Invisible to the naked eye, they are ubiquitous. They inhabit the soil, air, rocks and water and are present within every form of life, from seaweed and coral to dogs and humans. And, as Yong explains in his utterly absorbing and hugely important book we mess with them at our peril.
Every species has its own colony of microbes, called a ‘microbiome’, and these microbes vary not only between species but also between individuals and within different parts of each individual. What is amazing is that while the number of human cells in the average person is about 30 trillion, the number of microbial ones is higher – about 39 trillion. At best, Yong informs us, we are only 50 per cent human. Indeed, some scientists even suggest we should think of each species and its microbes as a single unit, dubbed a ‘holobiont’.
In each human there are microbes that live only in the stomach, the mouth or the armpit and by and large they do so peacefully. So ‘bad’ microbes are just microbes out of context. Microbes that sit contentedly in the human gut (where there are more microbes than there are stars in the galaxy) can become deadly if they find their way into the bloodstream. These communities are constantly changing too. The right hand shares just one sixth of its microbes with the left hand. And, of course, we are surrounded by microbes. Every time we eat, we swallow a million microbes in each gram of food; we are continually swapping microbes with other humans, pets and the world at large.
It’s a fascinating topic and Yong, a young British science journalist, is an extraordinarily adept guide. Writing with lightness and panache, he has a knack of explaining complex science in terms that are both easy to understand and totally enthralling. Yong is on a mission. Leading us gently by the hand, he takes us into the world of microbes – a bizarre, alien planet – in a bid to persuade us to love them as much as he does. By the end, we do.
For most of human history we had no idea that microbes existed. The first man to see these extraordinarily potent creatures was a Dutch lens-maker called Antony van Leeuwenhoek in the 1670s. Using microscopes of his own design that could magnify up to 270 times, he examined a drop of water from a nearby lake and found it teeming with tiny creatures he called ‘animalcules’. It wasn’t until nearly two hundred years later that the research of French biologist Louis Pasteur indicated that some microbes caused disease. It was Pasteur’s ‘germ theory’ that gave bacteria the poor image that endures today.
Yong’s book is in many ways a plea for microbial tolerance, pointing out that while fewer than one hundred species of bacteria bring disease, many thousands more play a vital role in maintaining our health. The book also acknowledges that our attitude towards bacteria is not a simple one. We tend to see the dangers posed by bacteria, yet at the same time we are sold yoghurts and drinks that supposedly nurture ‘friendly’ bacteria. In reality, says Yong, bacteria should not be viewed as either friends or foes, villains or heroes. Instead we should realise we have a symbiotic relationship, that can be mutually beneficial or mutually destructive.
What then do these millions of organisms do? The answer is pretty much everything. New research is now unravelling the ways in which bacteria aid digestion, regulate our immune systems, eliminate toxins, produce vitamins, affect our behaviour and even combat obesity. ‘They actually help us become who we are,’ says Yong. But we are facing a growing problem. Our obsession with hygiene, our overuse of antibiotics and our unhealthy, low-fibre diets are disrupting the bacterial balance and may be responsible for soaring rates of allergies and immune problems, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
The most recent research actually turns accepted norms upside down. For example, there are studies indicating that the excessive use of household detergents and antibacterial products actually destroys the microbes that normally keep the more dangerous germs at bay. Other studies show that keeping a dog as a pet gives children early exposure to a diverse range of bacteria, which may help protect them against allergies later.
The readers of Yong’s book must be prepared for a decidedly unglamorous world. Among the less appealing case studies is one about a fungus that is wiping out entire populations of frogs and that can be halted by a rare microbial bacterium. Another is about squid that carry luminescent bacteria that protect them against predators. However, if you can overcome your distaste for some of the investigations, the reasons for Yong’s enthusiasm become clear. The microbial world is a place of wonder. Already, in an attempt to stop mosquitoes spreading dengue fever – a disease that infects 400 million people a year – mosquitoes are being loaded with a bacterium to block the disease. In the future, our ability to manipulate microbes means we could construct buildings with useful microbes built into their walls to fight off infections. Just imagine a neonatal hospital ward coated in a specially mixed cocktail of microbes so that babies get the best start in life.
Choose the correct letter, A , B , C or D .
Write the correct letter in boxes 14-16 on your answer sheet.
14 What point does the writer make about microbes in the first paragraph?
A They adapt quickly to their environment.
B The risk they pose has been exaggerated.
C They are more plentiful in animal life than plant life.
D They will continue to exist for longer than the human race.
15 In the second paragraph, the writer is impressed by the fact that
A each species tends to have vastly different microbes.
B some parts of the body contain relatively few microbes.
C the average individual has more microbial cells than human ones.
D scientists have limited understanding of how microbial cells behave.
16 What is the writer doing in the fifth paragraph?
A explaining how a discovery was made
B comparing scientists’ theories about microbes
C describing confusion among scientists
D giving details of how microbes cause disease
Complete the summary using the list of words, A-H , below.
Write the correct letter, A-H, in boxes 17-20 on your answer sheet.
We should be more tolerant of microbes
Yong’s book argues that we should be more tolerant of microbes. Many have a beneficial effect, and only a relatively small number lead to 17 ………………… . And although it is misleading to think of microbes as ‘friendly’, we should also stop thinking of them as the enemy. In fact, we should accept that our relationship with microbes is one based on 18 ………………… .
New research shows that microbes have numerous benefits for humans. Amongst other things, they aid digestion, remove poisons, produce vitamins and may even help reduce obesity. However, there is a growing problem. Our poor 19 …………………, our overuse of antibiotics, and our excessive focus on 20 ………………… are upsetting the bacterial balance and may be contributing to the huge increase in allergies and immune system problems.
A solution B partnership C destruction
D exaggeration E cleanliness F regulations
G illness H nutrition
Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading Passage 2?
In boxes 21-26 on your answer sheet, write
YES if the statement agrees with the claims of the writer
NO if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
21 It is possible that using antibacterial products in the home fails to have the desired effect.
22 It is a good idea to ensure that children come into contact with as few bacteria as possible.
23 Yong’s book contains more cause studies than are necessary.
24 The case study about bacteria that prevent squid from being attacked may have limited appeal.
25 Efforts to control dengue fever have been surprisingly successful
26 Microbes that reduce the risk of infection have already been put inside the walls of some hospital wards.
READING PASSAGE 3
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40 which are based on Reading Passage 3 below.
How to make wise decisions
Across cultures, wisdom has been considered one of the most revered human qualities. Although the truly wise may seem few and far between, empirical research examining wisdom suggests that it isn’t an exceptional trait possessed by a small handful of bearded philosophers after all – in fact, the latest studies suggest that most of us have the ability to make wise decisions, given the right context.
‘It appears that experiential, situational, and cultural factors are even more powerful in shaping wisdom than previously imagined,’ says Associate Professor Igor Grossmann of the University of Waterloo in Ontario, Canada. ‘Recent empirical findings from cognitive, developmental, social, and personality psychology cumulatively suggest that people’s ability to reason wisely varies dramatically across experiential and situational contexts. Understanding the role of such contextual factors offers unique insights into understanding wisdom in daily life, as well as how it can be enhanced and taught.’
It seems that it’s not so much that some people simply possess wisdom and others lack it, but that our ability to reason wisely depends on a variety of external factors. ‘It is impossible to characterize thought processes attributed to wisdom without considering the role of contextual factors,’ explains Grossmann. ‘In other words, wisdom is not solely an “inner quality” but rather unfolds as a function of situations people happen to be in. Some situations are more likely to promote wisdom than others.’
Coming up with a definition of wisdom is challenging, but Grossmann and his colleagues have identified four key characteristics as part of a framework of wise reasoning. One is intellectual humility or recognition of the limits of our own knowledge, and another is appreciation of perspectives wider than the issue at hand. Sensitivity to the possibility of change in social relations is also key, along with compromise or integration of different attitudes and beliefs.
Grossmann and his colleagues have also found that one of the most reliable ways to support wisdom in our own day-to-day decisions is to look at scenarios from a third-party perspective, as though giving advice to a friend. Research suggests that when adopting a first-person viewpoint we focus on ‘the focal features of the environment’ and when we adopt a third-person, ‘observer’ viewpoint we reason more broadly and focus more on interpersonal and moral ideals such as justice and impartiality. Looking at problems from this more expansive viewpoint appears to foster cognitive processes related to wise decisions.
What are we to do, then, when confronted with situations like a disagreement with a spouse or negotiating a contract at work, that require us to take a personal stake? Grossmann argues that even when we aren’t able to change the situation, we can still evaluate these experiences from different perspectives.
For example, in one experiment that took place during the peak of a recent economic recession, graduating college seniors were asked to reflect on their job prospects. The students were instructed to imagine their career either ‘as if you were a distant observer’ or ‘before your own eyes as if you were right there’. Participants in the group assigned to the ‘distant observer’ role displayed more wisdom-related reasoning (intellectual humility and recognition of change) than did participants in the control group.
In another study, couples in long-term romantic relationships were instructed to visualize an unresolved relationship conflict either through the eyes of an outsider or from their own perspective. Participants then discussed the incident with their partner for 10 minutes, after which they wrote down their thoughts about it. Couples in the ‘other’s eyes’ condition were significantly more likely to rely on wise reasoning – recognizing others’ perspectives and searching for a compromise – compared to the couples in the egocentric condition.
‘Ego-decentering promotes greater focus on others and enables a bigger picture, conceptual view of the experience, affording recognition of intellectual humility and change,’ says Grossmann.
We might associate wisdom with intelligence or particular personality traits, but research shows only a small positive relationship between wise thinking and crystallized intelligence and the personality traits of openness and agreeableness. ‘It is remarkable how much people can vary in their wisdom from one situation to the next, and how much stronger such contextual effects are for understanding the relationship between wise judgment and its social and affective outcomes as compared to the generalized “traits”,’ Grossmann explains. ‘That is, knowing how wisely a person behaves in a given situation is more informative for understanding their emotions or likelihood to forgive [or] retaliate as compared to knowing whether the person may be wise “in general”.’
Write the correct letter in boxes 27-30 on your answer sheet.
27 What point does the writer make in the first paragraph?
A Wisdom appears to be unique to the human race.
B A basic assumption about wisdom may be wrong.
C Concepts of wisdom may depend on the society we belong to.
D There is still much to be discovered about the nature of wisdom.
28 What does Igor Grossmann suggest about the ability to make wise decisions?
A It can vary greatly from one person to another.
B Earlier research into it was based on unreliable data.
C The importance of certain influences on it was underestimated.
D Various branches of psychology define it according to their own criteria.
29 According to the third paragraph, Grossmann claims that the level of wisdom an individual shows
A can be greater than they think it is.
B will be different in different circumstances.
C may be determined by particular aspects of their personality.
D should develop over time as a result of their life experiences.
30 What is described in the fifth paragraph?
A a difficulty encountered when attempting to reason wisely
B an example of the type of person who is likely to reason wisely
C a controversial view about the benefits of reasoning wisely
D a recommended strategy that can help people to reason wisely
Complete the summary using the list of words, A-J , below.
Write the correct letter, A-J , in boxes 31-35 on your answer sheet.
The characteristics of wise reasoning
Igor Grossmann and colleagues have established four characteristics which enable us to make wise decisions. It is important to have a certain degree of 31 ………………….. regarding the extent of our knowledge, and to take into account 32 ………………….. which may not be the same as our own. We should also be able to take a broad 33 ………………….. of any situation. Another key characteristic is being aware of the likelihood of alterations in the way that people relate to each other.
Grossmann also believes that it is better to regard scenarios with 34 ………………….. . By avoiding the first-person perspective, we focus more on 35 ………………….. and on other moral ideals, which in turn leads to wiser decision-making.
A opinions B confidence C view
D modesty E problems F objectivity
G fairness H experiences I range
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 3?
In boxes 36-40 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
36 Students participating in the job prospects experiment could choose one of two perspectives to take.
37 Participants in the couples experiment were aware that they were taking part in a study about wise reasoning.
38 In the couples experiments, the length of the couples’ relationships had an impact on the results.
39 In both experiments, the participants who looked at the situation from a more detached viewpoint tended to make wiser decisions.
40 Grossmann believes that a person’s wisdom is determined by their intelligence to only a very limited extent.
Cambridge IELTS 16 Reading Test 01
Cambridge ielts 15 reading test 03, answer cambridge ielts 16 reading test 02.
2 NOT GIVEN
8 NOT GIVEN
23 NOT GIVEN
25 NOT GIVEN
37 NOT GIVEN
38 NOT GIVEN
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